Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of National

  • british national
  • country national
  • different national
  • foreign national
  • parc national
  • several national

  • Terms modified by National

  • national academy
  • national accounting
  • national agencies
  • national agenda
  • national alcohol survey
  • national approach
  • national assembly
  • national assessment
  • national association
  • national asthma education
  • national audit
  • national authority
  • national average
  • national basis
  • national birth cohort
  • national birth defects prevention study
  • national board
  • national border
  • national boundary
  • national bureau
  • national campaign
  • national cancer institute
  • national cancer institute common toxicity criterioN
  • national cancer institute surveillance
  • national cancer registry
  • national capital market
  • national census
  • national center
  • national centre
  • national character
  • national characteristic
  • national child development study
  • national cholesterol education program
  • national cohort
  • national cohort study
  • national committee
  • national community
  • national comorbidity survey
  • national concern
  • national conference
  • national conflict
  • national congress
  • national consciousness
  • national context
  • national council
  • national court
  • national coverage
  • national crisis
  • national culture
  • national curriculum
  • national data
  • national data set
  • national database
  • national databases
  • national death index
  • national debate
  • national development
  • national difference
  • national discourse
  • national drug strategy household survey
  • national economy
  • national education longitudinal study
  • national efficiency
  • national effort
  • national election
  • national election study
  • national elections
  • national electronic injury surveillance system
  • national epidemiologic survey
  • national estimate
  • national evaluation
  • national expenditure
  • national eye institute visual function questionnaire
  • national firm
  • national forest
  • national framework
  • national goal
  • national government
  • national groups
  • national guidance
  • national guideline
  • national health
  • national health and medical research council
  • national health authority
  • national health insurance
  • national health interview survey
  • national health service
  • national health service hospital
  • national health service trust
  • national health survey
  • national health system
  • national heart
  • national heritage
  • national history
  • national hospital
  • national hospital ambulatory medical care survey
  • national hospital morbidity database
  • national household survey
  • national identification
  • national identity
  • national ideology
  • national income
  • national initiative
  • national innovation system
  • national institute
  • national institution
  • national integration
  • national interest
  • national laboratory
  • national latino
  • national law
  • national leadership
  • national league
  • national legislation
  • national legislature
  • national level
  • national library
  • national literacy strategy
  • national longitudinal study
  • national longitudinal survey
  • national market
  • national maternal
  • national measure
  • national media
  • national meeting
  • national minimum wage
  • national minority
  • national monument
  • national mortality rate
  • national movement
  • national museum
  • national network
  • national observatory
  • national organization
  • national origin
  • national park
  • national parks
  • national parliament
  • national party
  • national patient register
  • national patient registry
  • national patient safety agency
  • national pattern
  • national pension system
  • national perspective
  • national physical activity guideline
  • national policy
  • national political system
  • national politics
  • national population
  • national population health survey
  • national postal survey
  • national prevalence
  • national primate research center
  • national priority
  • national probability sample
  • national product
  • national profile
  • national program
  • national programme
  • national project
  • national qualification frameworks
  • national random sample
  • national rate
  • national reference
  • national register
  • national registry
  • national regulation
  • national regulatory authority
  • national representative sample
  • national research
  • national research council
  • national reserve
  • national resource
  • national response
  • national review
  • national sample
  • national sample survey
  • national saving
  • national scale
  • national science foundation
  • national screening programme
  • national security
  • national self-determination
  • national service
  • national service framework
  • national service frameworks
  • national socialism
  • national society
  • national sovereignty
  • national standard
  • national standards
  • national state
  • national states
  • national statistics
  • national stereotype
  • national strategy
  • national studies
  • national study
  • national surgical adjuvant breast
  • national surveillance
  • national survey
  • national survey data
  • national synchrotron light source
  • national system
  • national taiwan university hospital
  • national target
  • national telephone survey
  • national tradition
  • national trend
  • national union
  • national unity
  • national university
  • national university hospital
  • national value
  • national variation
  • national weather service
  • national wildlife refuge

  • Selected Abstracts


    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Cosmopolitanism and the Solidarity Problem: Habermas on National and Cultural Identities

    Max Pensky

    National and Regional Prevalence of Self-reported Epilepsy in Canada

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2004
    José F. Tellez-Zenteno
    Summary:,Purpose: To assess the point prevalence of self-described epilepsy in the general population nationally, provincially, and in different groups of interest. Methods: We analyzed data from two national health surveys, the National Population Health Survey (NPHS, N = 49,000) and the Community Health Survey (CHS, N = 130,882). Both surveys captured sociodemographic information, as well as age, sex, education, ethnicity, household income, and labor force status of participants. Epilepsy was ascertained with only one question in both surveys. "Do you have epilepsy diagnosed by a health professional?" (NPHS) and "Do you have epilepsy?" (CHS). Prevalences were age-adjusted by using national standard populations at the time of each survey. Exact 95% confidence intervals were obtained. Results: In the NPHS, 241 of 49,026 subjects described themselves as having been diagnosed with epilepsy, yielding a weighted point prevalence of 5.2 per 1,000 [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.9,5.4]. In the CHS, 835 of 130,822 subjects described themselves as having epilepsy, yielding a weighted point prevalence of 5.6 per 1,000 (95% CI, 5.1,6.0). Trends in differences in prevalence among some Canadian provinces were observed. Prevalence was statistically significantly higher in groups with the lowest educational level, lowest income, and in those unemployed in the previous year. Prevalence also was higher in nonimmigrants than in immigrants. Conclusions: The overall and group-specific results are in keeping with those obtained in other developed countries by using different ascertainment methods. We discuss methodologic aspects related to the ascertainment of epilepsy in both surveys, and to the validity and implications of our findings. [source]

    Is extreme right-wing populism contagious?

