Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Early on-treatment prediction of response to peginterferon alfa-2a for HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B using HBsAg and HBV DNA levels,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
Vincent Rijckborst
Peginterferon alfa-2a results in a sustained response (SR) in a minority of patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg),negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This study investigated the role of early on-treatment serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels in the prediction of SR in HBeAg-negative patients receiving peginterferon alfa-2a. HBsAg (Architect from Abbott) was quantified at the baseline and during treatment (weeks 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48) and follow-up (weeks 60 and 72) in the sera from 107 patients who participated in an international multicenter trial (peginterferon alfa-2a, n = 53, versus peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin, n = 54). Overall, 24 patients (22%) achieved SR [serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level < 10,000 copies/mL and normal alanine aminotransferase levels at week 72]. Baseline characteristics were comparable between sustained responders and nonresponders. From week 8 onward, serum HBsAg levels markedly decreased in sustained responders, whereas only a modest decline was observed in nonresponders. However, HBsAg declines alone were of limited value in the prediction of SR [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) at weeks 4, 8, and 12 = 0.59, 0.56, and 0.69, respectively]. Combining the declines in HBsAg and HBV DNA allowed the best prediction of SR (AUC at week 12 = 0.74). None of the 20 patients (20% of the study population) in whom a decrease in serum HBsAg levels was absent and whose HBV DNA levels declined less than 2 log copies/mL exhibited an SR (negative predictive value = 100%). Conclusion: At week 12 of peginterferon alfa-2a treatment for HBeAg-negative CHB, a solid stopping rule was established with a combination of declines in serum HBV DNA and HBsAg levels from the baseline. Quantitative serum HBsAg in combination with HBV DNA enables on-treatment adjustments of peginterferon therapy for HBeAg-negative CHB. (HEPATOLOGY 2010) [source]

The Connection of Samuel Chapman Armstrong as Both Borrower and Architect of Education in Hawai'i

C. Kalani Beyer

Comparison of the technical and clinical performance of the Elecsys® HBsAg II assay with the Architect®, AxSym®, and Advia® Centaur HBsAg screening assays

S. Louisirirotchanakul
Abstract South East Asia has some of the highest prevalence rates of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (,8%) in the world, and the emergence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutant strains is a growing problem. Assays with the highest levels of sensitivity, including mutant detection, should be used for routine HBsAg screening. In this large multicenter study, the clinical and technical performance of the fully automated Elecsys HBsAg II assay was compared with the Architect, AxSYM, and Advia Centaur HBsAg assays for HBsAg screening. Nine laboratories (three each from Thailand, Korea, and Singapore) compared the Elecsys HBsAg II assay with their routine HBsAg screening assay against a range of stored and routine clinical samples, including recombinant mutants. The Elecsys HBsAg II assay demonstrated equivalent sensitivity and specificity to the Architect HBsAg assay. However, the Elecsys HBsAg II assay recognized a native mutant sample (L94S, L97V, L98V, T123A) that the Architect HBsAg assay failed to detect. The AxSYM and Advia Centaur HBsAg assays appeared less sensitive for the detection of early HBV infection and also failed to detect some of the recombinant mutant strains. There was almost complete agreement between the Elecsys HBsAg II assay and comparator assays with respect to routine serum samples. The results of this study demonstrate that the Elecsys HBsAg II assay is a highly sensitive and specific screening assay for HBsAg and detects reliably the most important and clinically relevant HBV mutants and genotypes. It is suitable for routine HBsAg screening in Asia. J. Med. Virol. 82: 755,762, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Clearance of serum HBsAg and anti-HBs seroconversion following antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B

Olivier Borgniet
Abstract In this study, we have analyzed the evolution of serum HBsAg levels in 16 patients with chronic hepatitis B who showed an HBsAg seroconversion following antiviral therapy. The data showed that the clearance of serum HBsAg is slower than that of serum HBV DNA, which may reflect a slow kinetics of clearance of infected hepatocytes. Interestingly, HBsAg was detectable for a longer time using the Architect assay than with the Bio-Rad assay. As viremia suppression is achieved in most patients under therapy with the new generation of nucleoside analogs, these data suggest that the quantitative monitoring of serum HBsAg may represent a novel tool for the assessment of antiviral therapy efficacy. J. Med. Virol. 81:1336,1342, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The $300,000/Year Architect

Urs Gauchet
Abstract Could building information modelling (BIM) shake up not only design and delivery processes, but also be set to redefine the construction hierarchy? Could it shift the architect's position from near the bottom of the current food chain to one nearer the top? Urs Gauchat, Professor and Dean of the School of Architecture at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, outlines the architect's place in a complex future where there is an increasing demand for buildings but a demise in available materials and conventional energy sources. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Mediating Devices for a Social Statement: Tobi Schneidler, Interactive Architect

