Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Negotiations

  • international negotiation
  • political negotiation
  • social negotiation
  • trade negotiation
  • treaty negotiation
  • wage negotiation

  • Terms modified by Negotiations

  • negotiation process
  • negotiation strategy

  • Selected Abstracts


    This article contributes to the perception of the role of the legislator as political initiator in modern parliamentarianism. Most of the research literature relates to the parliament member as a ,eam player' of their faction and party. This research was conducted into the functioning of the Israeli parliament The Knesset and into private members' legislation. The article examines in an innovative way the act of legislation, not only as a judicial or procedural process but as a process of political negotiation. The concept and findings that arose from the study of the role of the legislator as initiator of bills and negotiator with the government gives important knowledge and perspective on legislation as a political negotiation process. [source]


    Robert E. Baldwin
    In particular, it is argued that economic factors of the type traditionally emphasized by economists in their classrooms are by themselves inadequate for analysing the negotiating process. A variety of political economy factors are discussed as explanations for the disappointing results of the Doha Round. [source]


    This paper analyses how the structure of wage bargaining affects R&D investment by firms that increases the productivity of labour in a Cournot duopoly. We find that total expenditure on R&D is greater when wages are set simultaneously than when they are set sequentially. Thus sequential wage negotiations reduce the incentive for firms to innovate and affect the productivity of labour. When wage negotiations are sequential the productivity of labour is greater (lower) in the follower (leader) firm than when negotiations are simultaneous. We also obtain that for same parameter values it is possible for the firm with the lower productivity to end up paying a higher wage than the firm with the higher level of labour productivity. [source]

    Automated Negotiation from Declarative Contract Descriptions

    Daniel M. Reeves
    Our approach for automating the negotiation of business contracts proceeds in three broad steps. First, determine the structure of the negotiation process by applying general knowledge about auctions and domain,specific knowledge about the contract subject along with preferences from potential buyers and sellers. Second, translate the determined negotiation structure into an operational specification for an auction platform. Third, after the negotiation has completed, map the negotiation results to a final contract. We have implemented a prototype which supports these steps by employing a declarative specification (in courteous logic programs) of (1) high,level knowledge about alternative negotiation structures, (2) general,case rules about auction parameters, (3) rules to map the auction parameters to a specific auction platform, and (4) special,case rules for subject domains. We demonstrate the flexibility of this approach by automatically generating several alternative negotiation structures for the domain of travel shopping in a trading agent competition. [source]

    Sub-Constitutional Engineering: Negotiation, Content, and Legal Value of Interinstitutional Agreements in the EU

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 2 2006
    Isabella Eiselt
    Concretely speaking, these roles range from (a) explicitly authorised specifications of Treaty provisions via (b) not explicitly authorised specifications of vague Treaty law to (c) pure political undertaking. Based on the distinction between the constitutional and the operational level of the political game, we challenge the assumption that IIAs usually strengthen the European Parliament. As our case study, the 1993 interrelated package of IIAs on democracy, transparency and subsidiarity, illustrates, the European Parliament is not the only institution that benefits from IIAs, especially if they lack a sufficiently precise Treaty basis. Furthermore, if Treaty provisions underlying IIAs are precise, they also tend to produce precise and thus legally relevant content. Conversely, if IIAs deal primarily with elusive concepts they are likely to be legally ambiguous or even irrelevant at all. [source]

    The flexibility of the master negotiator

    Roy J. Lewicki
    Negotiating to resolve conflicting objectives requires flexibility,the willingness and skill to change your approach to suit the situation at hand. The authors discuss five negotiating strategies and which to select based on the importance of the outcome and the relationship with the other person to you and your company. Adopting the best style, avoiding, accommodating, competing, collaborating, or compromising,for the situation may require overcoming your natural preference for one style as well as matching or mismatching the other person's preferred style. This article is reprinted from the authors' book, Mastering Business Negotiation: A Working Guide to Making Deals and Resolving Conflict (New York: Jossey-Bass, 2006). Copyright © 2006 Roy J. Lewicki and Alexander Hiam. [source]