    Explaining the emergence of a new party family
    As the old master frame of the extreme right was rendered impotent by the outcome of the Second World War, it took the innovation of a new, potent master frame before the extreme right was able to break electoral marginalization. Such a master frame , combining ethnonationalist xenophobia, based on the doctrine of ethnopluralism, with anti-political-establishment populism , evolved in the 1970s, and was made known as a successful frame in connection with the electoral breakthrough of the French Front National in 1984. This event started a process of cross-national diffusion, where embryonic extreme right-wing groups and networks elsewhere adopted the new frame. Hence, the emergence of similar parties, clustered in time (i.e., the birth of a new party family) had less to do with structural factors influencing different political systems in similar ways as with cross-national diffusion of frames. The innovation and diffusion of the new master frame was a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for the emergence of extreme right-wing populist parties. In order to complete the model, a short list of different political opportunity structures is added. [source]

    The Impact of National and State Policy on Elementary School Foreign Language Programs: The Iowa Case Study

    Marcia Harmon Rosenbusch
    ABSTRACT: This article reviews selected national policy recommendations and examines their impact on state policy making in Iowa, specifically in terms of the number and quality of Iowa elementary school foreign language programs and teacher qualifications from the mid-1980s through the 1990s. Understanding the effect that these policies have had on early language programs in Iowa may help the profession determine the impact of national policy on state educational programs. This study suggests that future research on the impact of national policies in other states can help professionals design strategies for shaping policies in support of foreign language programs that begin in the early grades and continue through secondary school, building skills across levels. [source]

    Hosts and distribution of Collybia fusipes in France and factors related to the disease's severity

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    D. PIOU
    Using data collected by two different observation networks, it was possible to clarify the distribution of Collybia fusipes in France. It is frequently found in the western and northern parts of France, mainly on Quercus rubra and Quercus robur, and to a somewhat lesser extent on Quercus petraea. When the relative areas covered by these species are compared, it is evident that Q. rubra is much the most susceptible of the three species. The fungus has been less frequently reported in the south-eastern quarter of France, where Quercus ilex and Quercus pubescens are the dominant species. Complementary observations carried out at the National Arboretum of Les Barres indicate that a large number of oak species are susceptible to infection by this fungus, particularly those in the subgenus Erythrobalanus. These observations are discussed with reference to reports of this fungus throughout Europe. In a Q. rubra stand, fruit-body clumps were monitored and root damage was assessed on 73 final-crop trees and 40 codominant trees. The results suggest that C. fusipes does not preferentially infect weakened trees. Both the severity of root damage and the number of fruit-body clumps increased with increasing depth to signs of waterlogging. Répartition et hôtes de Collybia fusipes en France et facteurs de gravité de la maladie D'après les données collectées par deux réseaux de surveillance distincts, la répartition de Collybia fusipes en France a été précisée. Le champignon est fréquent dans les moitiés ouest et nord du pays, principalement sur Quercus rubra et Q. robur, et dans une moindre mesure sur Q. petraea. Quand on considère la surface relative occupée par ces espèces, il apparaît évident que Q. rubra est le plus sensible. Il a été moins souvent signalé dans le quart sud-est oùQ. ilex et Q. pubescens sont dominants. Des observations complémentaires réalisées à l'Arboretum National des Barres indiquent qu'un grand nombre d'espèces de chênes sont susceptibles d'être attaquées par ce champignon, particulièrement celles du sous-genre Erythrobalanus. Ces observations sont discutées et comparées avec les données disponibles en Europe. L'apparition des carpophores a été suivie dans un peuplement de Q. rubra, et les dégâts aux racines ont étéévalués sur 73 arbres de place et 40 arbres codominants. Les résultats indiquent que C. fusipes n'infecte pas plus gravement les arbres affaiblis. Le degré d'hydromorphie influence significativement l'importance des dégâts racinaires ainsi que le nombre de carpophores produits. Cette étude confirme que C. fusipes se développe préférentiellement dans les sites où l'hydromorphie n'est pas trop sévère. Wirtspflanzen und Verbreitung von Collybia fusipes in Frankreich sowie mit der Krankheitsintensität assoziierte Umweltfaktoren Mit Hilfe der Daten von zwei unterschiedlichen Beobachtungsnetzwerken konnte die Verbreitung von Collybia fusipes in Frankreich präzisiert werden. Der Pilz ist im Westen und Norden des Landes häufig auf Quercus rubra und Quercus robur zu finden, etwas weniger häufig auf Quercus petraea. Beim Vergleich der von diesen Arten bestockten Flächen wird deutlich, dass Q. rubra die anfälligste der drei Eichenarten ist. Im südöstlichen Teil Frankreichs, wo Quercus ilex und Quercus pubescens dominieren, wurde der Pilz weniger häufig nachgewiesen. Ergänzende Beobachtungen im Arboretum National des Barres ergaben, dass zahlreiche Eichenarten gegen C. fusipes anfällig sind, insbesondere die des Subgenus Erythrobalanus. Diese Ergebnisse werden im Vergleich mit der aus Europa über diesen Pilz verfügbaren Literatur diskutiert. In einem Q. rubra, Bestand wurde das Auftreten von Fruchtkörpern und von Wurzelschäden an 73 herrschenden und 40 mitherrschenden Bäumen registriert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass C. fusipes geschwächte Bäume nicht bevorzugt befällt. Sowohl die Intensität der Wurzelschäden als auch die Anzahl der Fruchtkörper erhöhte sich mit zunehmender Tiefe der Anzeichen für Staunässe im Bodenprofil. [source]

