Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

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  • Selected Abstracts

    Clinical and Economic Factors Associated with Ambulance Use to the Emergency Department

    Jennifer Prah Ruger PhD
    Background: Concern about ambulance diversion and emergency department (ED) overcrowding has increased scrutiny of ambulance use. Knowledge is limited, however, about clinical and economic factors associated with ambulance use compared to other arrival methods. Objectives: To compare clinical and economic factors associated with different arrival methods at a large, urban, academic hospital ED. Methods: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of all patients seen during 2001 (N= 80,209) at an urban academic hospital ED. Data were obtained from hospital clinical and financial records. Outcomes included acuity and severity level, primary complaint, medical diagnosis, disposition, payment, length of stay, costs, and mode of arrival (bus, car, air-medical transport, walk-in, or ambulance). Multivariate logistic regression identified independent factors associated with ambulance use. Results: In multivariate analysis, factors associated with ambulance use included: triage acuity A (resuscitation) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 51.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 33.1 to 79.6) or B (emergent) (OR, 9.2; 95% CI = 6.1 to 13.7), Diagnosis Related Group severity level 4 (most severe) (OR, 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.8), died (OR, 3.8; 95% CI = 1.5 to 9.0), hospital intensive care unit/operating room admission (OR, 1.9; 95% CI = 1.6 to 2.1), motor vehicle crash (OR, 7.1; 95% CI = 6.4 to 7.9), gunshot/stab wound (OR, 2.1; 95% CI = 1.5 to 2.8), fell 0,10 ft (OR, 2.0; 95% CI = 1.8 to 2.3). Medicaid Traditional (OR, 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4 to 2.4), Medicare Traditional (OR, 1.8; 95% CI = 1.7 to 2.1), arrived weekday midnight,8 AM (OR, 2.0; 95% CI = 1.8 to 2.1), and age ,65 years (OR, 1.3; 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.5). Conclusions: Ambulance use was related to severity of injury or illness, age, arrival time, and payer status. Patients arriving by ambulance were more likely to be acutely sick and severely injured and had longer ED length of stay and higher average costs, but they were less likely to have private managed care or to leave the ED against medical advice, compared to patients arriving by independent means. [source]

    The Impact of Race on the Acute Management of Chest Pain

    Arvind Venkat MD
    Abstract Objectives: African Americans with acute coronary syndromes receive cardiac catheterization less frequently than whites. The objective was to determine if such disparities extend to acute evaluation and noninterventional treatment. Methods: Data on adults with chest pain (N= 7,935) presenting to eight emergency departments (EDs) were evaluated from the Internet Tracking Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes. Groups were selected from final ED diagnosis: 1) acute myocardial infarction (AMI), n= 400; 2) unstable angina/non,ST-elevation myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI), n= 1,153; and 3) nonacute coronary syndrome chest pain (non-ACS CP), n= 6,382. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for AMI and UA/NSTEMI were used to evaluate racial disparities with logistic regression models. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, gender, guideline publication, and insurance status. Non-ACS CP patients were assessed by comparing electrocardiographic (ECG)/laboratory evaluation, medical treatment, admission rates, and invasive and noninvasive testing for coronary artery disease (CAD). Results: African Americans with UA/NSTEMI received glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors less often than whites (OR, 0.41; 95% CI = 0.19 to 0.91). African Americans with non-ACS CP underwent ECG/laboratory evaluation, medical treatment, and invasive and noninvasive testing for CAD less often than whites (p < 0.05). Other nonwhites with non-ACS CP were admitted and received invasive testing for CAD less often than whites (p < 0.01). African Americans and other nonwhites with AMI underwent catheterization less frequently than whites (OR, 0.45; 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.71 and OR, 0.40; 95% CI = 0.17 to 0.92, respectively). A similar disparity in catheterization was noted in UA/NSTEMI therapy (OR, 0.53; 95% CI = 0.40 to 0.68 and OR, 0.68; 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.99). Conclusions: Racial disparities in acute chest pain management extend beyond cardiac catheterization. Poor compliance with recommended treatments for ACS may be an explanation. [source]

    Family Caregivers' Patterns of Positive and Negative Affect,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 1 2007
    Suzanne M. Robertson
    Abstract: Stressful and positive family caregiving experiences were examined as predictors of caregivers' patterns of positive and negative affect in a sample of families providing care for a relative with dementia (N= 234). Four affect pattern groups were identified: (a) Well Adjusted (i.e., high positive affect, low negative affect); (b) Ambiguous (i.e., low on both positive and negative affect); (c) Intense (i.e., high on both positive and negative affect); and (d) Distressed (i.e., high negative affect, low positive affect). A multivariate model that included demographic characteristics and indicators of stressful and positive experiences of caregiving yielded 2 significant discriminant functions that served to classify caregivers correctly into their known affect groups. Implications for improving intervention efforts targeting family caregivers are discussed. [source]

    Tectonic deformation of the Indochina Peninsula recorded in the Mesozoic palaeomagnetic results

