Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Neurogenesis

  • adult hippocampal neurogenesi
  • adult neurogenesi
  • early neurogenesi
  • endogenous neurogenesi
  • hippocampal neurogenesi
  • postnatal neurogenesi
  • retinal neurogenesi
  • secondary neurogenesi

  • Selected Abstracts

    Role of interleukin-15 in the development of mouse olfactory nerve

    Tsuyoshi Umehara
    ABSTRACT Interleukin (IL)-15 interacts with components of the IL-2 receptor (R) and exhibits T cell-stimulating activity similar to that of IL-2. In addition, IL-15 is widely expressed in many cell types and tissues, including the central nervous system. We provide evidence of a novel role of IL-15 in olfactory neurogenesis. Both IL-15 and IL-15R, were expressed in neuronal precursor cells of the developing olfactory epithelium in mice. Adult IL-15R, knockout mice had fewer mature olfactory neurons and proliferating cells than wild-type. Our results suggest that IL-15 plays an important role in regulating cell proliferation in olfactory neurogenesis. [source]

    Steps towards a centralized nervous system in basal bilaterians: Insights from neurogenesis of the acoel Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    Henrike Semmler
    Due to its proposed basal position in the bilaterian Tree of Life, Acoela may hold the key to our understanding of the evolution of a number of bodyplan features including the central nervous system. In order to contribute novel data to this discussion we investigated the distribution of ,-tubulin and the neurotransmitters serotonin and RFamide in juveniles and adults of the sagittiferid Symsagittifera roscoffensis. In addition, we present the expression pattern of the neuropatterning gene SoxB1. Adults and juveniles exhibit six serotonergic longitudinal neurite bundles and an anterior concentration of serotonergic sensory cells. While juveniles show an "orthogon-like" arrangement of longitudinal neurite bundles along the anterior-posterior axis, it appears more diffuse in the posterior region of adults. Commissures between the six neurite bundles are present only in the anterior body region of adults, while irregularly distributed individual neurites, often interconnected by serotonergic nerve cells, are found in the posterior region. Anti-RFamide staining shows numerous individual neurites around the statocyst. The orthogon-like nervous system of S. roscoffensis is confirmed by ,-tubulin immunoreactivity. In the region of highest neurotransmitter density (i.e., anterior), the HMG-box gene SrSoxB1, a transcription factor known to be involved in neurogenesis in other bilaterians, is expressed in juvenile specimens. Accordingly, SoxB1 expression in S. roscoffensis follows the typical pattern of higher bilaterians that have a brain. Thus, our data support the notion that Urbilateria already had the genetic toolkit required to form brain-like neural structures, but that its morphological degree of neural concentration was still low. [source]

    Advanced microscopic imaging methods to investigate cortical development and the etiology of mental retardation

    Tarik F. Haydar
    Abstract Studies on human patients and animal models of disease have shown that disruptions in prenatal and early postnatal brain development are a root cause of mental retardation. Since proper brain development is achieved by a strict spatiotemporal control of neurogenesis, cell migration, and patterning of synapses, abnormalities in one or more of these events during prenatal development can lead to cognitive dysfunction after birth. Many of underlying causes of mental retardation must therefore be studied in developing brains. To aid in this research, live imaging using laser scanning microscopy (LSM) has recently allowed neuroscientists to delve deeply into the complex three-dimensional environment of the living brain to record dynamic cellular events over time. This review will highlight recent examples of how LSM is being applied to elucidate both normal and abnormal cortical development. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2005;11:303,316. [source]

    Environmental complexity and central nervous system development and function

    Mark H. Lewis
    Abstract Environmental restriction or deprivation early in development can induce social, cognitive, affective, and motor abnormalities similar to those associated with autism. Conversely, rearing animals in larger, more complex environments results in enhanced brain structure and function, including increased brain weight, dendritic branching, neurogenesis, gene expression, and improved learning and memory. Moreover, in animal models of CNS insult (e.g., gene deletion), a more complex environment has attenuated or prevented the sequelae of the insult. Of relevance is the prevention of seizures and attenuation of their neuropathological sequelae as a consequence of exposure to a more complex environment. Relatively little attention, however, has been given to the issue of sensitive periods associated with such effects, the relative importance of social versus inanimate stimulation, or the unique contribution of exercise. Our studies have examined the effects of environmental complexity on the development of the restricted, repetitive behavior commonly observed in individuals with autism. In this model, a more complex environment substantially attenuates the development of the spontaneous and persistent stereotypies observed in deer mice reared in standard laboratory cages. Our findings support a sensitive period for such effects and suggest that early enrichment may have persistent neuroprotective effects after the animal is returned to a standard cage environment. Attenuation or prevention of repetitive behavior by environmental complexity was associated with increased neuronal metabolic activity, increased dendritic spine density, and elevated neurotrophin (BDNF) levels in brain regions that are part of cortical,basal ganglia circuitry. These effects were not observed in limbic areas such as the hippocampus. MRDD Research Reviews 2004;10:91,95. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Effects of early seizures on later behavior and epileptogenicity

