Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of NGOs

  • international NGO
  • local NGO

  • Selected Abstracts

    The relationship between NGOS and businesses in the public arena: An empirical analysis for Spain

    Carmen Valor
    At the beginning of this century, corporate social responsibility was included in the public agenda. In certain countries, policy-making takes place in semi-public forums, in which NGOs are asked to participate. However, a different situation may be found in other countries. This paper analyses the relationship between businesses and NGOs in the public arena in Spain. By applying grounded theory, the authors summarize this relationship in the dynamics of approach-withdrawal. Firms have pushed to withdraw Advocacy NGOs from public forums, whose main purpose was policy-making. The explicit argument to justify this collective decision is the lack of foundational legitimacy of NGOs. Firms understand that these NGOs are not legitimized to be a counterbalancing force of corporations. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Continuing Progressive Deterioration of the Environment in the Aral Sea Region: Disastrous Effects on Mother and Child Health

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 5 2001
    O Ataniyazova
    Scientists, non-governmental experts (NGOs) and governmental officials from the Central Asian Republics and an international group of invited scientists and NGO representatives participated in a workshop on the disastrous health problems in the Aral Sea Region. Various serious problems were reported in more than 20 presentations. Particular emphasis was put on the way in which adverse environmental factors such as contaminated water and food have contributed to the deterioration of human health, particularly that of mothers and children. Conclusion: There is an urgent request that the international community assists local scientists to develop programmes to improve the health of the population in the Aral Sea Region. [source]

    Conservation Science and NGOs

    Gustavo A. B. Da Fonseca
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A linguistic interpretation of Welford's hijack hypothesis

    Mark Brown
    Abstract This paper makes a linguistic reinterpretation of Welford's 1997 hijack hypothesis, arguing that the hijack of the discourse of the radical environment is simply a process of appropriation, i.e., the adoption of particular words in order to make use of them within the green corporations' own frames of experience. Results are presented from an empirical study using two large ,databases' of language. These are electronic collections of texts taken from British environmental organizations , the radical non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and UK corporations that wish to be environmentally friendly , green business. The results show that there are very marked differences in the physical contextualization of a selection of words which are used by both the radical NGOs and green business. The paper concludes by noting the need to take the analysis a stage further by comparing the usage of particular words by the two discourse communities. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    ,Green alliances' of business and NGOs.

    New styles of self-regulation or, dead-end roads'?
    In recent years, so-called greenalliances between NGOs and business have become popular phenomena, both in practice as well as in academic literature. This is striking, as it concerns collaborative partnerships of agencies whose relationships were quite antagonistic in the past. The question then is how stable and effective these alliances can be, amongst others, in contributing to,or even substituting,environmental policy-making and regulation. To answer this question, the history and (potential) effectiveness of green alliances are analysed from a political modernization and policy arrangement perspective. With that, this paper has a strong theoretical focus. The intention is not to analyse empirical cases thoroughly, but to theorize about the history, strengths and weaknesses of green alliances. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment [source]


    ABSTRACT In practices of philanthropy and charity, the impulse to give to immediate others in distress is often tempered by its regulation. Although much of what is written on charity and philanthropy focuses on the effects of the gift, I suggest more attention be paid to the impulse of philanthropy. To coerce the impulse to give into rational accountability is to obliterate its freedom; to render giving into pure impulse is to reinforce social inequality. The only solution is to allow both to exist, and to create structures to encourage them. This essay examines the power of the spontaneous and fleeting impulse to give and its regulation through an analysis of contemporary practices of philanthropy and their relation to sacred conceptions of d,n (donation) in New Delhi. When scriptural ideas of disinterested giving intersect with contemporary notions of social responsibility, new philanthropic practices are formed. On the basis of ethnographic research with philanthropists who built temples, started NGOs, and managed social welfare programs, as well as families who gave d,n daily out of their homes, this essay documents how both NGO and government efforts to regulate one of the most meritorious forms of d,n, gupt d,n (or, anonymous d,n) expresses critical issues in philanthropy between the urge to give in response to immediate suffering and the social obligation to find a worthy recipient for the gift. [source]