    China's Changing National and Regional Innovation Systems and Regional Distribution of R&D

    Fangzhu Zhang
    This article examines the transformation of China's national and regional innovation systems. We review an emerging literature on innovation research on China, especially geographical studies of innovation, and argue that China's national innovation system has become more enterprise-centered since the economic reform started in 1979. This article systematically evaluates the strength and weakness of China's national innovation system and argues that the new innovation system has a significant regional dimension demonstrated through attempts to establish regional innovation systems. R&Ds are concentrated in high-tech development zones in China. However, these zones are more manufacturing oriented. In other words, there is more development than research. These regional systems, however, play a role in promoting economic competitiveness in their respective regions. [source]

    Current challenges of pharmacovigilance in bleeding disorders: converting the burden to benefit

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 2 2010
    Summary., Safety surveillance studies have proven essential in research and development of new biological therapies for bleeding disorders as well as other diseases. Although product safety regarding HIV, hepatitis, and other blood-borne infections is currently excellent, potential new infectious agents require continued vigilant monitoring. Inhibitor development is the most common serious side effect of haemophilia replacement therapy. Several aetiological factors associated with inhibitors have been identified, but their true impact is still largely unknown. Moreover, whether plasma-derived and recombinant factor products differ in their immunogenic profiles is an unresolved issue. Coagulation factor products under development and those currently on the market require uniform, long-term surveillance. The European Haemophilia Safety Surveillance (EUHASS) project was recently established to meet these goals. The pharmaceutical industry and clinicians face common challenges complying with these requirements. In rare diseases like haemophilia, obtaining adequate patient numbers poses a challenge. Another challenge is a lack of methods for assessing disease severity, a surprising deficiency in the era of modern medical and laboratory technology. National and international registries can be used to gather required safety surveillance information. Simultaneously, clinicians benefit from well-organized registry data in their daily practice and harmonize the quality of comprehensive haemophilia care by homogeneous follow-up platforms. Experience with such registries comes, for example, from Europe (PEDNET), the USA (CDC/UDC), the UK (UKHCDO), and Sweden (Malmö). It is important to commit to future pharmacovigilance efforts, aiming at high-quality safety surveillance programmes at both the pharmaceutical research community and clinical levels. [source]

    Informal care: the views of people receiving care

    S. McCann BA MPsychSc
    Abstract Informal care is perceived to be the best option for people who require assistance to look after themselves. National and international studies of informal care have focused on the carer, not on the care provided, or the needs and experiences of the care recipients. In the present study, 55 people receiving informal care (21 males and 24 females, mean age = 67.6) were surveyed to determine the type of assistance that they receive, perceptions of the quality of their care, feelings about being looked after by a carer and their perceptions of the services which would be useful. A random sample of 531 households were selected as part of a larger study into informal care in the west of Ireland. A total of 98 carers were identified and 55 of the people they looked after were well enough to participate in the study. Over two-thirds of carers assisted with household chores (e.g. cleaning, preparing meals and shopping). Other activities which carers assisted with included keeping the person safe from household accidents (62%), personal care (42%), and dressing and undressing (31%). Whilst most were very satisfied with the quality of care, a minority reported dissatisfaction, and stated that their carer showed signs of anger and frustration. Common concerns related to the health of the carer, their safety when the carer is not available and the cost of being cared for. Financial support for the person receiving care and the carer were the main priorities for these individuals. The present study points to a need for greater involvement of care recipients in planning services relating to informal care, and support and access to health professionals for people receiving care. People receiving care are also concerned about the level of financial support for themselves and their carers. [source]

    The Nation as a Problem: Historians and the "National Question"

    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 3 2001
    Elías José Palti
    How is it that the nation became an object of scholarly research? As this article intends to show, not until what we call the "genealogical view" (which assumes the "natural" and "objective" character of the nation) eroded away could the nation be subjected to critical scrutiny by historians. The starting point and the premise for studies in the field was the revelation of the blind spot in the genealogical view, that is, the discovery of the "modern" and "constructed" character of nations. Historians' views would thus be intimately tied to the "antigenealogical" perspectives of them. However, this antigenealogical view would eventually reveal its own blind spots. This paper traces the different stages of reflection on the nation, and how the antigenealogical approach would finally be rendered problematic, exposing, in turn, its own internal fissures. [source]

    National and Partisan Contexts of Europeanization: The Case of the French Socialists

    Alistair Cole
    This article affirms the usefulness of thinking of Europeanization and European policy change in terms of national, party and European contexts and their interrelationships. Through a case study of the French Socialists in office, the article seeks to establish that national, party and European policy contexts matter in different ways and in varying degrees. National context provides a set of institutions, interests and referential paradigms which help to make sense of a complex external environment. Party provides a distinctive partisan lens and an enduring political community. Europeanization poses a series of direct and indirect policy challenges and opportunities for nation-states and party governments. The article considers national and Europeanized pressures to be more significant than partisan processes. [source]