    Gregory L. Holmes
    Abstract Both clinical and laboratory studies demonstrate that seizures early in life can result in permanent behavioral abnormalities and enhance epileptogenicity. Understanding the critical periods of vulnerability of the developing nervous system to seizure-induced changes may provide insights into parallel or divergent processes in the development of autism. In experimental rodent models, the consequences of seizures are dependent on age, etiology, seizure duration, and frequency. Recurring seizures in immature rats result in long-term adverse effects on learning and memory. These behavioral changes are paralleled by changes in brain connectivity, changes in excitatory neurotransmitter receptor distribution, and decreased neurogenesis. These changes occur in the absence of cell loss. Although impaired cognitive function and brain changes have been well-documented following early-onset seizures, the mechanisms of seizure-induced dysfunction remain unclear. MRDD Research Reviews 2004;10:101,105. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Zebrafish notch signalling pathway mutants exhibit trunk vessel patterning anomalies that are secondary to somite misregulation

    Christina Therapontos
    Abstract The Notch signalling pathway mutants, after-eight (aei), beamter (bea), and deadly-seven (des) have previously been used to study somitogenesis and neurogenesis. Notch signalling has also been shown to have roles in vascular development. However, vascular development in each of these three Notch mutants has not been described, and so their potential usefulness for further understanding the role of Notch signalling in angiogenesis is unknown. Here we demonstrate each of the mutants also exhibit vascular defects in inter-somitic vessel (ISV) positioning and patterning. Ectopic filopodia were also observed on the ISVs of the mutants. Ectopic filopodia are not due to loss of dll4. Somite expression of known vascular guidance cues, efnb2, sema3a2, and plexinD1 are disrupted, suggesting that the ISV vascular phenotype is due to disruption of these cues. Developmental Dynamics 239:2761,2768, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Progressive neurogenesis defines lateralis somatotopy

    Jesús Pujol-Martí
    Abstract Fishes and amphibians localize hydromechanical variations along their bodies using the lateral-line sensory system. This is possible because the spatial distribution of neuromasts is represented in the hindbrain by a somatotopic organization of the lateralis afferent neurons' central projections. The mechanisms that establish lateralis somatotopy are not known. Using BAPTI and neuronal tracing in the zebrafish, we demonstrate growth anisotropy of the posterior lateralis ganglion. We characterized a new transgenic line for in vivo imaging to show that although peripheral growth-cone structure adumbrates somatotopy, the order of neurogenesis represents a more accurate predictor of the position of a neuron's central axon along the somatotopic axis in the hindbrain. We conclude that progressive neurogenesis defines lateralis somatotopy. Developmental Dynamics 239:1919,1930, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Neural tube defects and impaired neural progenitor cell proliferation in G,1 -deficient mice

    Hiroaki Okae
    Abstract Heterotrimeric G proteins are well known for their roles in signal transduction downstream of G protein,coupled receptors (GPCRs), and both G, subunits and tightly associated G,, subunits regulate downstream effector molecules. Compared to G, subunits, the physiological roles of individual G, and G, subunits are poorly understood. In this study, we generated mice deficient in the G,1 gene and found that G,1 is required for neural tube closure, neural progenitor cell proliferation, and neonatal development. About 40% G,1,/, embryos developed neural tube defects (NTDs) and abnormal actin organization was observed in the basal side of neuroepithelium. In addition, G,1,/, embryos without NTDs showed microencephaly and died within 2 days after birth. GPCR agonist-induced ERK phosphorylation, cell proliferation, and cell spreading, which were all found to be regulated by G,i and G,, signaling, were abnormal in G,1,/, neural progenitor cells. These data indicate that G,1 is required for normal embryonic neurogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 239:1089,1101, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Regional expression of MTG genes in the developing mouse central nervous system

