Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Neuroticism

  • high neuroticism

  • Terms modified by Neuroticism

  • neuroticism score

  • Selected Abstracts

    Criminal cognitions and personality: what does the PICTS really measure?

    Dr Vincent Egan
    Introduction The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) is a measure of the criminal cognitions and thinking styles that maintain offending. The scale comprises 8 a priori thinking styles and two validation scales, the validation scales having been found to be unreliable. Owing to the large amount of apparently shared variance in the original validation study, this data matrix needs re-analysis. Results from the PICTS were examined in relation to general measures of individual differences, in order to link the PICTS to the broader literature on the characteristics of offenders. Method The original PICTS data-matrix was re-analysed using a more parsimonious method of analysis. The PICYS was also given to 54 detained, mentally disordered offenders along with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS), the Attention Deficit Scales for Adults (ADSA) and, as a measure of general intelligence, the Standard Progressive Matrices. Results Principal components analysis suggested that the PICTS really comprised two factors: a lack of thoughtfulness (i.e. lack of attention to one's experience), and wilful hostility, with the first factor being most well defined. Intelligence was not associated with any factor of criminal thinking style. High scores on the ADSA and Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility subscales of the SSS were associated with much greater endorsement of criminal sentiments; high Neuroticism, low Extroversion, and low Agreeableness were slightly lower correlates. Discussion The issues involved in criminogenic cognitions need clarification and to be linked to the broader literature on cognitive distortions and personality. Interventions targeted at dismantling impulsive destructive behaviour, whether it be thoughtlessness or wilful hostility, may be effected by increasing thinking skills, so breaking down the cognitions that maintain criminal behaviour. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Regional cerebral brain metabolism correlates of neuroticism and extraversion

    Thilo Deckersbach Ph.D.
    Abstract Factor-analytic approaches to human personality have consistently identified several core personality traits, such as Extraversion/Introversion, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Consciousness, and Openness. There is an increasing recognition that certain personality traits may render individuals vulnerable to psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders and depression. Our purpose in this study was to explore correlates between the personality dimensions neuroticism and extraversion as assessed by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and resting regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglu) in healthy control subjects. Based on the anxiety and depression literatures, we predicted correlations with a network of brain structures, including ventral and medial prefrontal cortex (encompassing anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex), insular cortex, anterior temporal pole, ventral striatum, and the amygdala. Twenty healthy women completed an 18FFDG (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose) positron emission tomography (PET) scan at rest and the NEO-FFI inventory. We investigated correlations between scores on NEO-FFI Neuroticism and Extraversion and rCMRglu using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). Within a priori search territories, we found significant negative correlations between Neuroticism and rCMRglu in the insular cortex and positive correlations between Extraversion and rCMRglu in the orbitofrontal cortex. No significant correlations were found involving anterior cingulate, amygdala, or ventral striatum. Neuroticism and Extraversion are associated with activity in insular cortex and orbitofrontal cortex, respectively. Depression and Anxiety 23:133,138, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The relationship between ,workaholism', basic needs satisfaction at work and personality

    Cecilie Schou Andreassen
    Abstract The aim of this study was to examine correlates of ,workaholism' components (Work Involvement, Drive, Enjoyment of Work). A cross-occupational sample of 661 Norwegian employees in six different organizations completed a web-based survey measuring ,workaholism', basic needs satisfaction at work and personality. Needs satisfaction at work was positively related to Enjoyment of Work, and negatively to Drive. Conscientiousness was positively related to all ,workaholism' components; Extraversion and Openness to Work Involvement and Enjoyment of Work; and Neuroticism to Drive. Negative relations were found between Neuroticism and Enjoyment of Work, and Agreeableness and Drive. Although the associations were rather weak, the findings give reason to differentiate between enthusiastic and non-enthusiastic ,workaholic' characteristics, which were consistent with predictions taken from central theories on ,workaholism'. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Neuroticism and responses to social comparison among cancer patients