    Negotiation in health libraries: a case study of Health Information and Libraries Journal and open access publishing

    Graham Walton
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Gender and Negotiation: Some Experimental Findings from an International Negotiation Simulation1

    Mark A. Boyer
    Increasingly, scholars have taken note of the tendency for women to conceptualize issues such as security, peace, war, and the use of military force in different ways than their male counterparts. These divergent conceptualizations in turn affect the way women interact with the world around them and make decisions. Moreover, research across a variety of fields suggests that providing women a greater voice in international negotiations may bring a fresh outlook to dispute resolution. Using experimental data collected by the GlobalEd Project, this article provides substantial support for hypotheses positing that females generate significantly different processes and outcomes in a negotiation context. These findings occur both in terms of female negotiation behavior and the impact of females as negotiation facilitators/mediators. [source]

    Negotiation of parental care when the stakes are high: experimental handicapping of one partner during incubation leads to short-term generosity

    Karen L. Wiebe
    Summary 1. Most game theoretical models of biparental care predict that a reduction in care by one partner should not be fully compensated by increased work of its mate but this may not be true for incubating birds because a reduction in care could cause the entire brood to fail. 2. I performed the first handicapping experiment of both males and females during incubation, by placing small lead weights on the tails of male and female northern flickers Colaptes auratus, a woodpecker in which males do most of the incubation. 3. Females responded to the acute stressor (handling and handicapping) by tending to abandon more readily than males and staying away from the nest longer in the first incubation bout. Among pairs that persisted, both males and females compensated fully for a handicapped partner, keeping the eggs covered nearly 100% of the time. 4. Partners did not retaliate by forcing their handicapped mate to sit on the eggs with a long incubation bout length subsequent to having a long bout length themselves. Instead, during the 24 h immediately after handicapping, males behaved generously by relieving handicapped females early. 5. Such generosity was probably not energetically sustainable as these male partners took on less incubation in the 72 h following handicapping compared to female partners of handicapped males. Males and females are probably generous in the short-term because of the high cost of nest failure during incubation but maintaining increased work loads in the longer term is probably limited by body condition and abandonment thresholds consistent with game theory models. [source]

    Toward More Effective Stakeholder Dialogue: Applying Theories of Negotiation to Policy and Program Evaluation,

    Bernadette Campbell
    Borrowing from the negotiation literature, we tested 2 factors that might improve stakeholder dialogue in program and policy evaluation. Undergraduate stakeholders (61 pairs) engaged in dialogue about their universities' alcohol policies. Pairs were randomly assigned to levels of accountability audience and dialogue structure. The audience for the videotaped dialogue was described as holding either (a) views about the policy similar to the participant's, consistent across audience members (homogeneous), or (b) mixed views, on both sides of the issue (heterogeneous). Pairs approached the dialogue with either (a) problem-solving goals or (b) no particular strategy. Dyads accountable to a heterogeneous audience and given problem-solving instructions exhibited the most effective dialogue. Accountability to a heterogeneous audience facilitated satisfaction with and optimism about dialogue. Accountability to homogeneous audiences and adopting no particular strategy yielded the least positive perceptions of dialogue. Implications for stakeholder dialogue, and for the role of social psychology in evaluation are discussed. [source]

    An Evaluation of Two Mediation Techniques, Negotiator Power, and Culture in Negotiation,

    Vairam Arunachalam
    This study examines the effects of 4 factors in a mediated transfer-pricing negotiation: (a) the mediator's suggestion that negotiators have concern for the other (opposing) negotiator; (b) the mediator's proposal of moderate goals; (c) negotiator power; and (d) culture. In the simulated negotiations that were mediated by a corporate official, participants were 374 subjects from Hong Kong and the United States. Negotiators obtained lower joint outcomes when urged by the mediator to show concern for the other than when not given this admonition. When the mediator proposed moderate (vs. high) goals, the negotiators received lower joint outcomes but had a higher opinion of the mediator. While we expected negotiator power (equal vs. unequal) to interact with suggested concern for the other, it did so only for the negotiators' individual outcomes. Finally, culture produced a main effect: Hong Kong negotiators obtained higher joint outcomes than did their U. S. counterparts. [source]

