Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Conservation, Neoliberalism, and Social Science: a Critical Reflection on the SCB 2007 Annual Meeting in South Africa

Bram E. Büscher
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Anti-Politics as Political Strategy: Neoliberalism and Transfrontier Conservation in Southern Africa

Bram Büscher
ABSTRACT Studies on conservation and development often point out that interventions rely on anti-political manoeuvring to acquire legitimacy and support. Recent ,aidnography', in particular, has done much to expand and add nuance to our understanding of the complex, micro- (anti-)politics at work in conservation and development interventions. In doing this, however, aidnography seems to have led the focus away from two crucial, broader issues related to conservation and development interventions: how they are regulated through the wider, neoliberal political economy, and how this fuels and obscures (global) inequality. Drawing on empirical research on a transfrontier conservation and development intervention in Southern Africa, this article argues that the differential workings of anti-politics in practice warrant a renewed appreciation and a more explicit political operationalization of the concept. This is done by re-emphasizing anti-politics as an essential political strategy within conservation and development interventions and as an intrinsic element of the wider political economy of neoliberalism. [source]

Neoliberalism as Exception: Mutations in Citizenship and Sovereignty by Aihwa Ong

Ioannis Glinavos
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Globalization from Below: Free Software and Alternatives to Neoliberalism

Sara Schoonmaker
ABSTRACT This article explores one of the central struggles over the politics of globalization: forging alternatives to neoliberalism by developing new forms of globalization from below. It focuses on a unique facet of this struggle, rooted in the centrality of information technologies for global trade and production, as well as new forms of media and digital culture. The analysis has four main parts: examining the key role of software as a technological infrastructure for diverse forms of globalization; conceptualizing the contradictory implications of three software business models for realizing the utopian potential of digital technology to develop forms of globalization from below; exploring how three free and open source software business models were put into practice by Red Hat, IBM and the Free Software Foundation; and analysing Brazilian software policy as a form of globalization from below that challenges the historical dominance of the global North and seeks to develop new forms of digital inclusion and digital culture. [source]

Neo-Liberalism as Creative Destruction

David Harvey
Abstract Neoliberalization has swept across the world like a vast tidal wave of institutional reform and discursive adjustment, entailing much destruction, not only of prior institutional frameworks and powers, but also of divisions of labor, social relations, welfare provisions, technological mixes, ways of life, attachments to the land, habits of the heart, ways of thought, and the like. To turn the neoliberal rhetoric against itself, we may reasonably ask: in whose particular interests is it that the state take a neoliberal stance and in what ways have these particular interests used neoliberalism to benefit themselves rather than, as is claimed, everyone, everywhere? Neoliberalism has spawned a swath of oppositional movements. The more clearly oppositional movements recognize that their central objective must be to confront the class power that has been so effectively restored under neoliberalization, the more they will likely themselves cohere. [source]

Introduction: Reclaiming Feminism: Gender and Neoliberalism

IDS BULLETIN, Issue 6 2008
Andrea Cornwall

Neoliberalism and health care

Sue McGregor
Abstract Within the context of globalization, health care reform is occurring around the world. This paper explores the neoliberal mind set shaping health care reform in the UK, Canada, United States, Australia and New Zealand. Neoliberalism is comprised of three principles: individualism, free market via privatization and deregulation, and decentralization. After describing the nature of a health care system that is shaped by those embracing this mind set, an alternative approach is introduced that could bring dignity and a human face to health care. The basic premise of the paper is that we must broaden our analysis of health care by understanding and challenging the neoliberal mind set. [source]

Building and Contesting Neoliberalism at the Local Level: Reflections on the Symposium and on Recent Experience in Bolivia