    Abraham P. Buunk
    Abstract The present study examined how the effects of three audiotapes containing different types of social comparison information on the mood of cancer patients depended on the level of neuroticism. On the procedural tape, a man and woman discussed the process of radiation therapy, on the emotion tape, they focussed on emotional reactions to their illness and treatment, while on the coping tape they focussed on the way they had been coping. A validation study among 115 students showed that the tapes were perceived as they were intended. The main study was conducted among 226 patients who were about to undergo radiation therapy. Compared to patients in the control group, as patients were higher in neuroticism, they reported less negative mood after listening to the procedural and the coping tape. Furthermore, as patients were higher in neuroticism, they reported less negative mood after listening to the coping tape than to the emotion tape. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The intervening role of social worldviews in the relationship between the five-factor model of personality and social attitudes

    A. Van Hiel
    Abstract The present research investigates in a student (N,=,183) and a voter sample (N,=,276) whether the relationships between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality dimensions and social attitudes (i.e. Right-Wing Authoritarianism [RWA] and Social Dominance Orientation [SDO]) are mediated by social worldviews (i.e. dangerous and jungle worldviews). Two important results were obtained. First, the perception of the world as inherently dangerous and chaotic partially mediated the relationships of the personality dimensions Openness and Neuroticism and the social attitude RWA. Second, the jungle worldview completely mediated the relationships between Agreeableness and SDO, but considerable item overlap between the jungle worldview and SDO was also noted. It was further revealed that acquiescence response set and item overlap had an impact on social worldviews and attitudes, but that their relationships were hardly affected by these biases. The discussion focuses on the status of social worldviews to explain social attitudes. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Social desirability and consensual validity of personality traits

    Kenn Konstabel
    Abstract The effect of socially desirable responding (SDR) on the consensual validity of personality traits was studied. SDR was operationalized as the sum of items weighted by their respective social desirability values (Social Desirability Index, SDI), which could be computed for both self- and peer-reports. In addition, the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) was used as a measure of SDR. It was shown that both self-peer and peer-peer agreement rose significantly for most studied traits when SDI was controlled in both self- and peer-reports. BIDR was a significant suppressor variable in only one of the analyses involving Neuroticism. The SDI detected faking on personality scales somewhat better than the BIDR scales. It is argued that the SDI is a measure of evaluativeness of a person description, and that people agree more on descriptive than on evaluative aspects of a target's personality traits. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    What matters most to prejudice: Big Five personality, Social Dominance Orientation, or Right-Wing Authoritarianism?

    Bo Ekehammar
    Whereas previous research has studied the relation of either (i) personality with prejudice, (ii) personality with social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), or (iii) SDO and RWA with prejudice, the present research integrates all approaches within the same model. In our study (N,=,183), various causal models of the relationships among the Big Five, SDO, RWA, and Generalized Prejudice are proposed and tested. Generalized Prejudice scores were obtained from a factor analysis of the scores on various prejudice instruments (racism, sexism, prejudice toward homosexuals, and mentally disabled people), which yielded a one-factor solution. The best-fitting causal model, which was our suggested hypothetical model, showed that Big Five personality had no direct effect on Generalized Prejudice but an indirect effect transmitted through RWA and SDO, where RWA seems to capture personality aspects to a greater extent than SDO. Specifically, Generalized Prejudice was affected indirectly by Extraversion, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness through RWA, and by Agreeableness through SDO, whereas Neuroticism had no effect at all. The results are discussed against the background of previous research and the personality and social psychology approaches to the study of prejudice. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Gray's model of personality and aggregate level factor analysis