    Negotiation of parental roles within family-centred care: a review of the research

    Jo Corlett MSc
    Aims and objectives., To review research published in the past 15 years about how children's nurses' negotiate with parents in relation to family-centred care. Background., Family-centred care is a basic tenet of children's nursing and requires a process of negotiation between health professionals and the family, which results in shared decision-making about what the child's care will be and who will provide this. The literature highlights inconsistencies in the degree to which nurses are willing to negotiate with parents and allow them to participate in decisions regarding care of their child. There is need to explore further the extent to which nurses communicate and negotiate shared care with children and their parents. Conclusions., Three themes emerged from this review of the literature relating to whether role negotiation occurred in practice, parental expectations of participation in their child's care and issues relating to power and control. Parents wanted to be involved in their child's care but found that nurses' lack of communication and limited negotiation meant that this did not always occur. Nurses appeared to have clear ideas about what nursing care parents could be involved with and did not routinely negotiate with parents in this context. Relevance to clinical practice., For family-centred care to be a reality nurses need to negotiate and communicate with children and their families effectively. Parents need to be able to negotiate with health staff what this participation will involve and to negotiate new roles for themselves in sharing care of their sick child. Parents should be involved in the decision-making process. However, research suggests that a lack of effective communication, professional expectations and issues of power and control often inhibit open and mutual negotiation between families and nurses. [source]

    The Performance of Desire: Gender and Sexual Negotiation in Long-Term Marriages

    Sinikka Elliott
    We integrate theoretical traditions on the social construction of gender, heterosexuality, and marriage with research and theory on emotion work to guide a qualitative investigation of how married people understand and experience sex in marriage. Results, based on 62 in-depth interviews, indicate that married men and women tend to believe that sex is integral to a good marriage and that men are more sexual than women. Moreover, husbands and wives commonly experience conflict around sex and undertake emotion work to manage their own and their spouse's feelings about sex. We refer to this emotion work as "performing desire" and show how it is linked to gendered experiences in marriage and to competing cultural discourses around gender, heterosexuality, and marriage. [source]

    Deciding on the Mode of Negotiation: To Auction or Not to Auction Electronically

    Lutz Kaufmann
    SUMMARY Purchasing transactions are increasingly conducted through electronic auctions. Some companies already source 25 percent of their total purchase volume through this electronic mechanism. However, most of these purchasing transactions could, alternatively, be conducted as face-to-face negotiations. This article examines (a) when it is feasible to conduct an electronic auction in purchasing, and (b) under what circumstances it is better to source items through an electronic auction as opposed to sourcing them through face-to-face negotiations. [source]

    Negotiation, Power in Conciliation, and Review of Compensation Claims

    LAW & POLICY, Issue 3 2002
    Robert Guthrie
    Workers Compensation claims are not interpersonal disputes. Almost always they are disputes between individuals and corporations. Compensation insurers are "repeat players" in the system. Workers are often "one,shotters" who have little or infrequent contact with the system. Power inequality between the worker, employer, insurer, and those who are required to facilitate negotiations and resolve and settle disputes under compensation legislation are matters of considerable importance. This paper examines the effects of the implementation, in 1993, of informal dispute resolution processes in the Western Australian workers compensation system under the Workers Compensation and Rehabilitation Act 1981(WA), which excluded lawyers from the process. It argues that preexisting power imbalances have been aggravated by these procedural changes, and in particular, by the exclusion of legal practitioners from the dispute resolution process. The issues raised herein have general application to most workers compensation systems. [source]