Lucy Bullivant
Abstract German architect Tobi Schneidler, with his team at Smart Studio of the Interactive Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, integrates interactive media and network technologies within spatial environments. Here, he explains to Lucy Bullivant how, for him, information technology is not merely hardware or software, but an essential tool that can create ,mediating devices for a social statement'. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Curators and Their Architects

Peter Friess
First page of article [source]

Architects of the Resurrection: Ailtirí na hAiséirghe and the Fascist ,New Order' in Ireland , By R. M. Douglas

HISTORY, Issue 318 2010
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Theoretical Anxiety and Design Strategies in the Work of Eight Contemporary Architects


Enclaves of Expression: Resistance by Young Architects to the Physical and Psychological Control of Expression in Romania during the 1980s

Helen Stratford
The eighties and early nineties bore witness to the gradual conclusion of a number of political regimes. This paper explores the work of various young Romanian architects and groups who, from the early eighties onwards, questioned current orthodoxies in architecture around them as protests against repression under the monolithic Ceausescu regime. It offers a glimpse, a fragment, of the wider "milieu of resistance" in Romania at this time, and reflects on the intention and value of such liminal enterprises through tracing their stories both from before the 1989 revolution and after. [source]

Architects of Empire: The Duke of Wellington and His Brothers , By John Severn

Robert S. Robins
First page of article [source]

Photovoltaics in an architectural context

Dr. Henk Kaan
Abstract In well-populated areas, such as western Europe, PV is often integrated into the building envelope. Despite the fact that there are many examples showing that PV can be an aesthetically neutral or visually attractive element in architecture, many BIPV systems display few architectural qualities. But if well applied, PV can increase a building's character and value. Within Task 7 of the IEA PVPS programme a team of experts with an architectural background studied which key requirements needed to be complied with (design criteria for good-quality PV projects) in order to produce successful PV integration. These criteria are discussed in the article. PV is not automatically considered an indispensable material in architectural terms. This is why, no matter how well it is integrated, PV remains an ,added' element. Architects can take this as their starting point and can use one of the design approaches that are presented in the article. These criteria for incorporating PV in the building design and the design criteria for good-quality PV projects are important to architects and architectural critics in determining why a BIPV project, be it their own design or that of a colleague, is or is not aesthetically pleasing. This offers learning opportunities and reasons for follow-up or improvement options. Architects who apply PV in a well-thought-out way can make their clients very happy, and thereby contribute to a greater acceptance of PV technology. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The effects of age and professional expertise on working memory performance

Elena Cavallini
Differences in professional choice and experience may explain age differences in working memory performance of elderly people. The aim of this study was to examine whether expertise and prolonged practice in verbal and visuo-spatial abilities reduce age differences in laboratory working memory tasks. The effects of age and expertise on working memory performance were examined in three age groups in two different experiments. Firstly, the role of visuo-spatial expertise was analysed by examining age differences in architects. Secondly, people with extensive experience in verbal abilities (literary people) were tested in order to evaluate the effect of professional verbal experience. Architects and literary people outperformed a group of unselected age peers on tasks related to professional expertise only, but not on general working memory tests. There was no interaction between age and experience, suggesting that professional experience does not increase differences between experts and non experts and cannot modulate age-related effects. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 5 2009
The rebuilding of Villa Mirabello started in 1666. Built on designs of Gerolamo Quadrio, the project refurbished and enlarged a smaller 16th century country house (,casa da nobile e da massaro'). Archival documents report on the remodelling, which consisted of selective demolition of portions of the structure, re-using most of the masonry as the core of the new building, and the reinforcement of retained masonry by insertion of ,ceppo' stone quoins to update new exteriors. The aim of Quadrio was to create an elegant and sumptuous mansion, suitable for noble owners such as Giuseppe Durini and his family. The plan and a small part of original finishing (,marmorino' plaster decoration) are recognizable nowadays. Nevertheless, there are many questions in interpretation when one compares the documents and the building. That is, Cardinal Angelo Durini made a major modification in the 18th century, and further minor changes were made in the 19th century. Although these latter modifications did not alter the plan, they changed the distribution of rooms and masked both decoration and finishing. After over 20 years of neglect, Villa Mirabello is now close to being restored. Architects in charge ordered a preliminary set of diagnostics to assess damage and study the historical evolution of the building. Integration of IR thermography (IRT) and endoscopy allowed restorers to detect the structure's texture underneath the plaster, and to detect openings filled with masonry. Moreover, archive documents confirmed these results and, above all, defined a date for the use of specific building techniques. This research constitutes a reference for buildings set in the same time and location that do not have significant archival documentation. Active IRT provided useful information for structural assessment (such as location of arches, chimney stacks, different thickness of wall, wooden elements, voids, beams etc.) and for crack pattern evaluation. This information directs design professionals working on this conservation project, and helps define the costs of intervention. [source]

