Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Motivation

  • achievement motivation
  • autonomous motivation
  • consumer motivation
  • different motivation
  • employee motivation
  • extrinsic motivation
  • high motivation
  • incentive motivation
  • increased motivation
  • individual motivation
  • initial motivation
  • internal motivation
  • intrinsic motivation
  • key motivation
  • learning motivation
  • low motivation
  • main motivation
  • moral motivation
  • participant motivation
  • patient motivation
  • people motivation
  • personal motivation
  • possible motivation
  • primary motivation
  • public service motivation
  • service motivation
  • social motivation
  • student motivation
  • test-taking motivation
  • underlying motivation
  • work motivation

  • Terms modified by Motivation

  • motivation theory

  • Selected Abstracts


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
    With data from respondents in Nizhni Novgorod, Russia, we address the generality of self-control theory. We also assess two hypotheses. The first focuses on the attractiveness of criminal acts, that is, motivation toward crime. The second concerns the contention that the mediating link between self-control and criminal conduct is the failure of those with less self-control to anticipate the long-term costs of misbehavior. Although the magnitude of associations between self-control and indicators of criminal behavior is about the same in this study as it is in others, which suggests that the theory is not culturally bound, those associations are largely overshadowed by criminal attraction. Consistent with that, failure to anticipate costly long-term consequences does not appear to be the mediating link between self-control and criminal behavior: the evidence shows no tendency for sanction fear to be greater among those with greater self-control. In fact, sanction fear is modestly and significantly related to the crime measures independent of self-control, though sanction fear also appears to be influenced by criminal attraction. The results suggest that in the production of criminal behavior, motivation may be more important than controls inhibiting criminal impulses. [source]


    Simon Robertson
    ABSTRACT This paper responds to Susan Hurley's attempt to undermine the adequacy of the distinction at the heart of the internalism-externalism debate about reasons for action. The paper shows that Hurley's argument fails and then, more positively, indicates a neat way to characterize the distinction. [source]


    Article first published online: 14 AUG 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    WOUTER VANDENABEELEArticle first published online: 11 JUL 200
    The article assesses public service motivation as a possible influence in the attractiveness of government as an employer by embedding it into a person-organization fit framework. First, a theoretical framework is developed and all relevant concepts are discussed. In addition, a set of hypotheses concerning the research question is developed. A sample of 1714 final year masters students demonstrates that the presence of public service motivation positively correlates with the preference for prospective public employers. For government organizations that display a high degree of publicness, the effect of public service motivation as a predictor for employer preference is stronger. Next to building a middle range theory on public service motivation, the article also reveals that public service motivation is present at a pre-entry level. [source]


    Russell Mannion
    Delegating greater authority and decision making power to front line organisations, including devolution of control through the system of ,Earned Autonomy' is a key component of the UK Government's modernisation agenda for the public services. The principle of Earned Autonomy is that the highest performing organisations are subject to less central control and allowed increased operating freedoms. This paper explores the implementation of Earned Autonomy in the English NHS and addresses the question of whether the incentives implicit within Earned Autonomy are both sufficiently powered and aligned to the motivations of senior hospital managers to secure the desired improvements in organisational performance. [source]


    Julien Pénin
    Abstract This paper reviews current literature on open knowledge disclosure strategies used by firms. It is usually acknowledged that for an innovative firm that does not benefit from a natural protection (such as lead time advance) the best strategy is to keep an innovation secret as long as possible or to protect it through an exclusive patent. However, in apparent contrast to this traditional view, many studies suggest that firms often disclose important parts of their knowledge through scientific publications, conferences, the Internet, etc. This paper aims to provide an overview first of the evidence supporting the existence of open knowledge disclosure and second of the economic motivations that encourage rational, profit seeking firms to adopt these behaviours. [source]


    ABSTRACT This paper describes a method that can be used to investigate consumers' reported reasons for using a particular product. This method is applied to ratings of degree of agreement with statements about reasons for product use. The method is illustrated using data on self-reported reasons for smoking among adolescents. The approach used is based on a probabilistic model of similarity (Ennis et al. 1988) and provides a display of the density of respondents' individual motivations concurrent with their perceptions of the statements. Factor analysis and its derived factor scores provide complementary information which is used to understand the interdependence of smoking motivations with the age of respondents and their degree of smoking. The probabilistic similarity model has many applications in studying consumer motivations such as those involved in the consumption of particular food and personal care products. [source]

    Thesis as Narrative or ,What Is the Inquiry in Narrative Inquiry?'