    The Ethic of Diversity: Local Law and the Negotiation of Urban Norms

    LAW & SOCIAL INQUIRY, Issue 4 2008
    Mariana Valverde
    Toronto prides itself both on being diverse and on celebrating rather than merely tolerating diversity. Urban diversity has been studied by demographers, sociologists, and planners, but sociolegal analyses of the negotiation of diversity are scarce. The study described here has three elements: a study of the Toronto Licensing Tribunal, a challenge to the property standards by-law, and a campaign to reform the rules governing street food. The key substantive finding of the research is that municipal legal processes, in a city that takes pride in its diversity, still work to effect and naturalize distinctly ethnocentric norms. The content of (some) norms is subject to revision but the normative power of law as such remains unchallenged. Methodologically, the article, inspired by Bruno Latour and Actor Network Theory, shows the usefulness of treating local legal processes as a series of networks in which nonhuman objects (such as weeds, courtroom Bibles, and hot dogs) can sometimes be protagonists of legal dramas rather than mere objects. [source]

    Negotiation for Action: English Language Learning in Game-Based Virtual Worlds

    This study analyzes the user chat logs and other artifacts of a virtual world,,Quest Atlantis,(QA), and proposes the concept of Negotiation for Action (NfA) to explain how interaction, specifically, avatar-embodied collaboration between native English speakers and nonnative English speakers, provided resources for English language acquisition. Iterative multilayered analyses revealed several affordances of QA for language acquisition at both utterance and discourse levels. Through intercultural collaboration on solving content-based problems, participants successfully reached quest goals during which emergent identity formation and meaning making take place. The study also demonstrates that it is in this intercultural interaction that pragmatics, syntax, semantics, and discourse practices arose and were enacted. The findings are consistent with our ecological psychology framework, in that meaning emerges when language is used to coordinate in-the-moment actions. [source]

    After Monte Albán: Transformation and Negotiation in Oaxaca, Mexico edited by Jeffrey Blomster

    Barbara L. Stark
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Emergent Negotiations: Stability and Shifts in Negotiation Dynamics

    Mara Olekalns
    Abstract Negotiation is a dynamic process in which negotiators change their strategies in response to each other. We believe mutual adaptation is best conceptualized as an emergent process and is a critical determinant of negotiators' abilities to identify mutually beneficial solutions. We argue that three factors drive the process of negotiation and influence the quality of agreements: alignment of negotiators' strategies across individuals (strategy sequences), alignment of negotiators' strategies with the negotiation-wide dynamic (phases), and congruence of negotiators' goals. [source]

    Negotiating for Money: Adding a Dose of Reality to Classroom Negotiations

    Roger J. Volkema
    Negotiation and conflict management courses have become increasingly common in business schools around the world. Frequently, these courses employ role plays and simulations to encourage students to try new strategies, tactics, techniques, and behaviors. While these simulations generally are designed to elicit realistic negotiation dynamics, they often lack the full emotional tension inherent in actual negotiations. One possible reason for this reduced tension is that no tangible resources, such as money, are at stake. This article describes an experiment in which MBA students paid a player's fee at the beginning of a negotiation course, and in which each negotiation exercise had an actual dollar value at risk. The article reports some results from this experiment and offers suggestions for instructors who might seek to add a player's fee to their own courses. In general, most students found the experience valuable, as it provided performance benchmarks while focusing their attention more sharply on risks and returns. [source]

    For the Sake of the Team: Unity and Disunity in a Multiparty Major League Baseball Negotiation

    Larry Crump
    "Divide and conquer" is a well-known expression although the literature on distributive negotiation offers little theory in support of this technique. This article develops theory to explain increases or decreases in unity and disunity among negotiation groups comprising multiple parties in organizational settings. Specifically, this study analyzes the negotiations surrounding the purchase of the Seattle Mariners baseball team in 1992 by a group that included Japanese investors. The study identifies reframing as a technique that can be used strategically to create disunity between cooperating parties on the same side in a negotiation. This article also develops a theory about techniques that can enhance unity between cooperating parties and can protect against disunity that may be generated by the opposition. Dividing and unifying techniques are both components of a larger negotiation theory that seeks to evaluate actions designed to affect the degree of unity between parties working together in distributive settings. [source]