    Amin Alishahi
    Abstract Myeloid translocation gene (MTG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that are highly conserved across species. We studied the expression of three members of this gene family, MTGR1, MTG8, and MTG16 in developing mouse central nervous system by in situ hybridization. All of these genes are detected as early as embryonic day 11.5. Because these genes are known to be induced by proneural genes during neurogenesis, we analyzed the expression of MTG genes in relation to two proneural genes, Neurog2 (also known as Ngn2 or Neurogenin 2) and Ascl1 (also known as Mash1). While MTGR1 are generally expressed in regions that also express Neurog2, MTG8 and MTG16 expression is associated more tightly with that of Ascl1 -expressing neural progenitor cells. These results suggest the possibility that expression of MTG genes is differentially controlled by specific proneural genes during neurogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 238:2095,2102, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Neural protein Olig2 acts upstream of the transcriptional regulator sim1 to specify diencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    Nataliya Borodovsky
    Abstract Neural factors are expressed in neural progenitors and regulate neurogenesis and gliogenesis. Recent studies suggested that these factors are also involved in determining specific neuronal fates by regulating the expression of their target genes, thereby creating transcriptional codes for neuronal subtype specification. In the present study, we show that in the zebrafish the neural gene Olig2 and the transcriptional regulator Sim1 are co-expressed in a subset of diencephalic progenitors destined towards the dopaminergic (DA) neuronal fate. While sim1 mRNA is also detected in mature DA neurons, the expression of olig2 is extinguished prior to terminal DA differentiation. Loss of function of either Olig2 or Sim1 leads to impaired DA development. Finally, Olig2 regulates the expression of Sim1 and gain of function of Sim1 rescues the deficits in DA differentiation caused by targeted knockdown of Olig2. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that commitment of basal diencephalic DA neurons is regulated by the combined action of the neural protein Olig2 and its downstream neuronal specific effector Sim1. Developmental Dynamics 238:826,834, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    gfap and nestin reporter lines reveal characteristics of neural progenitors in the adult zebrafish brain

    Chen Sok Lam
    Abstract Adult neurogenesis arises from niches that harbor neural stem cells (NSC). Although holding great promise for regenerative medicine, the identity of NSC remains elusive. In mammals, a key attribute of NSC is the expression of the filamentous proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and NESTIN. To assess whether these two markers are relevant in the fish model, two transgenic zebrafish lines for gfap and nestin were generated. Analysis of adult brains showed that the fusion GFAP,green fluorescent protein closely mimics endogenous GFAP, while the nestin transgene recapitulates nestin at the ventricular zones. Cells expressing the two reporters display radial glial morphology, colocalize with the NSC marker Sox2, undergo proliferation, and are capable of self-renewal within the matrix of distinct thickness in the telencephalon. Together, these two transgenic lines reveal a conserved feature of putative NSC in the adult zebrafish brain and provide a means for the identification and manipulation of these cells in vivo. Developmental Dynamics 238:475,486, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    SPARC is expressed by macroglia and microglia in the developing and mature nervous system

    Adele J. Vincent
    Abstract SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) is a matricellular protein that is highly expressed during development, tissue remodeling, and repair. SPARC produced by olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) can promote axon sprouting in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that in the developing nervous system of the mouse, SPARC is expressed by radial glia, blood vessels, and other pial-derived structures during embryogenesis and postnatal development. The rostral migratory stream contains SPARC that becomes progressively restricted to the SVZ in adulthood. In the adult CNS, SPARC is enriched in specialized radial glial derivatives (Müller and Bergmann glia), microglia, and brainstem astrocytes. The peripheral glia, Schwann cells, and OECs express SPARC throughout development and in maturity, although it appears to be down-regulated with maturation. These data suggest that SPARC may be expressed by glia in a spatiotemporal manner consistent with a role in cell migration, neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and angiogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 237:1449-1462, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    An olig2 reporter gene marks oligodendrocyte precursors in the postembryonic spinal cord of zebrafish