    Agricultural Development NGOs, Anthropology, and the Encounter with Cultural Knowledge

    Chris J. Shepard
    First page of article [source]

    NGOs, Local Government, and Agrarian Civil Society: A Case of Evolving Collaboration from Southern Peru

    Assistant Professor Lisa Markowitz
    First page of article [source]

    Accountability and Inaction: NGOs and Resource Lodging in Development

    Matthew Harsh
    ABSTRACT From the late 1980s, research on NGOs had a normative focus and was vulnerable to changing donor preoccupations. This article contributes a new conceptual approach, analysing the practices through which relationships and resources are translated into programmes and projects. The theoretical justification for this move combines the new ethnography of development practice with a re-agency approach to transactions across time and space. The study is based on data including thirty hours of video ethnography involving interviews and field visits with Kenyan NGOs in a variety of sectors. The analysis focuses on the problem of accountability that emerged through the interactions of donors and state corruption. We argue that NGOs operating in capital cities often provide organizational solutions to this problem. Depending on donor preferences, varying amounts of resources become ,lodged' or absorbed in ,capital NGOs' as they provide accounts of programmes that satisfy donors. However, no matter the donor preferences, capital NGOs provide accountability independently of increased action with communities or increased resources transferred to them. We conclude that the institutionalization of the NGO field as a well-grounded specialization depends in part on the degree to which researchers can sideline the stories generated in inter-organizational contexts such as workshops and policy meetings, and substitute understandings based on accounting practices, resource flows and social ties. [source]

    Participatory Governance in Urban Management and the Shifting Geometry of Power in Mumbai

    Marie-Hélène Zérah
    ABSTRACT This article questions the participatory dimension of urban governance in Mumbai. Based on surveys of a number of participatory projects for urban services, it compares the differentiated impacts of participation in middle-class colonies with those in slums. Results demonstrate that changing citizen,government relationships have led to the empowerment of the middle and upper middle class who harness the potential of new ,invited space' to expand their claims on the city and political space. In contrast, the poor end up on the losing side as NGOs function more as contracted agents of the State than as representatives of the poor. Direct community participation empowers influential community members, small private entrepreneurs and middlemen, and contributes to labour informalization. Ultimately, these processes consolidate a form of ,governing beyond the State' that promotes a managerial vision of participation and leads to double standards of citizenship. [source]

    ,Model Tribes' and Iconic Conservationists?

    The Makuleke Restitution Case in Kruger National Park
    ABSTRACT This article investigates how the Makuleke community in Limpopo Province achieved iconic status in relation to land reform and community-based conservation discourses in South Africa and beyond. It argues that the situation may be more complex than it first appears, and the ways in which the Makuleke story has been deployed by NGOs, activists, academics, conservationists, the state and business may be too simplistic. The authors discuss historical representations of the Makuleke ,tribe' against the backdrop of their experiences of living in the borderland Pafuri region of the Kruger National Park prior to their forced removal. After investigating the ways in which the chieftaincy, and its relation to communal land, has been strengthened by local mobilizations against threats from the neighbouring Mhinga Tribal Authority, the authors suggest that a central tension in the Makuleke area is the conflict between democratic principles governing the legal entity in control of the land (i.e., the Communal Property Association), and traditionalist patriarchal principles of the Tribal Authority. The article shows how these restitution-linked processes became implicated in the establishment in 2002 of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. The authors also argue that the image of the Makuleke as a ,model tribe' is both a product of changing historical circumstances and a contributor to contemporary discourses on land restitution and conservation. [source]

    Resource Accessibility and Vulnerability in Andhra Pradesh: Caste and Non-Caste Influences