    Constitutional Privilege and Constituting Pluralism: Religious Freedom in National, Global, and Legal Context

    Peter Beyer
    Lori Beaman argues that religious freedom in Canada and the United States is well established in theory (or myth) but limited in practice, privileging Protestantism in particular and varieties of Christianity in general. Focusing on the treatment of other religions in the courts of the two countries, she defends the hypothesis that these legal systems tend to reinforce the hegemony of Christianity, using this as an implicit model of what constitutes a religion, and thereby maintaining the marginalization and restricting the freedom of other religions. The present article sets Beaman's arguments in a wider global context, exploring the extent to which Christianity does and does not serve as a global standard for religion; and addressing the question of why issues of religious freedom so frequently end up being the subject of legal judgment and political decision. The main conclusions drawn from this global contextualization are that maintenance of some kind of religious hegemony is the rule all across global society, not just in Canada and the United States, and that unfettered freedom of religion or genuine religious pluralization is correspondingly rare, if it exists anywhere. Moreover, it is argued that such limitations, frequently expressed in legal judgments and political decisions, are more or less to be expected because they flow from the peculiar way that religion has been constructed in the modern and global era as both a privileged and privatized, as both an encompassing and marginalized social domain. The article thereby simultaneously reinforces and takes issue with Beaman's position: the modern and global reconstruction of religion invites its infinite pluralization at the same time as it encourages its politicization and practical restriction. Religions act as important resources both for claims to inclusion and for strategies of relative exclusion. [source]

    Area-Level Poverty Is Associated with Greater Risk of Ambulatory,Care,Sensitive Hospitalizations in Older Breast Cancer Survivors

    Mario Schootman PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the frequency of ambulatory care,sensitive hospitalizations (ACSHs) and to compare the risk of ACSH in breast cancer survivors living in high-poverty with that of those in low-poverty areas. DESIGN: Prospective, multilevel study. SETTING: National, population-based 1991 to 1999 National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program data linked with Medicare claims data throughout the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Breast cancer survivors aged 66 and older. MEASUREMENTS: ACSH was classified according to diagnosis at hospitalization. The percentage of the population living below the U.S. federal poverty line was calculated at the census-tract level. Potential confounders included demographic characteristics, comorbidity, tumor and treatment factors, and availability of medical care. RESULTS: Of 47,643 women, 13.3% had at least one ACSH. Women who lived in high-poverty census tracts (,30% poverty rate) were 1.5 times (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.34,1.72) as likely to have at least one ACSH after diagnosis as women who lived in low-poverty census tracts (<10% poverty rate). After adjusting for most confounders, results remained unchanged. After adjustment for comorbidity, the hazard ratio (HR) was reduced to 1.34 (95% CI=1.18,1.52), but adjusting for all variables did not further reduce the risk of ACSH associated with poverty rate beyond adjustment for comorbidity (HR=1.37, 95% CI=1.19,1.58). CONCLUSION: Elderly breast cancer survivors who lived in high-poverty census tracts may be at increased risk of reduced posttreatment follow-up care, preventive care, or symptom management as a result of not having adequate, timely, and high-quality ambulatory primary care as suggested by ACSH. [source]

    Sharing natural resources: mountain gorillas and people in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda

    Hein Van Gils
    Abstract The compatibility of natural resource use by people and mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) within the Parc National des Volcans was studied. The distribution of gorillas was modelled using a Maximum Entropy algorithm. Biophysical predictor variables were trained with daily GPS locations of gorillas during 2006. Elevation, as a climate surrogate, was the best predictor (58%) of the occurrence of gorillas. The mid-altitudes (2500,3500 m a.s.l.) contained the bulk of the gorilla groups. Incoming solar radiation, as proxy for comfortable nesting sites, was the second best predictor (17%). Vegetation types, as foliage provider, (13%) and slope steepness for providing security (12%) were contributing predictors. The modelled and actual gorilla distributions were together overlaid with people's resource use in the park. Both people and gorillas were congregated in the areas identified as most suitable for gorillas. However, within these areas spatial segregation was found between human natural resource-users and gorillas. Therefore, the number of gorillas is likely to be limited by the human natural resource use within the park. A perimeter fence, the introduction of community-based natural resource management, and a buffer zone are discussed as short-, medium- and long-term mitigation measures. Résumé Nous avons étudié la compatibilité entre l'utilisation des ressources naturelles par les hommes et la présence des gorilles de montagnes (Gorilla beringei beringei) dans le Parc National des Volcans. La distribution des gorilles fut modélisée en utilisant un algorithme d'entropie maximum. En 2006, on a testé des variables de prédicteurs biophysiques, avec localisation quotidienne des gorilles par GPS. L'altitude, substitut du climat, était le meilleur prédicteur (58%) de la présence de gorilles. La plupart des groupes de gorilles se trouvaient à des altitudes moyennes (2 500,3 000 m). Le rayonnement solaire, condition de sites de nidification confortables, étaient le deuxième prédicteur (17%). Les types de végétation, fournisseurs de feuilles (13%) et l'importance des pentes, gage de sécurité (12%) étaient des prédicteurs contributeurs. Les distributions modélisées et réelles des gorilles furent superposées à l'utilisation des ressources du parc par les gens. Les hommes et les gorilles étaient rassemblés dans les zones identifiées comme les plus favorables pour les gorilles. Cependant, dans ces zones, on a trouvé une ségrégation spatiale entre les utilisateurs humains des ressources naturelles et les gorilles. Le nombre de gorilles risque donc d'être limité par l'utilisation humaine des ressources naturelles dans le parc. L'on discute de la pose d'une clôture en périphérie, de l'introduction d'une gestion communautaire des ressources naturelles et de la définition d'une zone tampon comme mesures de mitigation à court, moyen et long terme. [source]