    Chris J. Jackson
    Previous research shows that correlations tend to increase in magnitude when individuals are aggregated across groups. This suggests that uncorrelated constellations of personality variables (such as the primary scales of Extraversion and Neuroticism) may display much higher correlations in aggregate factor analysis. We hypothesize and report that individual level factor analysis can be explained in terms of Giant Three (or Big Five) descriptions of personality, whereas aggregate level factor analysis can be explained in terms of Gray's physiological based model. Although alternative interpretations exist, aggregate level factor analysis may correctly identify the basis of an individual's personality as a result of better reliability of measures due to aggregation. We discuss the implications of this form of analysis in terms of construct validity, personality theory, and its applicability in general. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality traits and academic examination performance

    Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic
    British university students (N,=,247) completed the NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992) personality inventory at the beginning of their course and took several written examinations throughout their three-year degree. Personality super-traits (especially Conscientiousness positively, and Extraversion and Neuroticism negatively) were significantly correlated with examination grades and were found to account for around 15% of the variance. Primary traits were also examined and results showed significant correlations between a small number of these traits (notably dutifulness and achievement striving positively, and anxiety and activity negatively) and academic achievement. Furthermore, selected primary personality traits (i.e. achievement striving, self-discipline, and activity) were found to explain almost 30% of the variance in academic examination performance. It is argued that personality inventory results may represent an important contribution to the prediction of academic success and failure in university (particularly in highly selective and competitive settings). Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality variable differences between disease clusters

    G. Matthews
    Previous studies of personality and health have focused mainly on the influence of psychological factors on single diseases such as cancer and coronary heart disease (CHD), thereby neglecting the problem of comorbidity (i.e. the combination of different diseases). The main focus of the present study was the discrimination between single- and multiple-disease conditions on the basis of personality traits. An extensive battery of personality scales implicated in health was administered to a sample of n=5133 individuals of both genders between the ages of 40 and 65. Subjects also reported their health or illness status. A factor analysis of the personality scales yielded five dimensions clearly interpretable as "Emotional Lability", "Type A Behaviour", "Behavioural Control", "Locus of Control over Diseases", and "Psychoticism". Hierarchical cluster analyses of the subsample of participants who reported suffering from more than one disease led to eight clusters representing individuals with different combinations of diseases. Generally, there were very few significant differences between healthy and single-disease participants with regard to personality. However, mean factor scores calculated for "Emotional Lability" were higher across the multiple-disease groups than in the healthy and single-disease groups. No other personality factor showed this trend. In general the results reported here show the important role negative affectivity (e.g. Emotional Lability, Neuroticism, Depression) plays in differentiating between single and multiple diseases. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality traits and parenting: neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience as discriminative factors

    Riitta-Leena Metsäpelto
    This study used variable- and person-oriented approaches to examine the relationship between personality traits (at age 33) and parenting (at age 36) among 94 mothers and 78 fathers. The SEM revealed that Openness to Experience (O), low Neuroticism (N), and Extraversion (E) were related to parental nurturance; low O to parental restrictiveness; and low N to parental knowledge about the child's activities. Cluster analysis based on the three parenting factors yielded six gender-related parenting types with distinguishable personality profiles. Authoritative parents (mostly mothers) and emotionally involved parents (mostly fathers), who were high in nurturance and high to moderate in parental knowledge, were high in E and high to moderate in O. Authoritarian parents (mostly fathers) and emotionally detached parents (mostly mothers), who were low in nurturance, high to moderate in restrictiveness, and moderate to low in parental knowledge, were low in O and E. Permissive parents, who were low in restrictiveness and parental knowledge and moderate in nurturance, were high in N, E, and O. Engaged parents, who were high in nurturance, restrictiveness, and parental knowledge, were moderate in all personality traits. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness did not differ between the parenting types. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Major depression, chronic minor depression, and the five-factor model of personality