Abstract This final article first reflects on the previous articles in the symposium, positioning the diverse trajectories of local governance which they exhibit in relation to two contrasting ideal types , the one neoliberal, the other contesting neoliberalism from a progressive, left perspective. Differences between these ideal types, and among the actually existing patterns of local governance discussed in the symposium (in relation to their economic and social objectives and governance institutions and practices) are highlighted. The second part of the article offers a consideration of local governance in Bolivia, a country which encapsulates some of the key issues at stake in the ongoing struggles to either build, or contest, neoliberalism at the local level. Here a distinction is advanced between ,expansive' and ,consolidatory' moments of neoliberal local governance, which may take the form of consecutive phases, but may have different, overlapping temporalities. In conclusion, it is suggested the challenges which the impact of the financial crisis and global recession pose both to neoliberal forms of local governance and to contestatory forces should be a primary concern for future research. Résumé Ce dernier article revient d'abord sur les articles précédents du symposium, pour replacer les diverses voies de gouvernance locale présentées par rapport à deux idéaltypes mis en opposition: l'un néolibéral, l'autre contestant le néolibéralisme d'un point de vue progressiste de gauche. Il met en évidence les différences entre ces idéaltypes, et entre les modèles actuels de gouvernance locale débattus dans le symposium (en lien avec leurs objectifs économiques et sociaux et avec les institutions et pratiques de gouvernance). La seconde partie s'intéresse à la gouvernance locale en Bolivie, un pays qui incarne certains des principaux enjeux dans les luttes en cours visant à bâtir ou à contester un néolibéralisme au niveau local. Une distinction est proposée entre les moments d',expansion' et de ,consolidation' de la gouvernance locale néolibérale, lesquels peuvent se présenter de manière consécutive, mais aussi sur des plages temporelles différentes en chevauchement. Pour conclure, les défis que les conséquences de la crise financière et la récession mondiale posent aux formes néolibérales de gouvernance locale ainsi qu'aux forces contestataires devraient constituer une priorité dans les recherches à venir. [source]

Municipal Neoliberalism and Municipal Socialism: Urban Political Economy in Latin America

The following article identifies two different urban policy regimes in Latin America , neoliberal and socialist , and traces their origins to the distinct interests and capacities of local elites and activists in the region's cities in the mid-to-late twentieth century. While agricultural and commercial interests paid a high price for the growth of import-substituting industrialization, and therefore deployed free trade zones (and similar institutions) in traditional export centers in the 1960s and 1970s, their industrial rivals bore the brunt of austerity and adjustment in the free market era, and therefore adopted compensatory measures designed to increase the ,social wage' in the 1980s and 1990s. Examples are drawn from municipalities in Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Uruguay and Venezuela, and call the conventional portrait of impotent Latin American cities , and omnipotent central governments , into question. Résumé Cet article identifie deux régimes de politique urbaine différents en Amérique latine : néolibéral et socialiste. Leurs origines tiennent aux divers intérêts et moyens des élites et militants locaux dans les grandes villes régionales au cours de la seconde moitié du vingtième siècle. Si les milieux agricoles et commerciaux ont payé le prix fort de l'essor d'une industrialisation visant à remplacer les importations, et ont donc mis en place des zones de libre échange (ou des institutions similaires) dans les pôles exportateurs traditionnels au cours des années 1960,1970, leurs rivaux industriels ont porté le poids de l'austérité et de l'ajustement à l'époque de la libéralisation des marchés, adoptant par conséquent des mesures compensatoires destinées à accroître le ,salaire social' au cours des années 1980,1990. Des exemples, issus de municipalités situées au Brésil, au Mexique, en République dominicaine, en Uruguay et au Venezuela, remettent en question le tableau conventionnel des villes latino-américaines impuissantes face aux gouvernements centraux omnipotents. [source]

Neoliberalism, Contingency and Urban Policy: The Case of Social Housing in Ontario

Various authors have argued that common understandings of neoliberalism are flawed because they do not adequately account for its geographical contingency or internal contradictions. Many have suggested that neoliberalism is either too internally riven with contradiction to be considered a singular consistent project, or that its implementation is so locally contingent that we cannot plausibly speak of one ideal-type placeless ideology. Primarily based on interviews with over half of the municipal housing providers in Ontario, this article explores the extent to which the meta-ideas of neoliberalism are filtered and manifest (or not) locally. Social policy has been neoliberalized in Ontario at least since the advent of the ,common sense revolution' in 1995, when a Tory government was elected on a platform of neoliberal reform. The experience of social housing in the province, before, after and during the transition offers a useful window into the debate about the dissonance (or lack thereof) between ideal-type and contingent neoliberalism. Based on this case, we argue that, despite its obvious conceptual flaws, it is politically and analytically important to understand ideal-type neoliberalism better. [source]

Neoliberalism and Reclaiming a Theology of Economy

Ton Veerkamp
The article clarifies the notion of neoliberalism and traces it back to the origins of liberalism in the civil revolutions of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. New in neoliberalism are not its economic doctrines and underlying philosophy, viz. utilitarianism but the global social situation. The bourgeoisie has lost its counterforce and its doctrines no longer have to compete for recognition: they represent a creed, a new gospel. The article unveils the free-market doctrine of neoliberalism as an ideology. The theological part of the article begins from the first commandment as the guideline and quintessence of all theology. Crucial for the socio-economic implications of the Ten Commandments is, "Do not covet". The Torah and the prophets can be summarized in two interdictions: one relates to slavery and the other to accumulation. Holy scripture excludes the private ownership of the means of production and the accumulation of socio-economic power. It is clear that the accumulation of economic power is leading in our time to the exclusion of increasing numbers of human beings, i.e., to a new slavery. Therefore, a theology of economy must contradict the creeds and practice of neoliberalism. [source]