    Competition between domestic dogs and Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

    A. Atickem
    Abstract The potential effects of the domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) on the Endangered Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) through exploitative and interference competition were studied in the Web Valley of Bale Mountains national park between November 2001 and February 2003. All dogs were owned in the study area and no feral dogs were reported or observed during the research period. The diet of domestic dogs was dominated by barley husks and human faeces which contributed 45% and 20.7% of the total 382 meals observed during focal watch observations. Analysis of dog faeces provided similar results with barley husks, human faeces and animal carcasses occurring in 86.8%, 21.4% and 19.4% of the 1200 faecal samples analysed. Both focal watch and faecal analyses revealed that rodents contributed only a very small proportion of the diet of dogs accounting for only 4.2% of the focal watch and 2.8% of the faecal analysis of roaming dogs. As Ethiopian wolves fed almost exclusively on rodent year round, no significant exploitative competition between dogs and wolves were assessed. Only small proportion of the domestic dogs roamed in the Ethiopian wolf range and interference competition did not appear to be a serious threat for the Ethiopian wolf. Résumé De novembre 2001 à février 2003, on a étudié les effets potentiels des chiens domestiques (Canis familiaris) sur le loup d'Ethiopie (Canis simensis) qui est en danger, en raison d'une compétition par exploitation alimentaire ou par interférences, dans la Vallée de Web, dans le Parc National des montagnes de Bale. Tous les chiens de l'étude avaient un propriétaire, et nous n'avons ni rapporté ni observé de chien féral pendant cette période. Le régime alimentaire des chiens comprenait principalement de la balle d'orge et des excréments humains qui composaient respectivement 45% et 20,7% du total des 382 repas observés pendant des observations focalisées. L'analyse des excréments de chiens donne des résultats semblables : la balle d'orge, les excréments humains et les carcasses d'animaux sont présents dans 86,8%, 21,4% et 19,4% des 1 200 échantillons fécaux analysés. Et les observations focalisées et les analyses des crottes ont révélé que les rongeurs ne composent qu'une toute petite proportion du régime des chiens, avec 4,2% des observations et 2,8% des analyses fécales des chiens errant en liberté. Comme les loups d'Ethiopie se nourrissent toute l'année presque exclusivement de rongeurs, nous avons estimé qu'il n'y avait aucune compétition par exploitation significative entre les chiens et les loups. Seule une petite proportion de chiens circulent dans l'aire de distribution du loup d'Ethiopie, et la compétition par interférence a semblé ne pas constituer une menace sérieuse pour le loup d'Ethiopie. [source]

    Population status, structure and activity patterns of the Bohor reedbuck Redunca redunca in the north of the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

    Bezawork Afework
    Abstract The Bohor reedbucks Redunca redunca (Pallas, 1767) were studied in the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP), Ethiopia to assess their population ecology and activity patterns. The total count method was used to assess population size. Activity patterns of a herd were studied with five minutes recording intervals. There were 406 Bohor reedbucks in the study area of which 96.8% (n = 393) was confined to the Gaysay-Adelay area. The population was female-biased. Excluding juveniles, 57.1% (n = 232) was females and 33.5% (n = 136) was males. More adults (71.7%, n = 291) were observed than sub-adults (18.9%, n = 77) and juveniles (9.4%, n = 38). The herd size of Bohor reedbucks varied from 3 to 5. Herds were seen in aggregations of up to 59 individuals during the dry season in swamp grassland habitat. The maximum number observed in such aggregations during the wet season was 38. The diurnal activity pattern showed feeding peaks early in the morning and late in the afternoon, with resting during the mid-day. Two feeding peaks were observed in the nocturnal activity phase: one during dusk and the other around midnight. In contradiction to the general concept of occurrence of smaller herds during the dry season, the Bohor reedbucks aggregate in swamps during the dry season. They were also active during night and day time. Résumé On a étudié les reduncas Redunca redunca (Pallas, 1767) dans le Parc National des Bale Mountains (BMNP), en Ethiopie, pour connaître l'écologie et le schéma des activités de leur population. On a utilisé la méthode des comptages totaux pour évaluer la taille de la population. On a étudié le schéma des activités d'une harde en rapportant les observations à intervalles de cinq minutes. Il y avait 406 reduncas dans l'aire étudiée; 96,8% (n = 393) d'entre eux étaient confinés dans la région Gaysay-Adalay. La population était biaisée en faveur des femelles. Si l'on exclut les juvéniles, 57,1% (n = 232) étaient des femelles et de 33,5% (n = 136) étaient des mâles. On a observé plus d'adultes (71,7%, n = 291) que de subadultes (18,9%, n = 77) et de juvéniles (9,4%, n = 38). La taille d'une harde de reduncas variait de 3 à 5 individus. On a observé des agrégats de hardes allant jusqu'à 59 individus en saison sèche, dans la prairie marécageuse. Le plus grand agrégat de ce genre observé en saison des pluies comptait 38 individus. Le schéma d'activité diurne présentait des pics de nourrissage tôt le matin et en fin d'après-midi, et du repos pendant la mi-journée. On a observé deux pics de nourrissage pendant la phase d'activité nocturne : une au crépuscule et l'autre autour de minuit. Contrairement à l'idée générale selon laquelle les plus petites hardes s'observent pendant la saison sèche, les reduncas se rassemblent dans les marais pendant cette saison. Ils sont aussi actifs le jour et la nuit. [source]