    Kate L. Harkness
    Fifty-eight outpatients with major depression completed the NEO Personality Inventory at intake (time 1) and after up to three months of anti-depressant treatment (time 2). Within this group, 26 patients met additional Research Diagnostic Criteria for chronic minor depression. Repeated-measures analyses revealed significant decreases in Neuroticism scores, and significant increases in Extraversion and Conscientiousness scores, from time 1 to time 2 for both patient groups. In addition, despite similar symptom severity at time 2, the patients with major depression+chronic minor depression scored significantly higher on the Angry Hostility facet of Neuroticism and significantly lower on Agreeableness than those with major depression alone. We suggest from these findings that Angry Hostility and low Agreeableness may represent a trait vulnerability in individuals with chronic minor depression that persists even following remission of the major depressive state, and that this may help to explain their high rates of relapse and recurrence. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Factors Associated With Burden of Primary Headache in a Specialty Clinic

    HEADACHE, Issue 6 2003
    Eugene M. Cassidy MRCPsych
    Objective.,To examine factors associated with social, occupational, and psychological burden of common primary headache (migraine and tension-type headache). Background.,The personal and social burden of primary headache is high. Health, occupational, social, and psychological factors contributing to burden in people with disabling headache have not been fully unravelled. Methods.,One hundred eighty consecutive patients with either migraine or tension-type headache attending a specialty headache outpatient clinic for the first time were evaluated over a 9-month period. Headache subtype was operationally defined according to International Headache Society criteria. Headache frequency, duration, and severity were recorded. Occupational and social disability were quantified using the Migraine Disability Assessment questionnaire. Psychological burden was quantified using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Premorbid vulnerability to life stress was quantified using the neuroticism subscale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Results.,Patients with frequent (chronic) headache scored higher on the Migraine Disability Assessment questionnaire and had higher Beck Depression Inventory and General Health Questionnaire depression scores than those with less frequent (episodic) headache. Frequency of headache, but not pain severity, duration, or diagnosis, predicted both Migraine Disability Assessment total disability and General Health Questionnaire/Beck Depression Inventory depression. Neuroticism was predictive of depression but not disability. Patients with chronic migraine had the highest depression and disability scores. Conclusion.,The number of days per month with headache is a key determinant of headache-related burden in those attending specialty clinics. Frequent (chronic) headache is associated with significantly higher psychopathology scores and general social impairment, but the direction of this relationship is not clear. Those with migraine and chronicity are the most impaired. [source]

    Individual differences in preschool children: temperament or personality?

    Cathy L. Grist
    Abstract Individual differences among adults have generally been conceptualized in terms of personality theory and traits. In contrast, individual differences among very young children (birth to kindergarten) have generally been conceptualized in terms of temperament theory and traits. The present study compares and contrasts measures of temperament and personality in a sample of preschool children. Temperament traits were assessed with a well-established measure (the Rothbart CBQ), and a new preschool rating instrument was used to assess personality traits from the five-factor framework (M5-PS). Indeed, a key purpose of this study was to further the development of the M5-PS. Data were gathered on 122 preschool children who were rated by their teachers. Significant correlations were found between the temperament trait Surgency and the personality trait Extraversion, between the temperament trait Negative Affect and the personality trait Neuroticism, and between the temperament trait Effortful Control and the personality trait Conscientiousness. The overall pattern of correlational data suggests that individual differences in preschool children can be adequately described using the five-factor theory, and that this framework may effectively subsume traditional theories of temperament. Preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the M5-PS is offered. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Neuroticism and conscientiousness as predictors of emotional, external, and restrained eating behaviors

    Patrick C.L. Heaven
    Abstract Objective We investigated the extent to which different forms of eating behavior as assessed by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire are related to facets of the Big Five personality domains. Method Respondents were 167 psychology students (126 females and 41 males) who volunteered for the study. Results Body mass index (BMI) and gender had significant main effects on eating behaviors. These results were moderated by a significant BMI × Gender interaction on emotional eating. Eating behaviors were significantly related to the personality facets associated with Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. Discussion The results are discussed with reference to previous research on eating behaviors and the nature of Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. © 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 30: 161,166, 2001. [source]