    Kazuhiro Takemoto
    SUMMARY In order to describe features of tectonic deformation in the Indochina Peninsula, Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red sandstones were sampled at three localities in the Shan-Thai and Indochina blocks. Stepwise thermal treatment of most samples revealed the presence of characteristic remanent magnetization, which is generally unblocked by 680 °C. This component from Phong Saly (21.6°N, 101.9°E) and Borikhanxay (18.5°N, 103.8°E) localities yield positive fold tests with Late Jurassic,Early Cretaceous directions of Dec/Inc = 28.8°/32.1° (ks= 15.4, ,95= 8.8°, N= 22) and Dec/Inc = 42.1°/46.9° (ks= 20.1, ,95= 7.9°, N= 18), respectively. Additionally, a syn-folding mid-Cretaceous characteristic magnetization is observed in the samples of Muang Phin locality (16.5°N, 106.1°E), which gave a mean direction of Dec/Inc = 30.8°/39.9°, k= 102.6, ,95= 3.0°, N= 23. This reliable Late Jurassic to Mid-Cretaceous palaeomagnetic directions from three different localities are incorporated into a palaeomagnetic database for Shan-Thai and Indochina blocks. Based on these compilations, tectonic deformation of the Shan-Thai and Indochina blocks is summarized as follows: (1) the Shan-Thai and Indochina blocks experienced a clockwise rotation of about 10° as a composite unit in the early stage of India,Asia collision and (2) following this, the Shan-Thai Block underwent an internal tectonic deformation, whereas the Indochina Block behaved as a rigid tectonic unit during the same period. Comparison of our palaeomagnetic results with seismic tomographic images suggests that the strength of continental lithosphere beneath these blocks played an important role in the process of deformation rather than any other tectonic regime. In contrast to the Shan-Thai Block, an existence of continental roots beneath the Indochina Block prevented its internal deformation. [source]

    Tectonic deformation around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis: constraints from the Cretaceous palaeomagnetic data of the Shan-Thai Block

    Kenji Tanaka
    SUMMARY Lower to Middle Cretaceous red sandstones were sampled at four localities in the Lanpin-Simao fold belt of the Shan-Thai Block to describe its regional deformational features. Most of the samples revealed a characteristic remanent magnetization with unblocking temperatures around 680 °C. Primary natures of magnetization are ascertained through positive fold test. A tilt-corrected formation-mean direction for the Jingdong (24.5°N, 100.8°E) locality, which is located at a distance of 25 km from the Ailaoshan,Red River Fault, revealed northerly declination with steep inclination (Dec./Inc. = 8.3°/48.8°, ,95= 7.7°, N= 13). However, mean directions obtained from the Zhengyuan (24.0°N, 101.1°E), West Zhengyuan (24.0°N, 101.1°E) and South Mengla (21.4°N, 101.6°E) localities indicate an easterly deflection in declination; such as Dec./Inc. = 61.8°/46.1°, ,95= 8.1° (N= 7), Dec./Inc. = 324.2°/,49.4°, ,95= 6.4° (N= 4) and Dec./Inc. = 51.2°/46.4°, ,95= 5.6° (N= 13), respectively. The palaeomagnetic directions obtained from these four localities are incorporated into a palaeomagnetic database for the Shan-Thai Block. When combined with geological, geochronological and GPS data, the processes of deformation in the Shan-Thai Block is described as follows: Subsequent to its rigid block clockwise rotation of about 20° in the early stage of India,Asia collision, the Shan-Thai Block experienced a coherent but southward displacement along the Red River Fault prior to 32 Ma. This block was then subjected to a north,south compressive stresses during the 32,27 Ma period, which played a key role in shaping the structure of Chongshan-Lancang-Chiang Mai Belt. Following this some local clockwise rotational motion has occurred during the Pliocene-Quaternary time in central part of the Shan-Thai Block as a result of internal block movements along the reactivated network of faults. [source]

    Parents Don't (Always) Know Their Children Have Been Bullied: Child-Parent Discrepancy on Bullying and Family-Level Profile of Communication Standards

    Masaki Matsunaga
    Discrepancy between bullied victims' experience and their parents' understanding indicates underutilization of family support system, and thus presents an important risk factor. An online survey (N = 300 child-father-mother triads) was conducted to establish a framework that helps distinguish families with different child-parent discrepancy levels. This family-level variability was modeled by profiling child-father-mother triad's family communication standard (FCS) orientations. This "FCS profile" indeed distinguished families with different levels of discrepancies. Further, SEM analyses revealed that those discrepancies presented a distinct risk factor vis-à-vis effects of bullying reports per se. Finally, FCS profile had an indirect association with victims' well-being via mediation by child-parent discrepancy. These findings are discussed with regard to the role of family communication in bullied individuals' coping processes. Résumé Les parents ne savent pas (toujours) que leurs enfants ont été victimes d'intimidation : L,écart parent-enfant à propos de l'intimidation et le profil familial des normes de communication L,écart entre l'expérience des victimes d,intimidation et la compréhension qu'en ont leurs parents signale une sous-utilisation du système de soutien familial et constitue donc un important facteur de risque. Une enquête en ligne (N= 300 triades enfant-père-mère) fut menée afin d,établir un cadre aidant à distinguer les familles présentant différents niveaux d'écart. La variabilité dans les niveaux familiaux fut modelée en décrivant les orientations des normes de communication familiale (NCF) des triades enfant-père-mère. Ce « profil NCF » a effectivement distingué les familles présentant différents niveaux d,écart. De plus, des analyses de l'erreur-type ont révélé que ces écarts présentaient un facteur de risque distinct des répercussions des signalements d,intimidation. Finalement, le profil NCF était indirectement associé au bien-être des victimes par la médiation de l'écart enfant-parent. Ces résultats sont commentés relativement au rôle de la communication familiale dans le processus d,adaptation des victimes d'intimidation. Abstract Eltern wissen nicht (immer), dass ihre Kinder gehänselt wurden: Unstimmigkeiten zwischen Eltern und Kindern beim Thema Hänseleien und ein Profil der Kommunikationsstandards auf Familienebene Wenn die Erfahrungen von Kindern, die Opfer von Hänseleien geworden sind, auf Unverständnis seitens der Eltern stoßen, deutet dies auf fehlende Unterstützung innerhalb der Familie hin, und stellt somit einen erheblichen Risikofaktor dar. Mittels einer Onlinebefragung (N=300, Kind-Mutter-Vater-Triaden) sollten Familientypen extrahiert werden, die sich hinsichtlich der Ausprägung dieses Unverständnisses unterscheiden. Eine Analyse der Ausrichtung der Familienkommunikation innerhalb dieser Kind-Mutter-Vater-Triaden diente der Modellierung der Unterschiede auf Familienebene. Diese Familienkommunikationsprofile erfüllen tatsächlich ihren Zweck und differenzierten zwischen Familien mit unterschiedlichen Graden des Unverständnisses. Darüber hinaus zeigten Strukturgleichungsmodelle, dass diese Familienkommunikationsprofile einen unabhängigen Risikofaktor darstellen, und zwar über den Effekt der Aussage über Hänseleien hinaus. Die Familienkommunikationsprofile hingen indirekt mit dem Wohlbefinden des Opfers zusammen und wurden lediglich über das Ausmaß der Kind-Eltern-Unstimmigkeit vermittelt. Wir diskutieren diese Ergebnisse im Hinblick auf die Rolle der Familienkommunikation im Bewältigungsprozess bei Hänseleien. Resumen Los Padres no (Siempre) Saben que sus Hijos han Sido Víctimas de Matonismo: La Discrepancia entre los Hijos y los Padres sobre el Matonismo y los Perfiles Familiares de los Estándares de Comunicación La discrepancia entre las experiencias de las víctimas de matonismo y el entendimiento de sus padres indican la sub-utilización del sistema de apoyo familiar, y así, presenta un factor de riesgo importante. Encuestas online (N= 300 tríadas hijo-padre-madre) fueron conducidas para establecer un marco que ayude a las familias a distinguir entre los niveles de discrepancia entre el hijo-padres. La variabilidad de nivel familiar fue modelada a través del perfil de las orientaciones del estándar de comunicación familiar de la tríada hijo-padre-madre (FCS). Este "perfil FCS" en verdad distinguió a las familias con distintos niveles de discrepancia. Más aún, los análisis SEM revelaron que esas discrepancias presentaron un factor de riesgo distintivo en relación a los efectos de los reportes de matonismo en sí mismos. Finalmente, el perfil de FCS tuvo una asociación indirecta con el bienestar de las víctimas mediante mediación en la discrepancia hijo-padres. Estos hallazgos son discutidos en relación al rol de la comunicación familiar en los procesos de recuperación de las personas víctimas del matonismo. ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]