Optioneering: A New Basis for Engagement Between Architects and Their Collaborators

Dominik Holzer
Abstract Conventionally, architects are somewhat tardy when inviting engineers to join their projects. By only introducing consulting engineers to participate in the later stages of the design process, engineers are commonly assigned a fixing role. This provides little opportunity for creative engineering solutions at the generative stage. Optioneering, a new business management model, however, offers the possibility of a new collaborative method for interaction between designers and their partners. Dominik Holzer and Steven Downing describe how a research project between the Spatial Information Research Laboratory (SIAL) at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) and the engineering firm Arup investigated the capability of this new form of collaboration. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

MAXXI, Rome: Zaha Hadid Architects

Mark Garcia
Abstract Mark Garcia, editor of The Diagrams in Architecture (John Wiley & Sons, 2010), one of the first significant accounts of the diagram in architectural design, provides a unique insight into the diagrammatic form of Zaha Hadid Architects' new MAXXI museum in Rome. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Amanda Levete Architects (AL_A)

Mark Garcia
Abstract Like a phoenix rising from the ashes, Amanda Levete Architects (AL_A) is taking up where Future Systems left off. Led by Amanda Levete, previous co-director of Future Systems with the late Jan Kaplicky', the practice retains its unique sensibility with its emphasis on new technologies, materials, science and engineering combined with art, design, fashion and the organic. Mark Garcia visited AL_A's Notting Hill-based studios to review the current projects of this 40-strong team and to talk to Levete about the underlying design principles and processes behind the office's work. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Patterns, Fabrics, Prototypes, Tessellations

Alejandro Zaera-Polo
Abstract New technologies have enabled architects to develop sophisticated patterning techniques. This is epitomised by the expressive possibilities now available to the building envelope: smooth geometries, tessellation, material textures and layers, such as solar shading. For Alejandro Zaera-Polo of Foreign Office Architects, though, patterns have cultural and political possibilities far beyond mere decoration, enabling new practices to address in the urban context some of the crucial problems posed by globalisation: bridging the dichotomy between tabula rasa and contextualism, and the articulation between the local and global. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Norfolk Park Green Homes, Sheffield

David Littlefield
Abstract In a neighbourhood of Sheffield that was once dominated by tower blocks, Matthew Lloyd Architects has created colourful timber-clad homes that resemble a community. David Littlefield describes how a determined architect and client, despite local scepticism, have been able to provide housing that is not only spacious, generous in size and sustainable, but also comparatively cheap. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Parametricism: A New Global Style for Architecture and Urban Design

Patrik Schumacher
Abstract Though parametricism has its roots in the digital animation techniques of the mid-1990s, it has only fully emerged in recent years with the development of advanced parametric design systems. Patrik Schumacher explains why parametricism has become the dominant, single style for avant-garde practice today and why it is particularly suited to large-scale urbanism as exemplified by a series of competition-winning masterplans by Zaha Hadid Architects. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Unified Frontiers: Reaching Out with BIM

Coren Sharples
Abstract Coren Sharples is a partner of SHoP Architects in New York where building information modelling (BIM) has become integral to the fluid promotion of communication between contractors, consultants and clients on a project. This is exemplified by two projects in the city: the reconstruction of Rector Bridge, where BIM enabled SHoP to work seamlessly with a firm of custom boat builders and other contractors, and the speculative development at 290 Mulberry Street, where it became a significant means of disseminating key data to the client for marketing and financial planning. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Josep Lluís Mateo/MAP Architects

Krunoslav Ivanisin
Abstract By focusing on a ,scientific approach' that emphasises the importance of cause and effect, Josep Lluís Mateo/MAP has developed a design for the Camp Nou Stadium in Barcelona that is less about spectacle and more about the people it accommodates. Croatian critic and architect Krunoslav Ivanisin admires the structure for the ,inherent logic of its parts', but also for its prioritisation of communal life. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

CJ Lim/Studio 8 Architects: Through the Looking Glass

Howard Watson
Abstract CJ Lim is one of architecture's greatest illustrators, visualising through his beautiful and delicate drawings and models an enchanted world inspired by Lewis Carroll, William Heath Robinson and Chinese fables. Howard Watson describes how Lim is now breaking through the visionary's glass ceiling with his realisation of a tunnel installation for the Victoria & Albert Museum in London and a project at an altogether different scale for an eco-city in China. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Piercy Conner Architects & Designers