    Implications of closed ecosystem conservation management: the decline of Rothschild's giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya

    Rick A. Brenneman
    Abstract Giraffe were historically free-ranging across most of sub-Saharan Africa but are now most often confined to national parks, conservation areas, or private ranches. Five viable populations of Rothschild's giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) remain in protected areas in Kenya and Uganda. The viable population in Uganda is Murchison Falls National Park and the four populations in Kenya are Lake Nakuru National Park (LNNP), Ruma National Park, Giraffe Manor, and Mwea Natural Reserve. The Kenya Wildlife Service queried a rapid decline in LNNP giraffe numbers falling from 153 individuals (1995) to 62 individuals (2002) and the failure of that population to recruit young in those years. Significantly reduced browse options, inbreeding depression and preferential lion predation were considered as potential reasons for this trend. Population genetic parameter estimates derived from multilocus genotype analyses suggest that the LNNP population was in good genetic health with respect to the likelihood of inbreeding depression. The population decline coincided with the drought attributed to the 1994 El Niño. Possible dietary complications from highly concentrated tannin levels because of forced over consumption of the park's declining acacia trees may have compromised young giraffe, making them easy and opportunistic prey for the park's lion population. Résumé Dans le passé, des girafes évoluaient librement dans une grande partie de l'Afrique sub-saharienne, mais elles sont désormais confinées le plus souvent dans des parcs nationaux, des aires de conservation ou des ranches privés. Cinq populations viables de girafes de Rothschild (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) subsistent dans des aires protégées au Kenya et en Ouganda. La population viable d'Ouganda est celle du Parc National des Murchison Falls, et les quatre populations du Kenya sont celles du Parc National du Lac Nakuru (LNNP), du Parc National de Ruma, du Giraffe Manor et de la Réserve Naturelle de Mwea. Le Kenya Wildlife Service s'est interrogé au sujet du déclin rapide du nombre de girafes au LNNP qui est passé de 153 individus en 1995 à 62 en 2002, et de l'échec de cette population pour recruter des jeunes ces années-là. Des possibilités alimentaires réduites, une dépression due à l'inbreeding, et une prédation préférentielle par les lions ont été envisagées comme raisons de cette tendance. Des estimations des paramètres génétiques de la population dérivées d'analyses de génotypes multilocus suggèrent que la population du LNNP est en bonne santé génétique en ce qui concerne la possibilité de dépression causée par l'inbreeding. Le déclin de la population a coïncidé avec la sécheresse attribuée à El Niño en 1994. Il est possible qu'elle ait souffert de complications alimentaires à cause de taux de tanins très concentrés, parce qu'elle a été forcée de consommer à l'excès les acacias du parc, qui sont en déclin, et que ces complications aient nui aux jeunes girafes et aient fait d'elles des proies faciles pour la population opportuniste des lions du parc. [source]

    Human,gelada baboon conflict in and around the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

    Mesele Yihune
    Abstract The degree of conflict between gelada baboons and local communities in and around the Simien Mountains National Park was investigated and possible solutions for the existing problems are suggested. The study was carried out from September, 2005 to March, 2006 by means of questionnaire survey, direct observations on crop damage by gelada baboon and using faecal dropping analysis. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and responses were compared using chi-squared test and one-way ANOVA. Logistic regression model was used to determine factors that caused crop damage. The average annual crop loss by gelada baboon per household was 117 ± 10 kg. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.43, P < 0.001) between the type of crop grown and the type of crop damaged. Among the respondents, 47.3% reported serious loss of barley by gelada baboons. Analysis from the faecal droppings showed that 18% of the samples constituted barley although the extent of damage varied from village to village. Among the respondents, 60.3% cultivated only barley because of the cold weather and the type of soil in the study area. Distance from the Park and the frequency of crop damage were negatively correlated (,0.57, P < 0.001). Although farmers utilized various methods to protect their farms against gelada baboons, the most prominent method was direct watching (48.3%). To minimize the existing problems, local residents and the Park authorities should work together to identify alternative crops and land-use patterns that might not attract gelada baboons. Résumé Nous avons étudié l'importance des conflits entre les babouins geladas et les communautés locales dans et autour du Parc National des Simien Mountains, et nous suggérons d'éventuelles solutions pour les régler. L'étude a eu lieu de septembre 2005 à mars 2006, sous la forme d'une enquête par questionnaire, d'observations directes des dommages causés aux cultures par les geladas et d'analyses des excréments. Les données furent analysées au moyen de statistiques descriptives, et les réponses furent comparées par un test en ,² et une ANOVA à une voie. Un modèle de régression logistique fut utilisé pour déterminer les facteurs qui causent les dommages aux récoltes. La perte annuelle moyenne attribuée aux babouins était de 117 ± par ménage. Il y avait une corrélation positive (r = 0.43, P < 0.001) entre le type de culture pratiqué et celui qui était endommagé. 47.3% des participants à l'enquête ont rapporté de graves pertes d'orge à cause des babouins geladas. L'analyse des excréments a révélé que 18% des échantillons étaient composés d'orge mais la gravité des dommages variait d'un village à l'autre. 60.3% des participants ne cultivaient que de l'orge en raison du climat froid et du type de sol dans la zone étudiée. La distance par rapport au parc et la fréquence des dommages étaient négativement liées (,0.57, P < 0.001). Bien que les fermiers utilisent plusieurs méthodes pour protéger leurs fermes contre les geladas, la plus importante était de les surveiller directement (48.3%). Afin de minimiser les problèmes actuels, les résidants et les autorités du parc devraient travailler ensemble pour identifier des cultures alternatives et des schémas d'utilisation des sols qui puissent ne plus attirer les babouins. [source]