    Predicting General Well-Being From Emotional Intelligence and Three Broad Personality Traits

    Malika Singh
    This paper examined the joint predictive effects of trait emotional intelligence (trait-EI), Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism on 2 facets of general well-being and job satisfaction. An employed community sample of 123 individuals from the Indian subcontinent participated in the study, and completed measures of the five-factor model of personality, trait-EI, job satisfaction, and general well-being facets worn-out and up-tight. Trait-EI was related but distinct from the 3 personality variables. Trait-EI demonstrated the strongest correlation with job satisfaction, but predicted general well-being no better than Neuroticism. In regression analyses, trait-EI predicted between 6% and 9% additional variance in the well-being criteria, beyond the 3 personality traits. It was concluded that trait-EI may be useful in examining dispositional influences on psychological well-being. [source]

    The Importance and Place of Neuroticism in Predicting Burnout in Employment Service Case Managers

    Richard Goddard
    This study investigated the ability of neuroticism to explain variance in burnout scores obtained from a sample of Australian case managers who work with individuals experiencing unemployment. Using a longitudinal survey methodology, 70 case managers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996) on 2 occasions. Case managers also completed the Work Environment Scale (Moos, 1994) and the short form of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1991) on the first occasion. In a series of hierarchical regression analyses, neuroticism added significantly to the explanation of variance in all 3 MBI subscales after summary scores describing work stress and work relationships had been entered at an earlier step. An investigation of whether emotional exhaustion mediated the influence of neuroticism on depersonalization found that emotional exhaustion satisfied the criteria for complete mediation. [source]

    Examining antisocial behavior through the lens of the five factor model of personality

    Joshua D. Miller
    The current study attempts to provide greater precision in understanding how personality is related to antisocial behavior. Specifically, we examined the relations between the facets (subordinate traits) from three domains (superordinate dimensions): Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, of the Five Factor Model and five outcome variables: stability of conduct problems, variety of conduct problems, onset of conduct problems, aggression, and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. These relations were examined in a community sample of 481 individuals. These three personality dimensions were chosen for exploration due to their consistent relations, at the domain level, with antisocial behaviors. The results from this study suggest that the facets from the dimension of Agreeableness are the most consistently related to all five outcomes. However, the facets from all three domains made significant contributions. Overall, three personality traits stood out as being the strongest and most consistent predictors: low straightforwardness, low compliance, and low deliberation. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 29:497,514, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Personal Characteristics and Resilience to Economic Hardship and Its Consequences: Conceptual Issues and Empirical Illustrations

    M. Brent Donnellan
    ABSTRACT This article describes a theoretical model that links personal characteristics with resilience to economic hardship and its psychological and interpersonal consequences. This transactional model integrates social influence and social selection perspectives concerning the relation between socioeconomic circumstances and the development of individuals and families. In addition, this article discusses methodological and conceptual issues related to investigating the effects of personal characteristics in this context. Finally, initial empirical support for some of the key predictions from the proposed model are provided using longitudinal data collected from a sample of Midwestern families. Specifically, adolescent academic achievement, self-reports of Conscientiousness, and self-reports of low Neuroticism during adolescence predicted relevant outcomes in adulthood such as less economic pressure, more satisfying romantic relationships, and less harsh parenting behaviors. These preliminary findings support the hypothesized model and extend research concerning the life course outcomes associated with personal characteristics. [source]

    Neuroticism and Morning Cortisol Secretion: Both Heritable, But No Shared Genetic Influences