Article first published online: 30 NOV 200
Abstract Piercy Conner, an innovative practice based in London, extends the theory and practice of architecture in a way ,that demonstrates a profound understanding of its cultural and communicational possibilities', and is the firm behind a number of microflat projects in and around London. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Fabricating Elegance: Digital Architecture's Coming of Age

Joseph Rosa
Abstract For Joseph Rosa, John H Bryan Curator of Architecture at the Institute of Chicago, elegance with its ,refined aesthetic ability' represents a concurrent maturing of design culture and technologies. It builds on the pioneering fabrication techniques of the late 1990s, spearheaded in seminal projects such as the Korean Presbyterian Church in New York by Greg Lynn, Douglas Garofalo and Michael McInturf, and the Yokohama Port Terminal by Foreign Office Architects. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Material and digital design synthesis

Michael Hensel
Abstract The advanced material and morphogenetic digital design techniques and technologies presented in this journal call for a higher level methodological integration, which poses a major challenge for the next generation of multidisciplinary architectural research and projects. This collaborative task encompasses the striving for an integrated set of design methods, generative and analytical tools and enabling technologies that facilitate and instrumentalise evolutionary design, and evaluation of differentiated material systems towards a highly performative and sustainable built environment. Michael Hensel and Achim Menges describe recent progress towards a higher-level design synthesis of material self-organisation, digital morphogenesis, associative parametric modelling and computer-aided manufacturing (cam) on the basis of two works produced within the context of the Emergent Technologies and Design Masters programme at the Architectural Association in London, and a recent competition entry by Scheffler + Partner Architects and Achim Menges. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Designer Volumetric at IKEA Prices

Ian Abley
Abstract Volumetric construction is too associated with ,affordable' housing for rent by registered social landlords, or ,microflats' for sale to underpaid ,key workers'. Kisho Kurokawa's Nakagin Capsule Tower, in Tokyo, of 1972, is well known, but it was never intended as a main residence, and provided an extra room in the city. Architects interested in volumetric construction might well be designing gorgeous macroflats and spacious houses, developing the functionality of such buildings, while aiming to bring down costs through repetition. However, Ian Abley believes their efforts will continue to be frustrated by the need for site-specific planning approvals, and the cost of developable land in restricted supply. [source]

McGauran Giannini Soon Architects

Shelley Penn
Abstract Shelley Penn describes how a Melbourne-based practice's aspirations for integrity and authenticity have led it away from the usual pursuit of an identifiable visual language and style above content. [source]

Making Place in Bangalore

Anooradha Iyer Siddiqi
Abstract In the city of Bangalore in southern India, the predominant architectural language is that of conventional global commerce. ,Bland high-rise developments' jostle with shanties and urban sprawl. Anooradha Iyer Siddiqi, AIA, explores an alternative way, by Shilpa Sindoor Architects and Planners. The practice invests in a sense of place, but also uses a knowledge of the local construction market and materials to its economic advantage. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

City Building and the Rhetoric of "Readability": Architectural Debates in the New Berlin

CITY & COMMUNITY, Issue 1 2008
George J.A. Murray
Berlin represents an unusual case vis-à-vis the international architectural debate about rebuilding cities. The debate generally takes place between neotraditionalists on the one hand and various avant-gardists on the other. But in Berlin, the main representatives of the first camp are not, for once, members of the New Urbanism movement, nor are they neotraditionalists tout court; they are, at least on their own self-understanding, pioneers of a kind of ,Third Way' between the two extremes of neotraditionalism and avant-gardism. Nevertheless, a closer look at their rhetoric reveals deeper-lying affinities with the cultural conservatism characteristic of New Urbanism: the image of the city that they favor for Berlin is one of clarity, order, permanence, weightiness, etc.,a surprising image, given the city's troubled past. I examine the Architektenstreit ("Architects' Debate") that arose among planners, architects, critics, and others concerning the rebuilding of the central city in Berlin after reunification, and I discuss, in particular, the doctrine of critical reconstruction that has come to dominate this debate. I locate the origins of critical reconstruction's peculiar rhetoric in a longing for stability amidst the perceived flux of modernity. More generally, I argue (contra many commentators on the Architektenstreit) that a debate on the representations and images of the city is not merely a distraction from, but rather an essential element in, the politics of the city. In Berlin today the substitution of culture for politics is particularly manifest. One sometimes has the impression that architectural form is the most important form of political expression (Lepenies, 2003, p. 322).1 [source]