    Social Identification and Interpersonal Communication in Computer-Mediated Communication: What You Do Versus Who You Are in Virtual Groups

    Zuoming Wang
    This study investigates the influence of interpersonal communication and intergroup identification on members' evaluations of computer-mediated groups. Participants (N= 256) in 64 four-person groups interacted through synchronous computer chat. Subgroup assignments to minimal groups instilled significantly greater in-group versus out-group identification. One member in each group was instructed to exhibit interpersonally likable or dislikable behavior. Analysis revealed that confederates acting likably were more attractive than those acting dislikably regardless of their in-group or out-group status. Further results indicated that interpersonal behavior interacted with subgroup membership on identification shifts following online discussions. Interpersonal dynamics generally provided stronger effects on members in virtual groups than did intergroup dynamics, in contrast to predictions from previous applications of social identification to computer-mediated communication. Résumé L,identification sociale et la communication interpersonnelle dans la communication par ordinateur : Ce que vous faites et qui vous êtes dans les groupes virtuels Cette étude examine l'influence de la communication interpersonnelle et de l,identification intergroupe sur les évaluations que font les membres des groupes électroniques. Les participants (N= 256), divisés en 64 groupes de quatre personnes, ont interagi par le biais de clavardage (conversation électronique) en temps réel. L'assignation à des sous-groupes a produit une identification intragroupe beaucoup plus grande qu,une identification hors-groupe. Des instructions furent données à un membre de chaque groupe d'afficher des comportements interpersonnels agréables ou désagréables. L,analyse révèle que les collaborateurs agissant de façon agréable étaient plus attrayants que ceux agissant de façon désagréable et ce, indépendamment de leur statut intragroupe ou hors-groupe. Des résultats supplémentaires indiquent que le comportement interpersonnel et l'appartenance au sous-groupe ont joué sur les changements d,identification qui ont suivi les discussions en ligne. La dynamique interpersonnelle a généralement eu des effets plus forts sur les membres des groupes virtuels que la dynamique intergroupe, contrairement aux prédictions des applications précédentes de l'identification sociale à la communication par ordinateur. Abstract Soziale Identifikation und interpersonale Kommunikation in computervermittelter Kommunikation: Was du machst vs. Wer du bist in virtuellen Gruppen Diese Studie untersucht den Einfluss von interpersonaler Kommunikation und Gruppenidentifikation auf die Bewertung von computervermittelten Gruppen durch ihre Mitglieder. Die Teilnehmer (N= 256) in 64 4-Personen Gruppen interagierten in synchronen Computer-Chats. Gruppenaufgaben für Untergruppen bewirkte signifikant stärkere Identifikation in der Gruppe und nach außen. In jeder Gruppe wurde ein Teilnehmer instruiert, interpersonal angenehmes oder unangenehmes Verhalten an den Tag zu legen. Die Analyse zeigte, dass die instruierten Teilnehmer, die angenehm agierten, attraktiver wahrgenommen wurden, als die, die die unangenehm agierten, unabhängig von ihrem Status in oder außerhalb der Gruppe. Weitere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass interpersonales Verhaltes mit der Mitgliedschaft in Untergruppen bezüglich der Identifikationsverschiebung auf Online-Diskussionen folgend interagierte. Im Gegensatz zu Annahmen aus früheren Anwendungen sozialer Identifikation auf computervermittelte Kommunikation, zeigten interpersonale Dynamiken allgemein stärkere Effekte auf die Mitglieder in virtuellen Gruppen als auf die Gruppendynamik. Resumen La identificación Social y la Comunicación Interpersonal en la Comunicación Mediada por la Computadora: Lo Que Haces Versus Quién Eres en los Grupos Virtuales Este estudio investiga la influencia de la comunicación interpersonal y la identificación intergrupal en las evaluaciones de los miembros de grupos mediados por la computadora. Los participantes (N= 256) en 64 grupos de 4 personas interactuaron asincrónicamente a través de la computadora en un salón de charla. Las tareas de subgrupos para grupos mínimos inculcaron una identificación significativamente mayor con el grupo de pertenencia versus el grupo excluyente. Un miembro de cada grupo fue instruido para exhibir comportamientos interpersonales agradables y desagradables. El análisis reveló que los miembros de los grupos que actuaban en forma agradable fueron más atractivos que los que actuaban en forma desagradable a pesar de su estatus de grupo de pertenencia o excluyente. Más resultados indicaron que el comportamiento interpersonal interactuó con la membrecía del subgrupo en los cambios de identificación que siguieron a las discusiones online. Las dinámicas interpersonales proveyeron generalmente de efectos más fuertes sobre los miembros de grupos virtuales que sobre las dinámicas intergrupales, en contraste con las predicciones de previas aplicaciones de la identificación social de la comunicación mediada por la computadora. ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]