Testing and Measuring the Role of Ideas: The Case of Neoliberalism in the International Monetary Fund

How much weight should be assigned to a particular factor in explaining an outcome? How should an abstract concept be linked to empirical indicants? These methodological problems,known as the "how much" and "how to" problems, respectively,have raised serious obstacles for ideational researchers. However, they have generally failed to deal with these problems adequately. To offset the limitations of existing studies, this paper provides new methodological guidance to researchers confronting these problems. In particular, quantitative methods are suggested for managing the "how much" problem, and a new indicator based on an individual's organizational background is proposed to deal with the "how to" problem. To develop the argument, this guidance is applied to examine the effect and measurement of the emergence within the International Monetary Fund of neoliberal ideas prescribing liberalization of capital controls. [source]

Factories, Forests, Fields and Family: Gender and Neoliberalism in Extractive Reserves

This paper explores the theoretical debates on extraction and development in Amazonia, and the emergence of extractive reserves (ERs) as a tropical development alternative. It reviews the role of women in Amazonian rural economies and then analyzes the (often invisible) tasks of women within the reserves through an analysis of the gender division of labour in the collecting and processing of non-timber forest products and agriculture. It then considers how lack of attention to rural women's labour obligations played out in a development project, Projeto Castanha, that began as an urban factory, but was later recast as a neoliberal decentralized processing and outsourcing programme. The project failed to appreciate the demands on, and the opportunity costs, of women's time and thus had very limited success as women withdrew their labour. The paper argues that there may be many more options for supporting extractive economies (and the women who work in them) in more peri-urban and village projects even though extractive reserves are valuable ecologically and socially in the regional economy. [source]

What's New in Neoliberalism?

A Review of Recent Scholarship on Chile
First page of article [source]

Backlash Reconsidered: Neoliberalism and Popular Mobilization in Bolivia

Håvard Haarstad
ABSTRACT This article argues that the common narrative of a Bolivian backlash against neoliberalism should be reconsidered in light of the continuities and mutual constraints between popular mobilization and neoliberal policy reforms. The study draws on literature that conceptualizes neoliberalism as a particular construction of state and social forms; but unlike those works, it includes an analysis of International Monetary Fund policy shifts to understand how popular mobilization constrains policy implementation. Responding to popular mobilization between 1985 and 2006, the IMF came to accept divergence from orthodox policy in order to encourage political stability. The government of Evo Morales and the IMF are mutually constrained by concern for the investment climate. This study further advocates that analysts probe beyond simple binary divisions between "neoliberalism" and "alternatives" and look more seriously for pragmatic strategies for negotiating neoliberal spaces. [source]

The Repoliticization of Collective Action After Neoliberalism in Peru

Moisés Arce
ABSTRACT Examining the popular uprising against the privatization of electric service in Arequipa and other revolts against foreign direct investment in Peru, this article explores the changing basis of antigovernment mobilizations against economic liberalization. It suggests that the transition from Fujimori to Toledo led to a major shift in the political opportunity structure, creating a more conducive environment for greater levels of mobilization while increasing the leverage of challengers, along with their chances to achieve positive goals. These new forms of collective resistance are geographically segmented or territorialized; they present concrete demands; and they often involve unexpected actors, yet they resonate at the national level. These results confirm the expectations from recent repoliticization literature insofar as collective actors remain acutely responsive to market reforms in more democratic settings. [source]

Precarious Subjects: Anticipating Neoliberalism in Northern Italy's Workplace

Noelle J. Molé
ABSTRACT, In Italy, the term precarizzazione (precarious-ization) refers to the process of implementing neoliberal policies to transition toward a semipermanent and privatized labor regime but also to the normalization of psychic uncertainty and hypervigilance of worker-citizens. In this article, I examine "precarious workers" and a psychological harassment called "mobbing," specifically, and suggest that these practices of labor exclusion of a transitional work regime produce emergent subjectivities through an analytics of anticipation. I illustrate the social, political, and psychic effects of imagining neoliberalism, as Italians do in this context, not as complete but, rather, as a metadiscursive object of emotionally charged apprehension and anticipation. [source]