    Hae-Chul Park
    Abstract Continuous production of new neurons and glia in adult mammals occurs within specialized proliferation zones of the forebrain. Neural cell proliferation and neurogenesis is more widespread in adult amphibians, reptiles, and fish but the identity of neural stem cell populations in these organisms has not been fully described. We investigated expression of a reporter gene driven by olig2 regulatory DNA at postembryonic stages in zebrafish. We show that olig2 expression marks a discrete population of spinal cord radial glia in larvae and adults that divide continuously. olig2+ radial glia have hallmarks of stem cells and their divisions appear to be asymmetric, producing new oligodendrocytes but not neurons or astrocytes. Developmental Dynamics 236:3402,3407, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Rab23 GTPase is expressed asymmetrically in Hensen's node and plays a role in the dorsoventral patterning of the chick neural tube

    Naixin Li
    Abstract The mouse Rab23 protein, a Ras-like GTPase, inhibits signaling through the Sonic hedgehog pathway and thus exerts a role in the dorsoventral patterning of the spinal cord. Rab23 mouse mutant embryos lack dorsal spinal cord cell types. We cloned the chicken Rab23 gene and studied its expression in the developing nervous system. Chick Rab23 mRNA is initially expressed in the entire neural tube but retracts to the dorsal alar plate. Unlike in mouse, we find Rab23 in chick already expressed asymmetrically during gastrulation. Ectopic expression of Rab23 in ventral midbrain induced dorsal genes (Pax3, Pax7) ectopically and reduced ventral genes (Nkx2.2 and Nkx6) without influencing cell proliferation or neurogenesis. Thus, in the developing brain of chick embryos Rab23 acts in the same manner as described for the caudal spinal cord in mouse. These data indicate that Rab23 plays an important role in patterning the dorso-ventral axis by dorsalizing the neural tube. Developmental Dynamics 236:2993,3006, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Zebrafish dou yan mutation causes patterning defects and extensive cell death in the retina

    Anne E. Catalano
    Abstract The size of an organ is largely determined by the number of cells it contains, which in turn is regulated by two opposing processes, cell proliferation and cell death, however, it is generally not clear how cell proliferation and cell death are coordinated during development. Here, we characterize the zebrafish dou yanmi234 mutation that results in a dramatic reduction of retinal size and a disruption of retinal differentiation and lamination. The retinal size reduction is caused by increased retinal cell death in a non,cell-autonomous manner during early development. The phenotypic defect in dou yanmi234 arises coincident with the onset of retinal neurogenesis and differentiation. Interestingly, unlike many other small eye mutations, the mutation does not increase the level of cell death in the brain, suggesting that the brain and retina use different mechanisms to maintain cell survival. Identification and further study of the dou yan gene will enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating retinal cellular homeostasis, i.e., the balance between cell proliferation and cell death. Developmental Dynamics 236:1295,1306, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Maternal expression and function of the Drosophila sox gene Dichaete during oogenesis

    Ashim Mukherjee
    Abstract Members of the Sox family of DNA-binding HMG domain proteins have been shown to regulate gene transcription in a wide range of developmental processes, including sex determination, neurogenesis, and chondrogenesis. However, little is known about their potential functions in developing germline tissues. In Drosophila, the Sox protein Dichaete (a.k.a., Fish-hook) is a member of the SoxB subgroup whose HMG domain shares strong sequence similarity to that of vertebrate Sox2. Dichaete exhibits dynamic expression in embryonic and larval stages and has pleiotropic functions in a variety of tissues. In this study, we extend analyses of Dichaete function and show that expression of Dichaete protein is detected in the developing oocyte during early to mid stages of oogenesis. Strikingly, Dichaete exhibits cytoplasmic distribution and is not detected in the oocyte nucleus. Germline mosaic analyses revealed that the Dichaete gene has maternal functions that influence dorsal/ventral patterning of the egg chamber. Dichaete mutant eggs exhibit defects in formation of the dorsal appendages, differentiation of dorsal/anterior follicle cells, and mislocalization of Gurken protein and gurken mRNA. Dichaete protein was shown to possess RNA-binding capabilities, suggesting a direct post-transcriptional role in regulating RNA functions. Developmental Dynamics 235:2828,2835, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Differential expression of polycomb repression complex 1 (PRC1) members in the developing mouse brain reveals multiple complexes