    Observing Purchase-Related Parent,Child Communication in Retail Environments: A Developmental and Socialization Perspective

    Moniek Buijzen
    In a quantitative observation study, we unobtrusively examined purchase-related communication between 0- to 12-year-old children and their parents (N= 269 dyads) during supermarket and toy store visits. The aims of the study were to determine (a) the development of purchase-related parent,child communication (i.e., children's purchase influence attempts, their coercive behavior, parent-initiated communication) and (b) the relative influence of different socialization variables (e.g., television viewing, family communication patterns) on these communication variables. Our inverted-U hypothesis for the effect of developmental level on purchase influence attempts received support: Children's purchase influence attempts increased until early elementary school and started to decline in late elementary school. Our inverted-U hypothesis for the effect of developmental level on coercive behavior was also supported: Children's coercive behavior was highest among preschoolers. With increasing age, children were more likely to be involved in the purchase decision-making process, and parent,child communication more often resulted in a product purchase. Finally, children's television viewing was the most important (positive) predictor of their purchase influence attempts. Résumé L'observation dans des environnements commerciaux de la communication parent-enfant liée à l,achat: Une perspective du développement et de la socialisation Dans une étude quantitative par observation, nous avons discrètement examiné la communication liée à l'achat entre des enfants de 0 à 12 ans et leurs parents (N= 269 dyades) au cours de visites dans des supermarchés et des boutiques de jouets. Les objectifs de l'étude étaient de déterminer a) le développement de la communication parent-enfant liée à l,achat (c.-à-d. les tentatives des enfants d'influencer l,achat, leur comportement coercitif ainsi que la communication initiée par le parent) et b) l'influence relative de différentes variables de socialisation (par exemple l'écoute de la télévision ou les schémas de communication familiaux) sur ces variables communicationnelles. Notre hypothèse en U inversé concernant l,effet du niveau de développement sur les tentatives d'influence d,achat fut appuyée : les tentatives des enfants d'influencer les achats ont augmenté jusqu,au début de l'école élémentaire et ont commencéà décliner à la fin de l'école élémentaire. Notre hypothèse en U inversé supposant des effets du niveau de développement sur le comportement coercitif fut aussi appuyée : le comportement coercitif fut le plus élevé chez les enfants d'âge préscolaire. Plus l'âge augmentait et plus les enfants étaient susceptibles d'être impliqués dans le processus décisionnel d'achat, et la communication parent-enfant résultait plus souvent en l,achat d'un produit. Finalement, l'écoute télévisuelle des enfants était la variable explicative (positive) la plus importante de leurs tentatives d,influence des achats. Abstract Beobachtung von kaufbezogener Elternteil-Kind-Kommunikation in Einzelhandelsumgebungen: Eine Entwicklungs- und Sozialisationsperspektive In einer quantitativen Beobachtungsstudie untersuchten wir verdeckt die kaufbezogene Kommunikation zwischen Kindern (0-12 Jahre) und einem Elternteil (N=269 Dyaden) während ihres Besuchs im Supermarkt oder Spielzeugladen. Ziele der Studie waren: a) die Entwicklung von kaufbezogener Kommunikation zwischen Elternteil und Kind und b) den relativen Einfluss verschiedener Sozialisationsvariablen (z.B. Fernsehnutzung, Familienkommunikationsmuster) auf diese Variablen zu untersuchen. Unsere umgekehrte U-Hypothese bezüglich des Einflusses des Entwicklungsstadiums auf den Grad der Einflussnahmeversuche auf den Kauf wurde gestützt: Die Einflussnahmeversuche nahmen bis zur frühen Grundschulzeit zu und gingen in der späten Grundschulzeit zurück. Unsere umgekehrte U-Hypothese bezüglich des Einflusses des Entwicklungsstadiums auf erzwingendes Verhalten wurde auch bestätigt: erzwingendes Verhalten von Kindern war am stärksten im Vorschulalter. Mit zunehmendem Alter wurden Kinder mehr in Kaufentscheidungsprozesse einbezogenen und die Eltern-Kind-Kommunikation resultierte häufiger im Kauf des Produkts. Letztendlich zeigte sich, dass das Fernsehnutzungsverhalten der Kinder der wichtigste (positive) Prädiktor für Kaufeinflussversuche war. Resumen Observando la Comunicación entre Padres y Niños durante las Compras en los Ambientes de Venta al por Menor: Una Perspectiva de Desarrollo y Socialización En un estudio de observación cuantitativa, examinamos de manera discreta la comunicación relacionada con la compra entre niños de 0- a 12-anos de edad y sus padres (N= 269 dúos) durante sus visitas al supermercado y las tiendas de juguetes. Los propósitos de este estudio fueron determinar (a) el desarrollo de la comunicación entre padres e hijos durante las compras (a saber, los intentos de los niños de influir en la compra, el comportamiento coercitivo, la comunicación iniciada por los padres), y (b) la influencia relativa de las diferentes variables de socialización (a saber, exposición a la televisión, pautas de comunicación familiar) sobre estas variables de comunicación. Nuestra hipótesis U invertida para los efectos del nivel de desarrollo sobre los intentos de influencia de compra recibieron apoyo: Los intentos de los niños de influir en la compra incrementaron hasta antes de la escuela primaria y comenzó a declinar más tarde en la escuela primaria. Nuestra hipótesis U invertida para los efectos del nivel de desarrollo sobre el comportamiento coercitivo recibieron apoyo: El comportamiento coercitivo fue mayor durante la etapa pre-escolar. Con el aumento de la edad, los niños se involucraron más probablemente en el proceso de decisión de compra, y la comunicación padre-hijo resultó más a menudo en la compra de un producto. Finalmente, la exposición de los niños a la televisión fue el vaticinador más importante (positivo) de sus intentos de influencia de compra. ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]