On Neoliberalism and Other Social Diseases: The 2008 Sociocultural Anthropology Year in Review

Justin B. Richland
ABSTRACT In this article, I consider a selection of the 129 articles of new research published in five of the leading Anglo-American peer-reviewed outlets for sociocultural anthropology in 2008, discerning two general, but related, trends. The first suggests an ongoing interest among sociocultural anthropologists in new forms and contexts of market capitalism and a deepening concern for the multiple, complex, and even contradictory orientations to those forms by social actors caught up in them. The second reveals a concern with the imbrications of political and scientific epistemologies, particularly as they emerge in state policies and actions around issues of public health, the environment, and agriculture. Where they come together is in the number of studies whose objects of inquiry reside at the nexus where science, politics, and markets meet in what they see as the creeping expansion of neoliberal logics and their implications for the state as a political formation. [Keywords: sociocultural anthropology, neoliberalism, science studies, public health, capitalism] [source]

Political Economy of Economic System Change in the Age of Neoliberalism: A Comparative Study of Germany and Korea

PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 2 2003
Young-Tae Jung
This paper explores the plausibility of the neoliberal convergence theory, by exploring recent developments in the German and Korean economies. These two countries are the focus of this paper largely because their original economic systems had many features which contrasted with and were distinctive from the Anglo-American economic system; however, it appears that they have now moved toward the Anglo-American system. It will be argued that the neoliberal convergence theory is too simplistic and, therefore, misleading for both theoretical and empirical reasons. Rather, the reality is that different countries and institutions undergo different degrees of change toward the neoliberal model of political economic organization largely due to distinctive characteristics of prior established institutions-more precisely, due to different configurations of socio-political forces. It will be suggested that there may be two alternative development strategies open to the two countries in question for the future. One is that they may have to transform their underlying cultural factors and their ,superstructures'- i.e., political institutions and practices-if an Anglo-American economic system is really recognized as the best for them. The other is that they may have to modify the Anglo-American system to make it more suitable for their societies if the latter is not really the best, but just one of many best, economic systems. [source]

Spaces of Neoliberalism: Urban Restructuring in North America and Western Europe

Wieslaw Michalak
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Neoliberalizing Race, Racing Neoliberalism: Placing "Race" in Neoliberal Discourses

ANTIPODE, Issue 2 2010
David J. Roberts
First page of article [source]

The Uses of Neoliberalism

ANTIPODE, Issue 2010
James Ferguson
Abstract:, The term "neoliberalism" has come to be used in a wide variety of partly overlapping and partly contradictory ways. This essay seeks to clarify some of the analytical and political work that the term does in its different usages. It then goes on to suggest that making an analytical distinction between neoliberal "arts of government" and the class-based ideological "project" of neoliberalism can allow us to identify some surprising (and perhaps hopeful) new forms of politics that illustrate how fundamentally polyvalent neoliberal mechanisms of government can be. A range of empirical examples are discussed, mostly coming from my recent work on social policy and anti-poverty politics in southern Africa. [source]

Crisis, Continuity and Change: Neoliberalism, the Left and the Future of Capitalism

ANTIPODE, Issue 2010
Noel Castree
Abstract:, This essay's point of departure is the coincident economic and environmental "crises" of our time. I locate both in the dynamics of capital accumulation on a world-scale, drawing on the ideas of Marx, Karl Polanyi and James O'Connor. I ask whether the recent profusion of "crisis talk" in the public domain presents an opportunity for progressive new ideas to take hold now that "neoliberalism" has seemingly been de-legitimated. My answer is that a "post-neoliberal" future is probably a long way off. I make my case in two stages and at two geographical scales. First, I examine the British social formation as currently constituted and explain why even a leading neoliberal state is failing to reform its ways. Second, I then scale-up from the domestic level to international affairs. I examine cross-border emissions trading,arguably,the,policy tool for mitigating the very real prospects of significant climate change this century. The overall conclusion is this: even though the "first" and "second" contradictions of capital have manifested themselves together and at a global level, there are currently few prospects for systemic reform (never mind revolution) led by a new, twenty-first century "red-green" Left. [source]