    A Statewide Movement to Promote the Adoption of Tobacco-Free School Policies*

    Shelley K. Summerlin-Long MPH
    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND:, Since most tobacco users become addicted to nicotine as teenagers, prevention efforts for youth remain central to comprehensive prevention programs. National and state efforts that encourage adoption and enforcement of comprehensive tobacco-free school (TFS) policies can lead to significant reductions of youth tobacco use. In 2003, North Carolina (NC) Health and Wellness Trust Fund grantees began to focus statewide on the adoption of and compliance with TFS policies in NC schools. This study examined 46 NC districts that passed TFS policies between 2003 and early August of 2005 to see what factors were important in policy passage in order to support the continued promotion of TFS policy adoption across the state. METHODS:, Detailed interviews were conducted with 118 key informants who were intimately involved with passage of their school districts' TFS policies, and results were coded and analyzed for common themes. RESULTS:, The study found several strategies key to adoption of TFS policies: effective leadership from organizations and individuals in positions of influence, grassroots organizing from community coalitions and youth groups, and communication strategies that optimally position policy adoption and compliance. CONCLUSION:, States that have not yet achieved TFS policy adoption can focus on leadership development, grassroots organizing, and improved communication to advance their advocacy efforts. [source]

    Evidence of high sugar intake, and low fibre and mineral intake, in the gluten-free diet

    D. Wild
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 32: 573,581 Summary Background, The only therapy for coeliac disease (CD) is a long-term gluten-free diet (GFD). Little is known about the detailed composition of such a diet. Aim, To clarify the nutritional composition of a GFD and to compare it with a non-GFD diet in representative non-CD populations. Methods, A total of 139 consecutive patients with CD were invited to fill in a prospective validated 5-day food diary, of whom data from 93 were analysed. Results were compared with data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Adults and the UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS). Results, Individuals consuming a strict GFD generally had similar intakes of energy and nutrients to those of comparison populations, but a higher proportion of carbohydrate intake was obtained from nonmilk extrinsic sugars and intakes of nonstarch polysaccharides were low. Compared with the UKWCS sample, female patients adhering to a GFD had lower intakes of magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, selenium and folate. In male patients, intakes of magnesium and selenium were particularly low. Conclusions, This study reinforces the need for clinicians to recognize that avoidance of gluten cannot be the sole focus of a gluten-free diet. Maintenance of adequate intakes of essential nutrients and in particular complex carbohydrates must also be the goal for patients. [source]

    Genetic tests of the taxonomic status of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) from the high mountain zone of the Andringitra Massif, Madagascar

    JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
    Anne D. Yoder
    Abstract A recent survey of the high-mountain zone of the Madagascar Parc National (PN) d'Andringitra revealed the presence of an apparently isolated troop of the ring-tailed lemur Lemur catta. These animals display phenotypic and ecological characteristics that are unusual for the monotypic genus Lemur, thus raising the possibility that they are members of a different undescribed species. We present analyses of two mitochondrial genes to test the hypothesis that L. catta from Andringitra should be considered a distinct species. The results indicate that taxonomic revision is not warranted under the expectations of the phylogenetic, coalescent, or biological species concepts. Rather, the genetic patterns observed among the Andringitra and lowland mitochondrial haplotypes are consistent with those expected for a single species. [source]

    Glucocorticoids for the treatment of anaphylaxis: Cochrane systematic review

    ALLERGY, Issue 10 2010
    K. J. L. Choo
    To cite this article: Choo KJL, Simons E, Sheikh A. Glucocorticoids for the treatment of anaphylaxis: Cochrane systematic review. Allergy 2010; 65: 1205,1211. Abstract Background:, Anaphylaxis is a serious hypersensitivity reaction that is rapid in onset and may result in death. A number of guidelines recommend glucocorticoids for the treatment of people experiencing anaphylaxis. Objectives:, We sought to assess the benefits and harms of glucocorticoid treatment during episodes of anaphylaxis. Methods:, We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 3), MEDLINE (Ovid) (1966 to September 2009), EMBASE (Ovid) (1988 to September 2009), CINAHL (EBSCOhost) (to September 2009) and The Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) (1945 to September 2009). We also searched the UK National Research Register and websites listing ongoing trials and contacted international experts in anaphylaxis in an attempt to locate unpublished material. We sought to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing glucocorticoids with any control (either placebo, adrenaline (epinephrine), an antihistamine, or any combination of these). Two authors independently assessed articles for inclusion. Results:, None of the 2496 reports identified satisfied the inclusion criteria. Conclusions:, We conclude that there is no evidence from high-quality studies for the use of steroids in the emergency management of anaphylaxis. Therefore, we can neither support nor refute the use of these drugs for this purpose. [source]

    Contribution of functional variation in the IL13 gene to allergy, hay fever and asthma in the NSHD longitudinal 1946 birth cohort