    Lee Bosher
    ABSTRACT Coastal Andhra Pradesh in southern India is prone to tropical cyclones. Access to key resources can reduce the vulnerability of the local population to both large-scale disasters, such as cyclones, and to the sort of small-scale crises that affect their everyday lives. This article uses primary fieldwork to present a resource accessibility vulnerability index for over 300 respondents. The index indicates that caste is the key factor in determining who has assets, who can access public facilities, who has political connections and who has supportive social networks. The ,lower' castes (which tend to be the poorest) are marginalized to the extent that they lack access to assets, public facilities and opportunities to improve their plight. However, the research also indicates that the poor and powerless lower castes are able to utilize informal social networks to bolster their resilience, typically by women's participation with CBOs and NGOs. Nevertheless it is doubtful whether this extra social capital counterbalances the overall results which show that , despite decades of counteractions by government , caste remains a dominant variable affecting the vulnerability of the people of coastal Andhra Pradesh to the hazards that they face. [source]

    Integrating Gender Interests into Health Policy

    Jasmine Gideon
    This article reviews current initiatives to integrate gender interests into health policy in Chile. The analysis outlines the debates that have arisen around the questions of mainstreaming gender, in relation to state institutions, NGOs and grassroots organizations. The discussion highlights both the constraints and opportunities identified in the literature. The study locates the Chilean case study within these broader debates and draws some overall conclusions. Despite the limitations posed by the broader context of neo-liberal health sector reforms, the experience of the Chilean gender mainstreaming initiative does suggest that there is some cause for optimism. [source]

    Mapping Common Futures: Customary Communities, NGOs and the State in Indonesia's Reform Era

    Carol Warren
    The post-Suharto ,Reform Era' has witnessed explosive revitalization movements among Indonesia's indigenous minorities or ,customary'(adat) communities attempting to redress the disempowerment they suffered under the former regime. This study considers the current resurgence of customary claims to land and resources in Bali, where the state-sponsored investment boom of the 1990s had severe social and environmental impacts. It focuses on recent experiments with participatory community mapping, aimed at reframing the relationship between state and local institutions in planning and decision-making processes. Closely tied to the mapping and planning strategy have been efforts to strengthen local institutions and to confront the problems of land alienation and community control of resources. The diversity of responses to this new intervention reflects both the vitality and limitations of local adat communities, as well as the contributions and constraints of non-governmental organizations that increasingly mediate their relationships to state and global arenas. This ethnographic study explores participants' experiences of the community mapping programme and suggests its potential for developing ,critical localism' through long-term, process-oriented engagements between communities, governments, NGOs, and academic researchers. [source]

    Scaling up Participatory Watershed Development in India

    Shashi Kolavalli
    ,Participation' is widely accepted as a prerequisite to successful watershed development in India, but there is no shared understanding of its meaning, nor of how to make it operational. Meaningful participation, in which communities work collectively, help make decisions and share costs, is limited primarily to projects implemented by non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Participation in government projects is more superficial because staff lack the skills and incentive to engage in meaningful participation. Strategies to scale up meaningful participation require a large number of NGOs. However, the number of NGOs with the necessary skills and values is limited, so a realistic strategy must seek to improve the capabilities and incentives of government agencies. Their performance may improve by making them accountable through transparent processes and participatory monitoring and evaluation. NGO-facilitated access to information for communities can potentially change power relations and initiate political processes that make both community leaders and government agencies more accountable to communities. [source]

    Pro-Poor Modes of Technical Integration into the Global Econom

    Jeffrey James
    Recent evidence indicates that globalization based on technical advances in information technology is creating a dualistic situation in the world economy, whereby the benefits tend to accrue to a narrow group of relatively affluent countries, while the majority lag behind. The purpose of this article is to suggest a framework within which to assess an alternative, pro-poor form of technical integration into the global economy , in other words, a form of globalization that benefits the poor as well as the rich. The article focuses particularly on the role that can be played by NGOs, aid donors and national governments in this endeavour. [source]

    Hill of Thorns: Custom, Knowledge and the Reclaiming of a Lost Land in the New South Africa