Acts of Aid: Neoliberalism in a War Zone

ANTIPODE, Issue 5 2009
Jennifer Hyndman
Abstract:, International aid is a dynamic bundle of geographical relationships at the intersection of war, neoliberalism, nature, and fear. The nexus between development and security warrants further conceptualization and empirical grounding beyond the instrumentalist and alarmist discourses that underwrite foreign aid. This article examines two such discourses, that of "aid effectiveness" and securitization, that serve to frame an analysis of aid to Sri Lanka. Since 1977, neoliberal policies of international assistance have shaped the country's economy and polity, and, since 1983, government troops and militant rebels have been at war. International aid focuses on economic development and support for peace negotiations, but little attention has been paid to the ways in which these agendas intersect to shape donor behavior and aid delivery. Drawing from research on international aid agencies operating in Sri Lanka, in particular the Canadian International Development Agency, the geopolitics of aid are analyzed. [source]

Workfare,Warfare: Neoliberalism, "Active" Welfare and the New American Way of War

ANTIPODE, Issue 5 2009
Julie MacLeavy
Abstract:, In recent decades, welfare reform in the USA has increasingly been based on a political imperative to reduce the number of people on welfare. This has in large part taken place through the establishment of a "workfare" state, in which the receipt of state benefits requires a paid labor input. Designed to reduce expenditure on civil social services, welfare-to-work programs have been introduced. At the same time, the restructuring of US defense provision has seen the "military,industrial complex" emerge as a key beneficiary of state expenditure. Both of these trends can be characterized, this paper argues, as manifestations of neoliberal thinking,whether in the form of the "workfarism" that is undertaken to bolster the US economy, or the "defense transformation" that has been intended to enhance US war-making capacity. While these two aspects have been analyzed in detail independently, the aim of this paper is to probe the similarities, connections and overlaps between the workfare state and the recent American emphasis on high-technology warfare,the so-called "Revolution in Military Affairs",and "defense transformation". There are, the paper argues, strong homologies to be drawn between the restructuring of the American defense and welfare infrastructures. Furthermore there are also instances where warfare and welfare are being melded together into a hybrid form "workfare,warfare", in which military service is increasingly positioned as a means of gaining welfare and, conversely, traditionally military industries are becoming involved in the area of welfare provision. The result, it is argued, is an emergent form of workfare,warfare state in the USA. [source]

Labour Migration, Neoliberalism and Ethno-politics in the New Europe: The Latvian Case

ANTIPODE, Issue 5 2009
Charles Woolfson
Abstract:, The accession of the new European Union (EU) member states of Eastern Europe has highlighted ambivalence towards migration within the older member states. That same ambivalence has been less frequently discussed in the new. The former Soviet republic of Latvia serves as a case study of a new member state facing intensified pressure to accept inward migration to meet labour shortages, in part, a consequence of EU accession. Confounding appropriate political and policy responses is the sensitive issue of "ethnic balance", a troubled "legacy" of Latvian history. This has been characterised as comprising a "regime of discrimination" against the Russian-speaking minority. In the context of changes in the global migratory landscape, the potential for a renewed of regime of discrimination is emerging, based on an ethno-politics that has wider European resonance. [source]

Antiracism and Environmental Justice in an Age of Neoliberalism: An Interview with Van Jones

ANTIPODE, Issue 3 2009
Anoop Mirpuri
First page of article [source]

Neoliberalism and the Aestheticization of New Middle-Class Landscapes

ANTIPODE, Issue 2 2009
Choon-Piew Pow
Abstract:, If according to Terry Eagleton (The Ideology of the Aesthetic 1990:28), the aesthetic is from the start "a contradictory, double-edged concept", how are seemingly innocent acts of viewing and consuming aesthetically pleasing landscapes implicated in the neoliberal politics of urban restructuring? Using contemporary Shanghai as a case study, this paper critically examines the role of the aesthetic in the politics of exclusion and urban segregation in post-Socialist Shanghai where the restructuring and commodification of erstwhile public welfare housing have led to the rapid development of private "middle-class" gated enclaves. A central objective of this paper is to excavate the underlying cultural politics of neoliberalism and demonstrate how the aestheticization of urban spaces in Shanghai has become increasingly intertwined with and accentuated by neoliberal ideologies and exclusionary practices in the city. Imbricated in the pristine neighborhoods of Shanghai's gated communities are the fault lines of social division and class distinction that are rapidly transforming urban China. [source]

The Making of New Urban Borders: Neoliberalism and Protest in Buenos Aires1

ANTIPODE, Issue 4 2008
Alejandro Grimson
First page of article [source]

Introduction: Cleaners and the Dirty Work of Neoliberalism

ANTIPODE, Issue 3 2006
Andrew Herod
First page of article [source]