    Tanja Vogel
    Abstract Polycomb group (PcG) genes are regulators of body segmentation and cell growth, therefore being important players during development. PcG proteins form large complexes (PRC) that fulfil mostly repressive regulative functions on homeotic gene expression. Although expression of PcG genes in the brain has been noticed, the involvement of PcG genes in the processes of brain development is not understood. In this study, we analysed the expression patterns of PRC1 complex members to reveal PcG proteins that might be relevant for mouse brain development. Using in situ hybridisation, we show PRC1 activity in proliferative progenitor cells during neurogenesis, but also in maturated neuronal structures. PRC1 complex compositions vary in a spatial and temporal controlled manner during mouse brain development, providing cellular tools to act in different developmental contexts of cell proliferation, cell fate determination, and differentiation. Developmental Dynamics 235:2574,2585, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The zebrafish bHLH PAS transcriptional regulator, single-minded 1 (sim1), is required for isotocin cell development

    Jennifer L. Eaton
    Abstract A wide range of physiological and behavioral processes, such as social, sexual, and maternal behaviors, learning and memory, and osmotic homeostasis are influenced by the neurohypophysial peptides oxytocin and vasopressin. Disruptions of these hormone systems have been linked to several neurobehavioral disorders, including autism, Prader-Willi syndrome, affective disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Studies in zebrafish promise to reveal the complex network of regulatory genes and signaling pathways that direct the development of oxytocin- and vasopressin-like neurons, and provide insight into factors involved in brain disorders associated with disruption of these systems. Isotocin, which is homologous to oxytocin, is expressed early, in a simple pattern in the developing zebrafish brain. Single-minded 1 (sim1), a member of the bHLH-PAS family of transcriptional regulatory genes, is required for terminal differentiation of mammalian oxytocin cells and is a master regulator of neurogenesis in Drosophila. Here we show that sim1 is expressed in the zebrafish forebrain and is required for isotocin cell development. The expression pattern of sim1 mRNA in the embryonic forebrain is dynamic and complex, and overlaps with isotocin expression in the preoptic area. We provide evidence that the role of sim1 in zebrafish neuroendocrine cell development is evolutionarily conserved with that of mammals. Developmental Dynamics 235:2071,2082, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Genetic analysis of early neurogenesis: Dedicated to the scientific contributions of Jose A. Campos-Ortega (1940,2004),

    Volker Hartenstein
    Abstract Jose Campos-Ortega stands out as one of the pioneers of developmental-genetic studies of early neurogenesis. He also liked to reflect about the history of science: how one discovery leads to the next, and what role individuals play in the progress of science. He had indeed started to work on a book describing the history of developmental genetics during the last year of his life. His goal in this book was to "explain how developmental genetics originated, how it transformed developmental biology and, while doing so, how it contributed to achieve the biological synthesis." In the following, I would like to reflect on the origin and growth of the field Campos-Ortega contributed so much. In doing so, it is of particular interest to consider his scientific roots, and the manner in which he entered the stage of developmental genetics. I believe that Campos-Ortega's unusual scientific background influenced in an important manner the way in which he shaped the study of early neurogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 235:2003,2008, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Expression of qBrn-1, a new member of the POU gene family, in the early developing nervous system and embryonic kidney

    Lei Lan
    Abstract It has been shown that POU domain genes play critical roles in the development of the nervous system. We have obtained a new member of the class III POU domain genes, qBrn-1, from the cDNA library of embryonic day 5 quail and have made an extensive expression pattern analysis of qBrn-1 and qBrn-2 throughout the early embryonic development by in situ hybridization. With a specific antibody we prepared, further analysis by immunohistochemistry showed that the location of qBrn-1 protein was consistent with that of the transcripts in the early developing quail. Our results showed that both qBrn-1 and qBrn-2 were preferentially expressed in the developing central nervous system, and their transcripts were initially detected in the neural plate and later in the distinct regions of the neural tube with a stage-dependent pattern. Moreover, their expression was also detected in both notochord and neural crests. However, qBrn-1 signal, different from qBrn-2, was more widely found in the auditory pits, branchial arches, and in the mesodermal components of the developing kidney. And the expression of qBrn-1 in nephric region was earlier and wider than that of mouse Brn-1, suggesting the characteristic function of qBrn-1 in the kidney formation. The distinct dynamic expression patterns of qBrn-1 and qBrn-2 indicate multiple roles of the class III POU genes in quail neurogenesis and organogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 235:1107,1114, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Runx3 is involved in hair shape determination