    Deborah James
    This article provides a detailed ethnographic exploration of a case of land restitution in South Africa. It shows how the development discourse invoked during the process of reclaiming land, rather than being imposed in an entirely top-down manner, has been the result of negotiations between those claiming and those , in government and NGOs , who have helped them claim. The resulting knowledge about the ownership and appropriate governance of land reveals a complex and often contradictory understanding of concepts like ,custom', ,community' and ,power'. [source]

    A Strategic Approach to Rights: Lessons from Clientelism in Rural Peru

    Aaron Schneider
    International norms of social, economic and political rights are presented as a means of transforming social relations in developing countries. Yet, when rights norms are introduced into domestic practice, they do not always produce liberal, democratic results. Instead, rights and local practices of clientelism mix. This article examines this political process in rural Peru. Alternatives to clientelism emerge when NGOs and international development agencies forge strategic and selective coalitions between urban middle-class sectors and the rural poor. This calls for an explicit politics of advancing rights by any means necessary: accepting hybrid forms when inevitable, incorporating excluded groups when possible, and striking alliances that displace traditional elites. [source]

    Characteristics, context and risk: NGO insecurity in confict zones

    DISASTERS, Issue 2 2007
    Larissa Fast
    This paper reports on research conducted on the insecurity of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) between 1999 and 2002, with the goal of contributing to the debate on the reasons why NGO actors are targets of violence in confict settings. The research involved the collection of data from three countries,Angola, Ecuador and Sierra Leone,and exploration of the relationship between levels of insecurity, context and the characteristics of NGOs. Four risk factors appear to heighten the degree of insecurity that NGOs face: (1) carrying out multiple types of activities and providing material aid; (2),operationality'(that is, implementing programmes and activities); (3) working with both sides of the confict; and (4) integrating into the local community. The paper discusses the methodological approach adopted for the research, the differences between ambient and situational insecurity and the fndings related to risk factors. It concludes with a summary of the study's implications. [source]

    Setting up an early warning system for epidemic-prone diseases in Darfur: a participative approach

    DISASTERS, Issue 4 2005
    Augusto Pinto
    Abstract In April,May 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) implemented, with local authorities, United Nations (UN) agencies and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), an early warning system (EWS) in Darfur, West Sudan, for internally displaced persons (IDPs). The number of consultations and deaths per week for 12 health events is recorded for two age groups (less than five years and five years and above). Thresholds are used to detect potential outbreaks. Ten weeks after the introduction of the system, NGOs were covering 54 camps, and 924,281 people (IDPs and the host population). Of these 54 camps, 41 (76%) were reporting regularly under the EWS. Between 22 May and 30 July, 179,795 consultations were reported: 18.7% for acute respiratory infections; 15% for malaria; 8.4% for bloody diarrhoea; and 1% for severe acute malnutrition. The EWS is useful for detecting outbreaks and monitoring the number of consultations required to trigger actions, but not for estimating mortality. [source]

    Cracking the code: the genesis, use and future of the Code of Conduct

    DISASTERS, Issue 4 2005
    Peter Walker
    Abstract This paper reflects on the genesis of the Code of Conduct for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Disaster Relief, on the tenth anniversary of its adoption. The origins, usage and future of the code are examined with respect to three debates, current at the time of its inception, namely: the debate about the core content of humanitarianism; the debate about coherence and the consensual nature of the humanitarian community; and the debate about the need for, and the ability to demonstrate, accountability. The paper concludes that although the Code of Conduct was very much a product of its time, its content remains relevant today. However, its future application hinges on the capacity of those who purport to follow it to realise true accountability, and on proving that the code, written essentially for natural disasters, is relevant to contemporary complex emergencies. [source]

    ,We All Knew that a Cyclone Was Coming': Disaster Preparedness and the Cyclone of 1999 in Orissa, India

    DISASTERS, Issue 4 2004
    Frank Thomalla
    Imagine that a cyclone is coming, but that those living in the affected areas do nothing or too little to protect themselves. This is precisely what happened in the coastal state of Orissa, India. Individuals and communities living in regions where natural hazards are a part of daily life develop strategies to cope with and adapt to the impacts of extreme events. In October 1999, a cyclone killed 10,000 people according to government statistics, however, the unofficial death toll is much higher. This article examines why such a large loss of life occurred and looks at measures taken since then to initiate comprehensive disaster-preparedness programmes and to construct more cyclone shelters. The role of both governmental organisations and NGOs in this is critically analysed. The good news is that, based on an assessment of disaster preparedness during a small cyclone in November 2002, it can be seen that at community-level awareness was high and that many of the lessons learnt in 1999 were put into practice. Less positive, however, is the finding that at the state level collaboration continues to be problematic. [source]

    Humanitarian Crises: What Determines the Level of Emergency Assistance?