    Harriëtte Riese
    ABSTRACT Neuroticism is widely used as an explanatory concept in etiological research of psychopathology. To clarify what neuroticism actually represents, we investigated the phenotypic and genetic relationship between neuroticism and the morning cortisol secretion. In the current classic twin study, 125 female twin pairs (74 monozygotic and 51 dizygotic pairs) participated. For each participant, 4 different neuroticism scores were available to calculate a neuroticism composite score that was used in the statistical analyses. The morning cortisol secretion was assessed by 4 salivary samples in the 1st hour after awakening. Significant genetic influences for the neuroticism composite score (55%), and each of the 4 cortisol samples (52%,69%) were found. There was no phenotypic or genotypic relationship between neuroticism and morning cortisol secretion. Although neuroticism and cortisol were both heritable traits, they did not share any genetic influences. [source]

    The Thrust of the Problem: Bodily Inhibitions and Guilt as a Function of Mortality Salience and Neuroticism

    Jamie L. Goldenberg
    ABSTRACT We argue that existential concerns underlie discomfort with the physicality of the body and that activities likely to make individuals aware of their physical body (e.g., sex, dancing) may be inhibited and cause guilt. Further, individuals high in neuroticism may be especially vulnerable to such difficulties. To test this, individuals high and low in neuroticism were primed with thoughts about their mortality or a control topic and then engaged in an exercise designed to promote body awareness before self-reporting guilt. A comparison group engaged in non-body-oriented behavior. The results revealed that high neuroticism participants inhibited their body-oriented behavior when mortality was salient and that they experienced a marginal increase in guilt after performing the behavior in conjunction with mortality salience. Discussion focuses on the relationship between neuroticism, mortality salience, inhibition surrounding the body, and guilt. [source]

    Interactive Effects of Traits on Adjustment to a Life Transition

    Anat Bardi
    ABSTRACT A longitudinal design was used to test theoretically derived interactive effects of traits on adjustment to relocation 1, 8, and 15 months after relocation of elderly women. Openness interacted with Neuroticism and with Extraversion in affecting changes in distress after relocation by amplifying the basic emotional tendencies of Neuroticism and Extraversion. These were delayed effects, occurring only 15 months after relocation. Openness also interacted with Neuroticism in predicting changes in psychological well-being with the effects occurring primarily early in postmove adjustment. In addition, Extraversion interacted with Conscientiousness and with Agreeableness in predicting changes in distress, such that the beneficial effects of Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were evident only for individuals low on Extraversion. These effects were consistent across time, showing long-term effects. Overall, the findings demonstrate the multiplicity of ways in which trait interactions predict dynamic adjustment to a life transition. [source]

    Basic Personality Dispositions, Self-Esteem, and Personal Goals: An Approach-Avoidance Analysis

    Sara A. Heimpel
    ABSTRACT This research examined the hypothesis that self-esteem negatively predicts avoidance (relative to approach) personal goals, as well as the hypothesis that self-esteem mediates the link between indicators of approach and avoidance temperament and avoidance (relative to approach) personal goals. Study 1 established that self-esteem is indeed negatively related to avoidance (relative to approach) goals, even with social desirability concerns controlled. In Study 2, self-esteem was found to mediate the relation between Neuroticism (conceptualized as an indicator of avoidance temperament) and avoidance (relative to approach) personal goals. In Study 3, self-esteem was documented as a mediator of the relation between BAS and BIS sensitivity (conceptualized as indicators of approach and avoidance temperament, respectively) and avoidance (relative to approach) personal goals in the achievement domain. The implications of these findings for our understanding of basic personality dispositions, self-esteem, and personal goals are discussed. [source]

    Functional Brain Mapping of Extraversion and Neuroticism: Learning From Individual Differences in Emotion Processing

    Turhan Canli
    Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging have shown that individual differences in participants' E and N scores are correlated with individual differences in brain activation in specific brain regions that are engaged during cognitive-affective tasks. Imaging studies using genotyped participants have begun to address the molecular mechanisms that may underlie these individual differences. The multidisciplinary integration of brain imaging and molecular genetic methods offers an exciting and novel approach for investigators who seek to uncover the biological mechanisms by which personality and health are interrelated. [source]

    Relationship Quality, Trait Similarity, and Self-Other Agreement on Personality Ratings in College Roommates