    Eli Raveh
    Abstract Transcriptional regulators of the Runx family play critical roles in normal organ development and, when mutated, lead to genetic diseases and cancer. Runx3 functions during cell lineage decisions in thymopoiesis and neurogenesis and mediates transforming growth factor-, signaling in dendritic cells. Here, we study the function of Runx3 in the skin and its appendages, primarily the hair follicle, during mouse development. Runx3 is expressed predominantly in the dermal compartment of the hair follicles as they form and during the hair cycle, as well as in the nail and sweat gland skin appendages. Distinct expression is also detected periodically in isolated cells of the epidermis and in melanocytes, populating the hair bulb. Runx3 -deficient mice display a perturbation of the normal hair coat, which we show to be due to hair type and hair shape changes. Thus, one of the functions of Runx3 in skin may be to regulate the formation of the epithelial derived structural hair by affecting dermal to epidermal interactions. Developmental Dynamics 233:1478,1487, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Oligonucleotide-based microarray analysis of retinoic acid target genes in the protochordate, Ciona intestinalis

    Tomoko Ishibashi
    Abstract Oligonucleotide-based microarray analyses were carried out to identify retinoic acid target genes in embryos of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Of 21,938 spots, 50 (corresponding to 43 genes) showed over twofold up-regulation in retinoic acid-treated tail bud embryos. In situ hybridization verified retinoic acid-induced up-regulation of 23 genes. Many of them were expressed in the anterior tail region, where a retinaldehyde dehydrogenase homolog is expressed. Homologs of vertebrate genes involved in neurogenesis and/or neuronal functions (e.g., COUP-TF, Ci-Hox1, and SCO-spondin) were expressed in the central nervous system of Ciona embryos, and activated by retinoic acid. Genes encoding transcription factors (e.g., Ci-lmx1.2, vitamin D receptor, and Hox proteins) and apoptosis-related proteins (e.g., transglutaminase and an apoptosis-inducing factor homolog) were also activated by retinoic acid. Simultaneous treatment of embryos with retinoic acid and puromycin revealed a few direct targets, including genes encoding Ci-Hox1, Ci-Cyp26, and an Rnf126-like ring finger protein. Developmental Dynamics 233:1571,1578, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Zac1 is expressed in progenitor/stem cells of the neuroectoderm and mesoderm during embryogenesis: Differential phenotype of the Zac1-expressing cells during development

    Tony Valente
    Abstract Zac1, a new zinc-finger protein that regulates both apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, is abundantly expressed in many neuroepithelia during early brain development. In the present work, we study the expression of Zac1 during early embryogenesis and we determine the cellular phenotype of the Zac1-expressing cells throughout development. Our results show that Zac1 is expressed in the progenitor/stem cells of several tissues (nervous system, skeleton, and skeletal muscle), because they colocalize with several progenitor/stem markers (Nestin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, FORSE-1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and bromodeoxyuridine). In postnatal development, Zac1 is expressed in all phases of the life cycle of the chondrocytes (from proliferation to apoptosis), in some limbic ,-aminobutyric acid-ergic neuronal subpopulations, and during developmental myofibers. Therefore, the intense expression of Zac1 in the progenitor/stem cells of different cellular lineages during the proliferative cycle, before differentiation into postmitotic cells, suggests that Zac1 plays an important role in the control of cell fate during neurogenesis, chondrogenesis, and myogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 233:667,679, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Xath5 regulates neurogenesis in the Xenopus olfactory placode

    Carole J. Burns
    Abstract Helix-loop-helix (HLH) genes function as important regulators of neurogenesis in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. The olfactory system is an ideal tissue in which to study the role of these genes in regulating the acquisition of neuronal cell fate, particularly that of the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN). Here we describe the expression of several basic HLH (bHLH) and repeat HLH (rHLH) factors during olfactory placode development in Xenopus laevis. Our work reveals that a combination of both bHLH and rHLH genes are sequentially expressed within the nascent olfactory placode during normal development. Moreover, overexpression of the bHLH factor, Xenopus atonal homologue 5 (Xath5), promotes olfactory neural fate independent of cellular proliferation within a restricted domain at the anterior of the embryo. Collectively, our data argue that HLH genes are expressed in a cascade during olfactory placode development and that the activity of an atonal homologue, Xath5, can promote ORN fate but only in the appropriate developmental context. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The role of BDNF and its receptors in depression and antidepressant drug action: Reactivation of developmental plasticity