    DISASTERS, Issue 2 2003
    Donor Interests, Media Coverage, the Aid Business
    This paper proposes a basic hypothesis that the volume of emergency assistance any humanitarian crisis attracts is determined by three main factors working either in conjunction or individually. First, it depends on the intensity of media coverage. Second, it depends on the degree of political interest, particularly related to security, that donor governments have in a particular region. Third, the volume of emergency aid depends on strength of humanitarian NGOs and international organisations present in a specific country experiencing a humanitarian emergency. The empirical analysis of a number of emergency situations is carried out based on material that has never been published before. The paper concludes that only occasionally do the media play a decisive role in influencing donors. Rather, the security interests of Western donors are important together with the presence and strength of humanitarian stakeholders, such as NGOs and international organisations lobbying donor governments. [source]

    Civil Society and the State: Turkey After the Earthquake

    DISASTERS, Issue 2 2002
    Rita Jalali
    On 17 August 1999 Turkey was hit by a massive earthquake. Over 17,000 lives were lost and there was extensive damage to Turkey's heartland. This paper examines how various public and private institutions, including state and civil society institutions such as NGOs and the media responded to the needs of earthquake survivors. It documents the extensive involvement of NGOs in the relief efforts immediately after the disaster and examines the impact of such participation on state-civil society relations in the country. The data show that state response to the disaster went through several phases from a period of ineptitude to effective management. The paper credits the media and the NGOs for acting as advocates for survivors and forcing changes at the state level. The paper argues that an ideal response system, which fully addresses the needs of victims, can only be based on state-civil society relations that are both collaborative and adversarial. [source]

    NGO Initiatives in Risk Reduction: An Overview

    DISASTERS, Issue 3 2001
    Charlotte Benson
    NGOs appear to be well placed to play a significant role in natural disaster mitigation and preparedness (DMP), working, as they do, with poorer and marginalised groups in society. However, there is little information on the scale or nature of NGO DMP activities. This paper reports the findings of a study seeking to address that gap. It confirms that NGOs are involved in a diverse range of DMP activities but that a number of them are not labelled as such. Moreover, evidence of the demonstrable quality and benefits of DMP involvement is poor. The paper concludes that a number of problems need to be overcome before DMP can be satisfactorily mainstreamed into NGO development and post-disaster rehabilitation programmes. However, there are some early indications of momentum for change. [source]

    Disaster Mitigation and Preparedness: The Case of NGOs in the Philippines

    DISASTERS, Issue 3 2001
    Emmanuel M. Luna
    The Philippines is very vulnerable to natural disasters because of its natural setting, as well as its socio-economic, political and environmental context - especially its widespread poverty. The Philippines has a well-established institutional and legal framework for disaster management, including built-in mechanisms for participation of the people and NGOs in decision-making and programme implementation. The nature and extent of collaboration with government in disaster preparedness and mitigation issues varies greatly according to their roots, either in past confrontation and political struggles or traditional charity activities. The growing NGO involvement in disaster management has been influenced by this history. Some agencies work well with local government and there is an increasing trend for collaborative work in disaster mitigation and preparedness. Some NGOs, however, retain critical positions. These organisations tend to engage more in advocacy and legal support for communities facing increased risk because of development projects and environmental destruction. Entry points into disaster mitigation and preparedness vary as well. Development-oriented agencies are drawn into these issues when the community members with whom they work face disaster. Relief organisations, too, realise the need for community mobilisation, and are thus drawn towards development roles. [source]