    ALLERGY, Issue 8 2009
    S. Black
    Background:, Genetic variants of the two adjacent genes, IL13 and IL4 have frequently been reported as being associated with susceptibility to atopy and asthma, both in adults and children, and some studies also suggest association with lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods:, In this study, we examined for the first time the effect of these variants in 2918 adults in a longitudinal birth cohort, the British National Survey of Health and Development, where there are extensive life style, developmental and environmental data. We examine two IL13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) IL13 rs20541 (R110Q) and rs1800925 (,1024C>T) and one IL4 SNP, rs2070874 (,33C>T) with likely function. Results:, We show that IL13 rs20541 and rs1800925 are each significantly associated with self-reported asthma and allergy, and that this association is not confounded by any of the known developmental and environmental risk factors for asthma and atopy, including in particular place of birth. IL13 rs20541 does however act as a confounder for the IL13 rs1800925 associations, meaning that there is no statistical support for rs1800925 having an independent effect. There is nevertheless evidence for interaction between smoking and rs1800925, with allergy as outcome. None of the SNPs showed association with measures of lung function, nor any interaction with the effect of smoking on lung function. Conclusion:, In a longitudinal population cohort we have established a role for polymorphism of IL13 in determining susceptibility to both atopy and asthma. [source]

    Language and Culture Pedagogy: From a National to a Transnational Paradigm by RISAGER, KAREN

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Volunteer Trainer Development in Adult Literacy: Using a Team-Based Strategy to Negotiate National and Local Interests

    D. Todd Evans
    A national volunteer-based literacy organization employs team-based teaching and learning to develop and certify local volunteer trainers across the country. [source]

    National and Global Agendas on Violence Against Women: Historical Perspective and Consensus

    Mary P. Koss PhD
    A policy analysis of 11 national and global institutions' violence against women agendas spanning 1990 to 2006 is presented. Analysis revealed 85 distinct recommendations. The highest percentages of them referenced prevention (29%); data, design, and measurement (21%); and psychotherapy and support (19%). Consensus (percentage of recommendations for future activities included in four or more agendas) was highest for advocacy (75%), funding (50%), prevention (48%), and data, design, and measurement (44%). Changes in emphasis over time, aims that have been abandoned, and observations contrasting U.S. and global agendas are also examined. The results create a context to inform the agendas currently in development within psychology, criminal justice, medicine, nursing, public health, and other disciplines. Next steps to guide future policy work include investigation of advocates', practitioners', researchers', and policymakers' perceived progress in implementing existing recommendations, empirical cataloguing of achievements that demonstrate progress toward aims, constituent input on reprioritization of activities, and contemporizing action steps. [source]

    Testing for Bias in the Impact of AmeriCorps Service on Volunteer Participants: Evidence of Success in Achieving a Neutrality Program Objective

    Christopher A. Simon
    During its nine years of existence, AmeriCorps has had a tremendous impact on its volunteers and the communities it serves. Despite concerns expressed by the Republican congressional leadership, the Corporation for National and Community Service,the federally funded administrative organization that directs AmeriCorps programs at the national level,has made clear its intention to operate in a nonpartisan, politically neutral manner. A study of AmeriCorps programs in four western states finds the corporation is accomplishing its "neutrality" objective and is rebuilding a sense of civic,mindedness in a manner that lacks gender or racial bias,a critical element in reestablishing a strong choral society,all the while properly respecting diversity. [source]

    Emerging Issues in Population Health: National and Global Perspectives: A Tribute to Gene W. Matthews

    Lawrence O. Gostin Guest EditorArticle first published online: 24 JAN 200
    First page of article [source]

    The AJT Report: News and issues that affect organ and tissue transplantation

    This month, "The AJT Report" examines a new generation of drugs to treat hepatitis C that could change the landscape of liver transplantation. We also take a look at the National Living Donor Assistance Center, and review the CDC's quest for a national transplant safety network. [source]

    Safety of meloxicam to critically endangered Gyps vultures and other scavenging birds in India

    D. Swarup
    Abstract Widespread veterinary use of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is responsible for the population collapse of three species of Gyps vulture in south Asia; these species are now critically endangered. Vultures die when they consume carcasses of livestock that contain lethal residues of diclofenac. National and international conservation organizations have urgently recommended that diclofenac be banned and replaced with alternative drugs that are relatively safe to Gyps vultures and other scavenging birds. We tested the safety of the NSAID meloxicam on the oriental white-backed vulture, long-billed vulture and a range of other scavenging birds in India (Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus, cattle egret Bubulcus ibis, house crow Corvus splendens, large-billed crow Corvus machrorhynchos and common mynah Acridotheres tristis). Meloxicam was administered by oral intubation [at 0.5 and 2.0 mg kg,1 vulture body weight (bw)], or through feeding with muscle or liver tissue (at 0.3 to 2.1 mg kg,1 vulture bw) from meloxicam-treated buffalo Bubalus bubalis. We estimate that 2.0 mg kg,1 bw is the maximum likely exposure in the wild. All 31 Gyps vultures and the 20 other scavenging birds given meloxicam survived. Feeding behaviour remained normal and there were no significant differences between the treated and control groups in body mass, or the blood haematology and biochemistry parameters monitored, including those known to be affected by diclofenac (uric acid levels and alanine transferase activity). Meloxicam is used to treat a wide range of livestock ailments and is licensed and manufactured in India. We recommend that meloxicam be introduced as rapidly as possible across the Indian sub-continent as an alternative to diclofenac. [source]