    John E. Kurtz
    Previous research has shown that the level of self-other agreement for personality trait ratings increases with the length of acquaintanceship between the target and the informant. These findings emerge exclusively from studies of well-acquainted pairs in natural relationships and relative strangers interacting in laboratory and classroom settings. The present study examines self-other correlations for trait ratings using the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992) with 103 pairs of previously unacquainted female college roommates. Assessments were obtained at approximately 2 weeks and again at approximately 15 weeks subsequent to the roommates' initial introduction. Self-other correlations increased for all five NEO-FFI scores and agreement correlations for Conscientiousness were significantly higher than for Extraversion at both occasions. Differences in relationship quality did not moderate self-other agreement for any of the traits. However, better relationship quality was associated with higher other-ratings of Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and lower other-ratings of Neuroticism after controlling for self-ratings on the same trait. Higher similarity in self-ratings of Neuroticism and Openness was associated with higher self-other agreement for these ratings, and similarity in Conscientiousness was associated with higher relationship quality. These results are considered in light of existing theories of differential trait observability and the effects of unique contexts on trait perception. [source]

    Neuroticism and Social Comparison Orientation as Moderators of Affective Responses to Social Comparison at Work

    Bram P. Buunk
    In a study among 72 nurses, the affective consequences of social comparison were examined and related to neuroticism (N) and to social comparison orientation (SCO). Participants were confronted with a bogus interview with an upward versus a downward comparison target. Positive affect and identification were higher, and negative affect was lower, in the upward than in the downward comparison condition. Independent of their SCO, the higher individuals were in N, the less they identified with the upward comparison target, the more they identified with the downward comparison target, and the less positive affect they showed following confrontation with the upward comparison target. In contrast, independent of their level of N, the higher individuals were in SCO, the more negative affect they showed following confrontation with the downward comparison target. The effects on negative affect stayed the same when controlling for positive affect, and the effects on positive affect stayed the same when controlling for negative affect. These effects were also obtained when perceived direction was used as a predictor instead of the experimentally manipulated direction. It is concluded that, although N and SCO are correlated, these variables seem to have independent and distinct effects upon the responses to social comparison information. [source]

    Predicting Depression From Temperament, Personality, and Patterns of Social Relations

    John F. Finch
    The present study used a levels-of-analysis perspective (McAdams, 1995) to link temperament to depression. We hypothesized a mediational role for three personality variables (Agreeableness, Extraversion Neuroticism) and two interpersonal variables (social support and negative social exchange) in channeling the effects of temperament. A structural equation modeling approach supported the hypothesis that these three personality variables were mediators of the link between temperament and depression. The patterns of mediation differed for Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Neuroticism. In addition to the three personality variables, social support and negative social exchange were also found to mediate the effects of temperament. There was no evidence that patterns of relations among the variables differed between males and females. Results are discussed in terms of a levels-of-analysis approach to the examination of the effects of temperament and personality on adaptation outcomes. [source]

    A Three-Factor Model of Trait Anger: Dimensions of Affect, Behavior, and Cognition

    René Martin
    The structure of trait anger was tested in a study of 24 self-report scales. Exploratory factor analyses in an undergraduate sample (N= 457) yielded a two-factor model (comprising cynicism and aggression) and a three-factor model (representing angry emotions, aggressive behaviors, and cynicism). Subsequent evaluations, including confirmatory factor analyses, indicated that the three-factor model provided the best characterization of the trait anger domain. The three-factor solution was consistent with an ,ABC' conceptualization of trait anger, consisting of the dimensions of affect, behavior, and cognition. The three factors showed strikingly different associations with the Big Five personality traits. Angry Affect was most strongly related to Neuroticism, whereas Behavioral Aggression was associated with low Agreeableness. Cynical Cognition represented a blend of neurotic and disagreeable characteristics. Modest mean-level differences were observed between the genders for each factor. [source]