    Eero Castrén
    Abstract Recent evidence suggests that neuronal plasticity plays an important role in the recovery from depression. Antidepressant drugs and electroconvulsive shock treatment increase the expression of several molecules, which are associated with neuronal plasticity, in particular the neurotrophin BDNF and its receptor TrkB. Furthermore, these treatments increase neurogenesis and synaptic numbers in several brain areas. Conversely, depression, at least in its severe form, is associated with reduced volumes of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and in at least some cases these neurodegenerative signs can be attenuated by successful treatment. Such observations suggest a central role for neuronal plasticity in depression and the antidepressant effect, and also implicate BDNF signaling as a mediator of this plasticity. The antidepressant fluoxetine can reactivate developmental-like neuronal plasticity in the adult visual cortex, which, under appropriate environmental guidance, leads to the rewiring of a developmentally dysfunctional neural network. These observations suggest that the simple form of the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression, namely, that deficient levels of neurotrophic support underlies mood disorders and increases in these neurotrophic factors to normal levels brings about mood recovery, may not sufficiently explain the complex process of recovery from depression. This review discusses recent data on the role of BDNF and its receptors in depression and the antidepressant response and suggests a model whereby the effects of antidepressant treatments could be explained by a reactivation of activity-dependent and BDNF-mediated cortical plasticity, which in turn leads to the adjustment of neuronal networks to better adapt to environmental challenges. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 2010 [source]

    Bilirubin as a determinant for altered neurogenesis, neuritogenesis, and synaptogenesis

    Adelaide Fernandes
    Abstract Elevated levels of serum unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in the first weeks of life may lead to long-term neurologic impairment. We previously reported that an early exposure of developing neurons to UCB, in conditions mimicking moderate to severe neonatal jaundice, leads to neuritic atrophy and cell death. Here, we have further analyzed the effect of UCB on nerve cell differentiation and neuronal development, addressing how UCB may affect the viability of undifferentiated neural precursor cells and their fate decisions, as well as the development of hippocampal neurons in terms of dendritic and axonal elongation and branching, the axonal growth cone morphology, and the establishment of dendritic spines and synapses. Our results indicate that UCB reduces the viability of proliferating neural precursors, decreases neurogenesis without affecting astrogliogenesis, and increases cellular dysfunction in differentiating cells. In addition, an early exposure of neurons to UCB decreases the number of dendritic and axonal branches at 3 and 9 days in vitro (DIV), and a higher number of neurons showed a smaller growth cone area. UCB-treated neurons also reveal a decreased density of dendritic spines and synapses at 21 DIV. Such deleterious role of UCB in neuronal differentiation, development, and plasticity may compromise the performance of the brain in later life. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 2009 [source]

    Adult neurogenesis in the crayfish brain: Proliferation, migration, and possible origin of precursor cells

    Yi Zhang
    Abstract The birth of new neurons and their incorporation into functional circuits in the adult brain is a characteristic of many vertebrate and invertebrate organisms, including decapod crustaceans. Precursor cells maintaining life-long proliferation in the brains of crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, Cherax destructor) and clawed lobsters (Homarus americanus) reside within a specialized niche on the ventral surface of the brain; their daughters migrate to two proliferation zones along a stream formed by processes of the niche precursors. Here they divide again, finally producing interneurons in the olfactory pathway. The present studies in P. clarkii explore (1) differential proliferative activity among the niche precursor cells with growth and aging, (2) morphological characteristics of cells in the niche and migratory streams, and (3) aspects of the cell cycle in this lineage. Morphologically symmetrical divisions of neuronal precursor cells were observed in the niche near where the migratory streams emerge, as well as in the streams and proliferation zones. The nuclei of migrating cells elongate and undergo shape changes consistent with nucleokinetic movement. LIS1, a highly conserved dynein-binding protein, is expressed in cells in the migratory stream and neurogenic niche, implicating this protein in the translocation of crustacean brain neuronal precursor cells. Symmetrical divisions of the niche precursors and migration of both daughters raised the question of how the niche precursor pool is replenished. We present here preliminary evidence for an association between vascular cells and the niche precursors, which may relate to the life-long growth and maintenance of the crustacean neurogenic niche. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2009 [source]