    The Internal Israeli Conflict: The Past, Present, and Future of the Jewish West Bank and Gaza Settlements

    Robert Mnookin
    On October 14 and 15, 2004, just days before the Israeli government submitted to the Knesset a draft legislation to authorize the evacuation of Jewish settlers from Gaza Strip and some settlements on the West Bank, a two-day conference titled "Past, Present, and Future of the Jewish West Bank and Gaza Settlements: The Internal Israeli Conflict" was held at Harvard Law School. The conference was sponsored by the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School, the Saltman Center for Conflict Resolution of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, and the United States Institute of Peace. This interdisciplinary conference's six panels, whose proceedings are summarized in the series of articles that follow, explored the religious, ideological, psychological, political, legal, and international dimensions of the conflict. Presenters included former and current Israeli and American government officials, experts on resettlement policies and compensation mechanisms, and scholars from a variety of disciplines. While presentation topics covered a range of issues relating to the settlements, three broad themes arose from the conference. First, participants agreed that it is important, if not fundamental, to understand the perspectives of the national religious settlers who are the driving force behind the settlement movement. Exploring the settlers' diverse interests, fears, and identities is necessary in order to see why relocation is so threatening to them. The Israeli government can lessen opposition to withdrawal by showing the settlers empathy and reassurance, but only if government officials first achieve a true understanding of the settlers' concerns. Participants also argued that a reframing of the relocation in ideological terms could be another critical component of a solution to this problem. It may be necessary for the leaders of the settlement movement to develop a new narrative or modify the existing one in order to legitimize their relocation. Part of this narrative will involve the concept of "a greater good", the government must reassure the settlers that their sacrifice is for a higher cause. Several participants noted that Israel needs to show the settlers "tough love." When the relocations begin, many expect that there will be violence and that disturbing images will be broadcast throughout Israel and around the world. Internal disruption could put the government led by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon and his Likud party coalition in jeopardy. The government must not waver in the face of this crisis, conference participants argued. In fact, the threat of violent and disruptive resistance by settlers and their allies can be part of the solution, not just the problem. The government and relocation supporters can use this extremism to justify decisive measures and to redefine the problem for the broader population to convince them that the stability of the country is at stake. Another major conclusion of conference participants was that, while the Israeli settlement issue has unique features, there is much to be learned from comparative analysis. Other countries have dealt with settlement situations, and their experiences offer invaluable lessons. In particular, participants contrasted Israel's settlements in Gaza and the West Bank with French settlements in Algeria and English settlements in Ireland. Some pointed to the French withdrawal from Algeria, which was politically painful but ultimately successful, as an example of "tough love" that Israel should follow. Finally, the involvement of third parties to help solve this conflict is indispensable. Participants noted that while much of Israel feels alienated from the European Union and the United Nations, the Israeli government is highly sensitive to the concerns of the United States, as evidenced by Sharon's decision to show the Gaza withdrawal plan to the U.S. government before he had even raised it with his cabinet and the Israeli parliament, the Knesset. International participation could help legitimize withdrawal and reduce Israeli responsibility for Gaza's future. Third parties can apply political pressure to encourage an accountable and responsible Palestinian leadership. They may also be called upon to provide some sort of financial aid. The participants acknowledged the complexity of the settlement problem and recognized that easy solutions do not exist. Yet, if the Israeli government works toward understanding the settlers' perspectives, learns from comparative analysis, and involves third parties appropriately, the likelihood of a successful outcome increases greatly. [source]