    A Multimethod Multitrait Validity Assessment of Self-Construal in Japan, Korea, and the United States

    Mary J. Bresnahan
    A large number of previous studies have used self-construal to predict communication outcomes. Recent evidence, however, suggests that validity problems may exist in self-construal measurement. The current study conducted a multimethod multitrait (Campbell & Fiske, 1959) validation study of self-construal measures with data (total N= 578) collected in Korea (N= 200), Japan (N= 212), and the U.S. (N= 166). The data showed that the Singelis (1994) Self-Construal Scale, the Cross, Bacon, and Morris (2000) Relational Interdependent Self-Construal Scale (RISC), and the Kuhn and McPartland (1954) Twenty Statements Test (TST) lacked convergent and discriminant validity, both pan-culturally and within each of the three countries included in the study. Scores on the TST were not significantly related to scores on the self-construal scales, and the various self-construal measures correlated more highly with measures of communication directness than with alternative measures of the same type of self-construal. Substantial method effects were also observed. The results were tested for both 2- and 3-dimensional models of self-construal and for refined scales and scales with all items retained. The results of all analyses were inconsistent with the claim that self-construal measures are construct valid. [source]

    Strong Luminescent Iridium Complexes with C,N=N Structure in Ligands and Their Potential in Efficient and Thermally Stable Phosphorescent OLEDs,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 3 2009
    Bao Xiu Mi
    Homoleptic iridium complexes with C,N=N type ligands, i.e., 1,4-bis (phenyl) phthalazine (BPPa) and 3,6-bis(phenyl)pyridazine (BPPya), are strong phosphorescents, easy to synthesize, and thermally stable, thus having great potential in optical electronic applications, as demonstrated in Ir(BPPa)3 -based OLED devices. A quantum chemistry study shows that C,N=;N type ligands can bond to Ir more strongly. [source]

    Adaptive beam search lookahead algorithms for the circular packing problem

    Hakim Akeb
    Abstract This paper addresses the circular packing problem (CPP), which consists in packing n circles Ci, each of known radius ri, i,N={1, ,, n}, into the smallest containing circle C. The objective is to determine the radius r of C as well as the coordinates (xi, yi) of the center of Ci, i,N. CPP is solved using two adaptive algorithms that adopt a binary search to determine r, and a beam search to check the feasibility of packing n circles into C when the radius is fixed at r. A node of level ,, ,=1, ,, n, of the beam search tree corresponds to a partial packing of , circles of N into C. The potential of each node of the tree is assessed using a lookahead strategy that, starting with the partial packing of the current node, assigns each unpacked circle to its maximum hole degree position. The beam search stops either when the lookahead strategy identifies a feasible packing or when it has fathomed all nodes. The computational tests on a set of benchmark instances show the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithms. [source]

    Social Group and Moral Orientation Factors as Mediators of Religiosity and Multiple Attitude Targets

    Although there is a tradition of examining generalized discrimination against multiple targets, recent studies have tended to consider race and homosexuality as separate targets without considering their relationship with each other. Recent studies have also argued for a moral dimension in attitudes to homosexuality, but this has not yet been explicitly modeled as an explanation for patterns of social attitudes. In a questionnaire study of practicing Australian Christians (N= 143), we examined the relationship of religious orientation and ideology (intrinsic, extrinsic, fundamentalism, orthodoxy, and quest) with four attitude targets (Aboriginal Australians, women, homosexual persons, and abortion). Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we develop a two-factor model, incorporating group and moral orientation factors, which completely mediates the relationships between the religiosity variables and the social attitudes. Religiosity variables exhibit different patterns of correlation with the two factors. The two-factor model provides a useful framework for further exploration of socially and politically contested attitudes. [source]

    Religious Attendance, Health Maintenance Beliefs, and Mammography Utilization: Findings from a Nationwide Survey of Presbyterian Women

    Preventive health services, such as mammography, play an increasingly important role in maintaining women's health. Social factors, such as religion, may influence utilization rates by expanding access, offering information, and increasing motivation. The current study examines the relationship between religious involvement, religious beliefs, and mammography usage in a nationally representative sample of Presbyterian women (N= 1,070). We use multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the influence of religious service attendance and two health-related religious beliefs on self-reported mammography use. The findings show that religious attendance is significantly associated with mammogram use. Women who attend services nearly every week are almost twice as likely to use mammograms compared to women who attend services less frequently or never. Furthermore, the belief that spiritual health is related to physical health is also associated with the use of mammograms. [source]

    Social Support as a Moderator of the Big-Fish-in-a-Little-Pond Effect in Online Self-Help Support Groups,