    The Changing Emphasis of Disasters in Bangladesh NGOs

    DISASTERS, Issue 3 2001
    Nilufar Matin
    Bangladesh is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, affected by cyclones and floods, as well as chronic hazards such as arsenic poisoning. NGOs have played a major role in bringing concerns related to risk management on to the national agenda and promoting a shift of focus from mere relief response to disaster mitigation and preparedness. The government has, after earlier scepticism, now accepted NGOs as major partners in these tasks. Innovative approaches, such as the use of microfinance, have been applied; many of which are related to preserving the gains of development efforts as part of rehabilitation. NGOs have pressured for better co-ordination with government. Improved structures are now approved, but it is still too early to judge their impact. Despite progress, neither NGOs nor governmental agencies have clearly defined roles in the effort to link disaster management priorities. This will ensure that longer-term development efforts build on local capacities and reduce vulnerabilities. [source]

    ,Scaling-up' in Emergencies: British NGOs after Hurricane Mitch

    DISASTERS, Issue 1 2001
    Sarah Lister
    This article examines research on NGO ,scaling-up' in a disaster context and links it to a broader discussion on whether scaling-up is a useful concept for understanding NGO processes in an emergency. Using concepts of scaling-up from development literature, research findings from a study of the responses of British NGOs to Hurricane Mitch in Central America are presented. The article assesses the extent and type of scaling-up that occurred, constraints faced by the agencies and the impact of scaling-up on support to partners. Broader issues relating to scaling-up post-Mitch are also explored. The conclusion suggests that while the concept of scaling-up is useful, the tendency for its use to refer to organisational growth has limited a wider understanding and evaluation of the role of Northern NGOs in humanitarian crises. [source]

    East Timor Emerging from Conflict: The Role of Local NGOs and International Assistance

    DISASTERS, Issue 1 2001
    Ian Patrick
    International assistance efforts have represented a conundrum for East Timorese seeking to assert their new independence and autonomy. While urgent needs have been met, local participation, involvement and capacity building have not been given adequate attention. This outcome is aptly demonstrated in the case of local non-government organisations (LNGOs). This paper specifically examines the role of LNGOs in the recovery of East Timor within the international assistance programme. It examines the challenges of rehabilitation efforts in East Timor with a particular focus on capacity building of East Timorese NGOs as part of a broader effort to strengthen civil society. The initial crisis response in East Timor highlighted tension between meeting immediate needs while simultaneously incorporating civil society actors such as NGOs and communities. It has been argued that local NGOs and the community at large were not sufficiently incorporated into the process. While it is acknowledged that many local NGOs had limited capacity to respond, a greater emphasis on collaboration, inclusion and capacity building was desirable, with a view to supporting medium and longer term objectives that promote a vibrant civil society, sustainability and self-management. [source]

    Cyclone Mitigation, Resource Allocation and Post-disaster Reconstruction in South India: Lessons from Two Decades of Research

    DISASTERS, Issue 1 2000
    Peter Winchester
    This paper opens with a history of development and disaster-prevention strategies in a cyclone-prone area of the east coast of India and traces the evolution in the area of British and Indian governments' programmes and policy over a century. Research over the last 20 years has shown however that the programmes and policies have failed to balance economic growth with safety. Resources intended for the benefit of all have been diverted by alliances of powerful people to a small minority, and recent developments have reduced the physical protection of the area. The result is that increasing numbers of people are vulnerable to the effects of cyclones and floods. The findings suggest that the best way to reduce vulnerability is to improve the socio-economic standing of the most vulnerable and for this to happen these people must have an assured income based on assets that will enable them to acquire social and economic credit-worthiness within the local economy. This paper presents evidence that suggests that non-governmental organisation (NGO)-supported co-operatives are the best way to achieve this through self-help and self-employment schemes. It also suggests that NGOs should be encouraged to take up environmentally and ecologically beneficial activities involving the poorest groups in the communities, in this way combining sustained self-employment with environmental protection. [source]