    Proneural gene ash1 promotes amacrine cell production in the chick retina

    Weiming Mao
    Abstract The diverse types of neurons and Müller glia in the vertebrate retina are believed to arise from common progenitor cells. To better understand how neural diversity is achieved during retinal neurogenesis, we examined the function of ash1, a proneural bHLH gene expressed in progenitor cells throughout retinal neurogenesis. Published studies using retinal explant culture derived from knockout mice concluded that ash1 is required for the production of late-born neurons, including bipolar cells. In this study, gain-of-function experiments were carried out in ovo in embryonic chick retina. In the developing chick retina, expression of ash1 temporally overlapped with, but spatially differed from, the expression of ngn2, also a proneural gene expressed in progenitor cells throughout retinal neurogenesis. Retrovirus-driven overexpression of ash1 in the developing chick retina decreased the progenitor population (BrdU+ or expressing ngn2), expanded the amacrine population (AP2,+ or Pax6+), and reduced bipolar (chx10 mRNA+) and Müller glial (vimentin+) populations. Photoreceptor deficiency occurred after the completion of neurogenesis. The number of ganglion cells, which are born first during retinal neurogenesis, remained unchanged. Similar overexpression of ngn2 did not produce discernible changes in retinal neurogenesis, nor in ash1 expression. These results suggest that ash1 promotes the production of amacrine cells and thus may participate in a regulatory network governing neural diversity in the chick retina. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2009 [source]

    Polysialic acid controls NCAM-induced differentiation of neuronal precursors into calretinin-positive olfactory bulb interneurons

    Iris Röckle
    Abstract Understanding the mechanisms that regulate neurogenesis is a prerequisite for brain repair approaches based on neuronal precursor cells. One important regulator of postnatal neurogenesis is polysialic acid (polySia), a post-translational modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM. In the present study, we investigated the role of polySia in differentiation of neuronal precursors isolated from the subventricular zone of early postnatal mice. Removal of polySia promoted neurite induction and selectively enhanced maturation into a calretinin-positive phenotype. Expression of calbindin and Pax6, indicative for other lineages of olfactory bulb interneurons, were not affected. A decrease in the number of TUNEL-positive cells indicated that cell survival was slightly improved by removing polySia. Time lapse imaging revealed the absence of chain migration and low cell motility, in the presence and absence of polySia. The changes in survival and differentiation, therefore, could be dissected from the well-known function of polySia as a promoter of precursor migration. The differentiation response was mimicked by exposure of cells to soluble or substrate-bound NCAM and prevented by the C3d-peptide, a synthetic ligand blocking NCAM interactions. Moreover, a higher degree of differentiation was observed in cultures from polysialyltransferase-depleted mice and after NCAM exposure of precursors from NCAM-knockout mice demonstrating that the NCAM function is mediated via heterophilic binding partners. In conclusion, these data reveal that polySia controls instructive NCAM signals, which direct the differentiation of subventricular zone-derived precursors towards the calretinin-positive phenotype of olfactory bulb interneurons. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2008 [source]

    Stress experienced in utero reduces sexual dichotomies in neurogenesis, microenvironment, and cell death in the adult rat hippocampus

    Chitra D. Mandyam
    Abstract Hippocampal function and plasticity differ with gender, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying sex differences remain elusive and may be established early in life. The present study sought to elucidate sex differences in hippocampal plasticity under normal developmental conditions and in response to repetitive, predictable versus varied, unpredictable prenatal stress (PS). Adult male and diestrous female offspring of pregnant rats exposed to no stress (control), repetitive stress (PS-restraint), or a randomized sequence of varied stressors (PS-random) during the last week of pregnancy were examined for hippocampal proliferation, neurogenesis, cell death, and local microenvironment using endogenous markers. Regional volume was also estimated by stereology. Control animals had comparable proliferation and regional volume regardless of sex, but females had lower neurogenesis compared to males. Increased cell death and differential hippocampal precursor kinetics both appear to contribute to reduced neurogenesis in females. Reduced local interleukin-1beta (IL-1,) immunoreactivity (IR) in females argues for a mechanistic role for the anti-apoptotic cytokine in driving sex differences in cell death. Prenatal stress significantly impacted the hippocampus, with both stress paradigms causing robust decreases in actively proliferating cells in males and females. Several other hippocampal measures were feminized in males such as precursor kinetics, IL-1,-IR density, and cell death, reducing or abolishing some sex differences. The findings expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying sex differences and highlight the critical role early stress can play on the balance between proliferation, neurogenesis, cell death, and hippocampal microenvironment in adulthood. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2008. [source]