    Critical Moments in Negotiation

    Kimberlyn Leary

    Critical Moments as "Flow" in Negotiation

    William A. Donohue

    Interest-Based Negotiations in a Transformed Labor,Management Setting

    Nils O. Fonstad
    The authors introduce a group of essays that evolved from a March 2003 symposium on the path-breaking new partnership and use of interest-based negotiation (IBN) at Kaiser Permanente (KP), one of the largest integrated health care programs in the United States. They briefly trace the history of the IBN approach (both success stories and failures); the growth of this phenomenon; and its use in collective bargaining settings. The KP case, the focus of the symposium (which was jointly sponsored by MIT's Institute for Work and Employment Relations and Harvard's Program on Negotiation), is by far the largest instance of the use of IBN in U.S. labor relations history. [source]

    The Ethics of Respect in Negotiation

    Jonathan R. Cohen
    First page of article [source]

    Negotiation versus manipulation: The impact of alternate forms of LDC government behavior on the design of international environmental agreements,

    Amitrajeet A. Batabyal
    International environmental agreement; LDC government; perfect correlation Abstract. This article addresses the problem faced by an asymmetrically informed supra-national governmental authority (SNGA) with limited funds that wishes to design an international environmental agreement (IEA) for less developed countries (LDCs). The SNGA can only deal with polluting firms in the LDCs through their national governments. This tripartite hierarchical interaction is studied for two LDCs. The private information of the firms and the governments across the two countries is perfectly correlated. In this setting, we study the effects of two kinds of behavior by the governments of the LDCs. We show that despite the perfect correlation in the private information of governments and firms across the two countries, the SNGA cannot design a first-best IEA. Our analysis suggests that problems arising from the SNGA's inability to monitor the actions of the polluting firms and the national governments are less salient than is commonly believed. However, there is no denying the fact that the success of lEAs is dependent not only on the funds available for environmental protection, but also on the manner in which LDC governments represent polluting firms in their countries. [source]

    Discourse Resistance And Negotiation By Indigenous Australians

    PEACE & CHANGE, Issue 2 2003
    John Synott
    In the context of intercultural relations, the boundaries between dominant and subordinated communities are constructed in a variety of ways. Language frames, or discourses, understood from a sociological rather than a linguistic perspective can be considered to constitute one of the main processes for determining the character of intercultural boundaries. Using this theoretical perspective, this article examines a number of discourses that have contributed to the construction of social relations between Australian Aborigines and the dominant nonindigenous cultural groups in Australia. Examples from the colonial period show the way in which indigenous people were oppressed along racial boundaries, even as they resisted, while more recent instances chart the process of indigenous people in renegotiating social relations and in asserting the process of self-determination and cultural celebration. [source]

    Uncertain Aims and Tacit Negotiation: Birth Control Practices in Britain, 1925,50

    Kate Fisher
    Evidence from oral history interviews is used to suggest the need to reevaluate our understanding of the dynamics of fertility decisions and behavior in the first half of the twentieth century. Those interviewed stressed their vague and haphazard approach to contraceptive use, in sharp contrast to the dominant depiction in studies of fertility decline that emphasize the degree to which individuals made deliberate and calculated choices about family size based on an assessment of the costs and benefits of childrearing. Details of individual contraceptive strategies elucidate the complexities of birth control behavior: couples, lacking explicit aims for family limitation, adopted diverse methods of birth control, using them for different reasons, at different times, with varying degrees of determination and confidence and frequently with very little direct discussion or planning. Explicit articulation of aims was not a necessary prerequisite of the spread of birth control; accepted gender roles meant that responsibilities and obligations emerged gradually and tacitly. As a result, nevertheless, low fertility was effectively achieved. [source]

    Performing Race in Four Culturally Diverse Fourth Grade Classrooms: Silence, Race Talk, and the Negotiation of Social Boundaries

    Rebecca Schaffer
    This article addresses how preadolescents produce and perform race through an ethnographic study of 8- to 11-year-old students in four fourth grade classrooms in the southeastern United States. Although Asian, Latino, and white students tended to avoid explicit talk of race, many white students constructed black students as disruptive "troublemakers." Black students were more likely to openly discuss race and racism and used race talk to silence or isolate certain students.,[race, identity, media, elementary school, multicultural education] [source]