    Cynthia M. H. Bane
    Downward social comparisons to others in a relatively unsuccessful group can bolster mood, a phenomenon known as the big-fish-in-a-little-pond effect (BFLPE). The current study examined social support as a moderator of the BFLPE in online weight-management support groups (SGs). Participants (N= 149) were recruited from weight-management message boards. In an Internet survey, participants made weight-related social comparisons to the average person and the average SG member. Big fish indicated that they would feel more self-pride after reading a downward social comparison message than did other participants, but the BFLPE occurred only for participants with lower weight-related social support. Social support could foster collective identity in online self-help support groups, reducing the BFLPE. [source]

    Perfectionism and Thoughts About Having Cosmetic Surgery Performed,

    Simon B. Sherry
    Trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, and thoughts about having cosmetic surgery performed (TAHCSP) were examined. In Study 1, perfectionistic self-promotion (PSP) and nondisplay of imperfection (NDP) correlated with TAHCSP in 292 university women. Both Study 2 (N - 527 university women and 209 university men) and Study 3 (N= 43 gym-going women and 52 gym-going men) replicated findings from Study 1. Studies 2 and 3 extended Study 1 by showing that (a) socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) correlated with TAHCSP and (b) PSP, NDP, and SPP correlated with TAHCSP in women only. PSP and NDP mediated the relation between SPP and TAHCSP in studies 2 and 3. Results held after controlling for age and body mass index. Perfectionists' pursuit of appearance ideals, fault-finding predilection, and concern over others' evaluations may generate and maintain TAHCSP. [source]

    The Effect of Weight Loss on Perceptions of Weight Controllability: Implications for Prejudice Against Overweight People

    Bruce E. Blaine
    The influence of weight and recent weight loss on perceptions of weight controllability and prejudice against overweight people was investigated. Participants (N= 64) examined bogus health, diet, and fitness information about a female target. The target's weight (121 vs. 161 lb, or 55 vs. 73 kg) and recent weight loss (0 vs. 40 lb, or 0 vs. 18 kg) were manipulated. Perceptions of the controllability of weight, trait ratings of the target, and dislike of overweight people were measured. The results showed that weight loss increases perceptions of the controllability of weight equally in normal and overweight targets. Moreover, overweight targets were disliked more and judged more unattractive than were targets with more healthy weights, and this was particularly true for overweight targets who had recently lost weight. The implications of the results for prejudice against overweight people and the stigma of obesity are discussed. [source]

    The Perceived Efficacy and Risks of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Conventional Medicine: A Vignette Study,

    Adrian Furnham
    Participants (N= 148), including CAM users and general practitioner (GP) patients who had never used CAM treatments, read a series of 6 vignettes describing 3 medical conditions being treated using orthodox and CAM methods. As expected, results indicated that both CAM users and GP patients were more likely to agree that their own treatments were effective and were associated with fewer generic risks. Contrary to expectation, both CAM and GP patients were more likely to agree that orthodox treatments were associated with more actual risks than were CAM treatments, and all orthodox treatments for each medical condition were perceived as having more side effects than CAM treatments. [source]

    The Effect of Victims' Social Support on Attributions of Blame in Female and Male Rape

    Irina Anderson
    The effects of perceived social support of the victim, victim gender, and participant gender on attributions of blame in rape were examined. The impact of attitudes toward gender roles was also investigated for their mediational role between participant gender and blame. Participants (N= 121) read a report of an incident of rape and evaluated the victim and the perpetrator. Two ANOVAs showed that social support and participant gender influenced blame attributed to the victim, while victim gender influenced blame attributed to the perpetrator. Socially supported victims were blamed less than were unsupported victims. Men were more blaming of rape victims than were women, but further analyses showed this was mediated by attitudes toward gender roles. Men held significantly more traditional attitudes toward gender roles than did women, and this accounted for the effect of participant gender on victim perceptions. The perpetrator of male rape was blamed less than the perpetrator of female rape. Findings are discussed in terms of the differential attributional mechanisms that may underpin men's and women's reasoning about different types of rape. [source]

    The Impact of Multiple Dimensions of Ethnic Identity on Discrimination and Adolescents' Self-Estees

    Andrea J. Romero
    The rejection-identification model is investigated with multiple dimensions of ethnic identity in a sample of Mexican American youth. It is hypothesized that more perceived discrimination will be associated with higher ethnic identity in general, but that the multiple dimensions of ethnic identity will be associated differentially with discrimination. Higher perceived discrimination will be associated with more ethnic exploration and less ethnic affirmation. Self-report questionnaires were completed by middle school students of Mexican descent (N= 881). Based on structural equation modeling, the data were found to fit the rejection-identification model (p < .05). Higher discrimination was associated with lower ethnic affirmation (p < .05) and lower ethnic exploration (p < .05). Post hoc analyses indicated a significant interaction between discrimination and ethnic affirmation (p < .01) such that youth with high ethnic affirmation who experienced high discrimination still reported high self-esteem. The findings are discussed in the context of understanding methods of coping with prejudice and discrimination that will enhance the mental well-being of minority youth. [source]

    Social Influence in Personally Relevant Contexts: The Respect Attributed to the Source as a Factor Increasing Smokers' Intention to Quit Smoking,

    Federica Invernizzi
    The study examined the effects of the status of the source in personally relevant persuasion contexts. Smokers (N= 117) with either weak or strong identity as smokers were exposed to an anti-smoking message, targeting either the tobacco industry or smokers, and attributed either to a health institute or a neighborhood association. The main dependent variable was the change in intention to quit smoking. As expected, the neighborhood association was considered more respectful of the freedom of choice of the target than was the health institute. In high personal relevance conditions (i.e., participants with strong identities as smokers and message explicitly targeting smokers), smokers strengthened their intention to quit smoking when the source was the neighborhood association, but decreased it when the source was the health institute. Implications for health campaign implementation are discussed. [source]

    Do Child Molesters Have Aberrant Perceptions of Adult Female Facial Attractiveness?,