    Analgesic Effects of Ethanol Are Influenced by Family History of Alcoholism and Neuroticism

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2010
    Elizabeth Ralevski
    Background:, Although personality factors and family history of substance abuse influence how individuals experience pain and respond to analgesics, the combined effects of those factors have not been extensively studied. The objective of this study was to consider the possible role of personality trait of neuroticism and family history of alcoholism on the experience of pain and their role in the analgesic response to an ethanol challenge. Methods:, Forty-eight healthy subjects participated in this study; thirty-one had a positive family history of alcoholism (FHP), seventeen had a negative family history of alcoholism (FHN). They were also categorized based on their neuroticism (N) scores (low N = 28, and high N = 20). This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, within-subject design study of intravenous administration of three doses of ethanol. The testing consisted of 3 separate test days scheduled at least 3 days apart. Test days included a placebo day (saline solution), low-exposure ethanol day (targeted breathalyzer = 0.040 g/dl), and high-exposure ethanol day (targeted breathalyzer = 0.100 g/dl). Noxious electrical stimulation and pain assessments were performed prior to start of infusion and at the 60-minute infusion mark. Results:, The analgesic effect of ethanol was mediated by an interaction between the personality trait of neuroticism and family history. Individuals with family history of alcoholism and high N scores reported significantly more analgesia on low dose of ethanol than those with low N scores. There was no difference in the analgesic response to ethanol among FHNs with low and high N scores. Conclusion:, These findings support the conclusion that neuroticism and family history of alcoholism both influence the analgesic response of alcohol. Individuals with high N scores and FHP have the strongest response to ethanol analgesia particularly on the low exposure to alcohol. [source]

    Relationship between Oral Health-Related Quality of Life, Satisfaction, and Personality in Patients with Prosthetic Rehabilitations

    FDS RCS (England), Jordanian Board, Mahmoud K. AL-Omiri BDS
    Abstract Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between oral health-related quality of life, satisfaction with dentition, and personality profiles among patients with fixed and/or removable prosthetic rehabilitations. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven patients (13 males, 24 females; mean age 37.6 ± 13.3 years) with fitted prosthetic rehabilitations and 37 controls who matched the patients by age and gender were recruited into the study. The Dental Impact on Daily Living (DIDL) questionnaire was used to assess dental impacts on daily living and satisfaction with the dentition. The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) was used to measure self-reported discomfort, disability, and dysfunction caused by oral conditions. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed by the United Kingdom Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHQoL-UK) measure. Moreover, the NEO five-factor inventory was used to assess participants' personality profiles. Results: Prosthetic factors had no relationship to the DIDL, OHIP, and OHQoL-UK scores. Patients with the least oral health impacts had better oral health-related quality of life (p= 0.023, r =,0.37), higher levels of total satisfaction, and satisfaction with appearance, pain, oral comfort, general performance, and eating (p < 0.05, r =,0.79, ,0.35, ,0.59, ,0.56, ,0.58, and ,0.50, respectively). Patients with better oral health-related quality of life (QoL) had higher total satisfaction, satisfaction with oral comfort, general performance, and eating (p < 0.05, r = 0.34, 0.39, 0.33, and 0.37, respectively). Patients with lower neuroticism scores had less oral health impact (p= 0.006, r = 0.44), better oral health-related QoL (p= 0.032, r =,0.35), higher total satisfaction, satisfaction with appearance, pain, oral comfort, and eating (p < 0.05, r =,0.58, ,0.35, ,0.33, ,0.39, and ,0.35, respectively). Conclusion: Patients' satisfaction with their dentition and prosthetic rehabilitations has positive effects on oral health-related QoL and oral health impacts and improves patients' daily living and dental perceptions. Neuroticism might influence and predict patients' satisfaction with their dentition, oral health impacts, and oral health-related QoL. Satisfaction with the dentition might predict a patient's level of neuroticism. [source]