    David K. Marcus
    The multiple fitness model (Cunningham, 1986) suggests that attractive adult faces combine youthful neonate features with indications of sexual maturity. But a question can be raised whether the multiple fitness model applies to child molesters. In contrast to prior studies that examined child molesters' attraction to children, we examined child molesters' perceptions of adult women. Incarcerated child molesters (N= 68) rated the attractiveness of photographs of 24 adult women. Their ratings were compared with ratings made by 30 heterosexual college men. The 2 groups displayed remarkably similar judgments (r= .91). Child molesters were not more attracted to neonate features compared to other men, nor were they more repelled by maturity features. Like the college men, the child molesters were attracted to faces with large eyes and high cheekbones. Because the multiple fitness model applied to child molesters, differences between the sexual behavior of child molesters and other men do not seem to be attributable to differences in their perceptions of potential adult female partners' faces. [source]

    Child-Witness and Defendant Credibility: Child Evidence Presentation Mode and Judicial Instructions,

    Tania E. Eaton
    Child-witness presentation mode, judicial instructions, and deliberation stage effects on juror ratings of child witness and defendant were investigated Perceptions of the impact of presentation mode on witnesses, juror task, and justice also were explored. Participants (N= 108) viewed a simulated child sexual abuse trial videotape. Overall child-witness credibility was significantly more positive with videodeposition or court-given child evidence than with videolink. The defendant was seen as more definitely guilty when child testimony was court given than by videodeposition or videolink. Presentation mode also significantly influenced perceived impact on child witness, defendant case, and juror task. Judicial instructions interacted with presentation mode to affect perceptions of impact on child witness and juror task. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research, and implications for future research and practice are outlined. [source]

    Do Satisfied Employees Satisfy Customers?

    Parents, Satisfaction Among Public School Administrators, Students, Support-Services Staff Morale
    Data were obtained from school staff (N= 1,567) who provided support services to schools in a major metropolitan school district. These data were analyzed in relation to data obtained from 3 customer groups (school administrators, students, and parents) who provided ratings of their satisfaction with services. Several aspects of employee morale (e. g., quality of supervision, teamwork, and goal clarity, along with workgroup service climate) were significantly and positively related to administrator and parent satisfaction, but not to student satisfaction. Relations of employee morale and workgroup service climate to administrator satisfaction and parent satisfaction were moderated by customer contact with employees. Results are discussed in relation to expectations of customers and employees that affect the nature of the service-exchange interaction. [source]

    Risk Factors of Sexual Aggression and Victimization Among Homosexual Men,

    Barbara Krahé
    This study examined risk factors of sexual aggression and victimization among homosexual men (N= 310). They completed the Homosexual Experiences Survey to record sexual aggression and victimization and provided information about 2 groups of potential risk factors: childhood abuse and sexual lifestyle (number of partners, age at first intercourse, age at coming out, accepting or paying of money for sex, and rape proclivity). One in 4 respondents reported severe forms of sexual victimization; 17% reported moderate victimization. Prevalence of perpetration of sexual aggression was almost 20% for severe aggression and 9% for moderate aggression. The risk of victimization increased as a function of childhood abuse as well as high number of partners and acceptance of money for sex. The risk of committing sexual aggression was positively related to childhood abuse, acceptance and payment of money for sex, high number of sexual partners, and rape proclivity. The findings are discussed in relation to evidence on heterosexual aggression. [source]

    Structural Solutions to Social Dilemmas: A Field Study on Commuters' Willingness to Fund Improvements in Public Transit,

    Jeffrey A. Joireman
    The present field study examined commuters'(N= 152) willingness to fund improvements in public transit. Consistent with Samuelson's (1993; Samuelson & Messick, 1995) multiattribute evaluation model of structural change in social dilemmas, support for the transit plan was higher when it was perceived to be (a) effective at reducing congestion and pollution, (b) personally beneficial, and (c) fair in terms of taxes and benefits. Also consistent with predictions, these relationships were moderated by individual differences in social value orientation (MClintock, 1968) and the consideration of future consequences (CFC; Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger, & Edwards, 1994). Prosocials responded more to the perceived fairness of the plan, while proselfs responded more to the plan's effectiveness in reducing congestion. Low CFCs responded more to the plan's personal benefits and effectiveness in reducing congestion, while high CFCs responded more to the plan's effectiveness in reducing pollution. [source]

    Rock Stars in Anti-Drug-Abuse Commercials: An Experimental Study of Adolescents' Reactions,

    Michael D Newcomb
    Two studies examined adolescents' perceptions and effectiveness of rock stars in antidrug-abuse public-service announcements (PSAs). In the pilot study (N= 24 teenagers), adolescents expected rock musicians, and in particular heavy metal musicians, to be drug users. In our experimental study (N= 78 high school students aged 15 to 16 years), one group was shown 4 PSAs produced by Rock Against Drugs, using rock stars Jon Bon Jovi, Aimee Mann, Gene Simmons, and Belinda Carlysle as spokespersons. The comparison group was shown 4 equivalent PSAs that were created using unknown actors selected for their similarity to the rock stars in terms of age, ethnicity, and gender, but without any reference to rock music. PSA ratings were taken on 4 scales: attractiveness, expertness, trustworthiness, and overall PSA rating. Pretest and posttest measures of drug attitudes supported our hypotheses that countermessages from rock stars denormalize the connection between rock music and drugs, and that adolescents respond more positively to PSAs with rock stars than to PSAs without rock stars. [source]

    Sexual Assault and Defendant/Victim Intoxication: Jurors' Perceptions of Guilt,

    The present research investigates how defendant and claimant intoxication operates in sexual-assault trials. Participants (N= 323) were provided with a description of a sexualassault trial in which the intoxication level (sober, moderate, extreme) of both parties was systematically varied. While the introduction of alcohol altered participants' perceptions of the case and of the parties involved, a complex interplay between the defendant's and complainant's level of intoxication was apparent. When the complainant was sober, harsher judgments were rendered when the defendant was intoxicated, particularly at the extreme level. In contrast, when the complainant was moderately intoxicated, more guilty verdicts occurred when the defendant was similarly inebriated. Finally, when the complainant was extremely intoxicated, the defendant's beverage consumption did not exert any discemible impact. Evaluations of both parties' abilities to self-regulate their behavior and for the female target to become sexually disinhibited were also influenced by the intoxication manipulation. [source]

    Reactions to a Motor-Vehicle Accident in Relation to Mitigating Circumstances and the Gender and Moral Worth of the Driver,

    Male and female students (N= 153) at the Flinders University of South Australia read scenarios describing a motor-vehicle accident that varied mitigating circumstances (driving on a slippery road vs. driving at high speed), gender of driver, and the moral worth of the driver (very dependable and trustworthy vs. not dependable and a bit untrustworthy). Results showed that mitigation affected judgments about the driver's responsibility, seriousness of the offense, driver's deservingness of penalty imposed, harshness of penalty, positive affect about the penalty, and sympathy for the driver, consistent with a social cognitive process model (Feather, 1996c, 1998). Moral worth affected judgments about the driver's moral character, harshness of penalty, and liking and sympathy for the driver. Participants attributed higher moral character to the female driver and also reported more liking for the female driver. There was some limited evidence for an in-group gender bias. [source]

    Hostile Media Perceptions, Presumed Media Influence, and Minority Alienation: The Case of Arabs in Israel

    Yariv Tsfati
    This article examines the notion that minority perceptions of the strong influence of biased media coverage may indirectly lead to increased minority alienation. This idea was tested in the context of the perceived media stigmatization of Arab citizens in Israel. Using structural equation modeling (N= 251), it is demonstrated that, over and above the effects of ideological, social, and demographic variables, hostile media perceptions and the perceived influence of media coverage affected Arabs' perceived image and consequently their social alienation. Interestingly, the amount of exposure to mainstream Israeli media did not play a significant part in this process. However, exposure to Arab media significantly affected perceptions of hostile coverage. Résumé Perceptions des médias hostiles, influence présumée des médias et aliénation des minorités: Le cas des Arabes en Israël Cet article examine la notion selon laquelle les perceptions qu,ont des minorités de la forte influence d'une couverture médiatique biaisée puissent, indirectement, mener à une aliénation plus grande de ces minorités. Cette idée fut testée dans le contexte de la stigmatisation médiatique perçue par des citoyens arabes en Israël. Utilisant la modélisation par équation structurelle (N=251), il est démontré que, indépendamment de variables idéologiques, sociales et démographiques, les perceptions médiatiques hostiles et l,influence perçue de la couverture médiatique avaient une incidence sur l'image perçue des Arabes et, partant, sur leur aliénation sociale. Élément intéressant, le niveau d,exposition aux principaux médias israéliens n'a joué aucun rôle significatif dans ce processus. Toutefois, l,exposition aux médias arabes a eu un impact significatif sur les perceptions d'une couverture hostile. Abstract Feindselige Medienwahrnehmungen, ein unterstellter Einfluss der Medien und die Entfremdung von Minderheiten. Der Fall der Araber in Israel Der Beitrag untersucht die Annahme, dass die Wahrnehmung eines starken Einflusses einer verzerrten Medienberichterstattung bei einer Minderheit indirekt dazu führen kann, dass die Entfremdung dieser Minderheit zunimmt. Diese Annahme wurde im Kontext der wahrgenommenen Stigmatisierung von arabischen Bürgern in Israel untersucht. Mittels Strukturgleichungsmodellen (N=251) wird gezeigt, dass über den Einfluss von ideologischen, sozialen und soziodemographischen Variablen hinaus, die feindselige Medienwahrnehmung und der wahrgenommene Einfluss der Medienberichterstattung das Bild der Araber und folglich ihre soziale Entfremdung beeinflusst. Interessanterweise, spielte der Umfang der Nutzung der israelischen Hauptmedien keine signifikante Rolle in diesem Prozess. Allerdings beeinflusste die Nutzung arabischer Medien signifikant die Wahrnehmung einer feindseligen Berichterstattung. Resumen Las Percepciones Hostiles de los Medios, la Influencia Presunta de los Medios, y la Alienación de las Minorías: El Caso de los Árabes en Israel Este artículo examina la noción de que las percepciones de la minoría sobre la fuerte influencia de la cobertura tendenciosa de los medios pueden conducir indirectamente a un incremento de la alienación de la minoría. Ésta idea fue puesta a prueba en el contexto de la estigmatización percibida de los medios hacia los ciudadanos Árabes en Israel. Usando un Modelo de Ecuación Estructural (N=251), se demuestra que, por encima de los efectos de las variables ideológicas, sociales y demográficas, las percepciones hostiles de los medios y la influencia percibida de la cobertura de los medios afectó la imagen percibida de los Árabes, y consecuentemente su alineación social. Es interesante notar que la cantidad de exposición a la corriente dominante de los medios Israelíes no jugó un papel significativo en este proceso. No obstante, la exposición a los medios árabes afectó significativamente las percepciones de cobertura hostil. ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]

    Evaluating the Effectiveness of Distance Learning: A Comparison Using Meta-Analysis

    Mike Allen
    This article uses meta-analysis to summarize the quantitative literature comparing the performance of students in distance education versus traditional classes. The average effect (average r= .048, k= 39, N= 71,731) demonstrates that distance education course students slightly outperformed traditional students on exams and course grades. The average effect was heterogeneous, and the examination of several moderating features (presence or absence of simultaneous interaction, type of channel used in distance education, and course substance) failed to produce a homogeneous solution. The results demonstrate, however, no clear decline in educational effectiveness when using distance education technology. [source]