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 2 2000
    Carola Conle
    I present elements of inquiry in a dissertation composed through experiential narrative. My account of the thesis process is interwoven with references to John Dewey's demonstrations of implicit inquiry in the creation and experience of art. Motivation, methodology, outcomes and literature review take on a narrative character and I show how aesthetic and reflective activities contributed to the inquiry. Conceptually, a ,tension-telos dynamic' characterizes the impetus for the work; ,resonance' is portrayed as the connecting principle among various narrative components of the thesis, and the function of a ,third term' in metaphorical relationships is presented as a structuring principle for these connections. Although my inquiry came about through personal stories, my narratives reached out to social, historical and philosophical contexts to gain a wider significance, academically and personally. [source]

    Computer Self-Efficacy and Motivation to Learn in a Self-Directed Online Course

    Marcia J. Simmering
    ABSTRACT Despite the increased use of new learning technologies, there is still much to be learned about the role of learner characteristics in online learning. The purpose of this study was to examine how subjects' characteristics normally associated with effective training (i.e., initial motivation to learn and self-efficacy) related to learning in a self-directed online course. From an analysis of 190 respondents, computer and Internet usage prior to the start of class were positively related to individuals' computer self-efficacy and computer self-efficacy was positively related to learning. However, contrary to expectations, computer self-efficacy was not related to initial motivation to learn and motivation to learn was not related to learning in the class. Post hoc analysis of qualitative data enabled a rich explanation of the findings, including an evaluation of the unexpected relationships among the variables of interest and the nature of self-directed courses in virtual learning environments. [source]

    Drinking goal selection and treatment outcome in out-patients with mild-moderate alcohol dependence

    Abstract Selection of drinking goal is examined at baseline, post-treatment and at 6 months follow-up for a sample of mild-moderate alcohol-dependent out-patients. Drinking goal is identified as abstinent or controlled drinking, with the latter group being asked to further specify per session and per week drinking limits. Group comparisons for drinking goal post-treatment show those who were not assigned motivational enhancement therapy, had more drinking days and lower scores on the Alcohol Problems Questionnaire and Internal Motivation were more likely to choose controlled drinking. The only variable to predict independently whether or not the controlled drinking goal was within the promoted drinking guidelines was age, with younger participants more likely to choose a goal above this limit. Goal selection was significantly related to drinking outcome, with those aiming to drink within guidelines having better outcome than those aiming for higher limits. There was no significant difference in drinking outcome category when those aiming for within limits were compared to those aiming for abstinence. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. [source]

    Coordination and Motivation in Flat Hierarchies: The Impact of the Adjudication Culture

    ECONOMICA, Issue 288 2005
    Rabindra Nath Chakraborty
    This paper considers a variation of the partnership game with imperfect public information, in which teams are semi-autonomous. The only hierarchical intervention in teamwork is when a superior is called in by a team member to adjudicate alleged cases of free-riding or unjustified lateral punishment (flat hierarchy) according to publicly known adjudicative rules (adjudication culture), using for statistical inference a publicly known organizational norm for teamwork cooperation. It is shown that it is advantageous to set a non-elitist organizational teamwork norm. Furthermore, fairness in adjudication is valuable for economic reasons alone. [source]

    Motivation and patch treatment for HIV+ smokers: a randomized controlled trial

    ADDICTION, Issue 11 2009
    Elizabeth E. Lloyd-Richardson
    ABSTRACT Aims To test the efficacy of two smoking cessation interventions in a HIV positive (HIV+) sample: standard care (SC) treatment plus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) versus more intensive motivationally enhanced (ME) treatment plus NRT. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting HIV+ smoker referrals from eight immunology clinics in the northeastern United States. Participants A total of 444 participants enrolled in the study (mean age = 42.07 years; 63.28% male; 51.80% European American; mean cigarettes/day = 18.27). Interventions SC participants received two brief sessions with a health educator. Those setting a quit date received self-help quitting materials and NRT. ME participants received four sessions of motivational counseling and a quit-day counseling call. All ME intervention materials were tailored to the needs of HIV+ individuals. Measurements Biochemically verified 7-day abstinence rates at 2-month, 4-month and 6-month follow-ups. Findings Intent-to-treat (ITT) abstinence rates at 2-month, 4-month and 6-month follow-ups were 12%, 9% and 9%, respectively, in the ME condition, and 13%, 10% and 10%, respectively, in the SC condition, indicating no between-group differences. Among 412 participants with treatment utilization data, 6-month ITT abstinence rates were associated positively with low nicotine dependence (P = 0.02), high motivation to quit (P = 0.04) and Hispanic American race/ethnicity (P = 0.02). Adjusting for these variables, each additional NRT contact improved the odds of smoking abstinence by a third (odds ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval = 0.99,1.75). Conclusions Motivationally enhanced treatment plus NRT did not improve cessation rates over and above standard care treatment plus NRT in this HIV+ sample of smokers. Providers offering brief support and encouraging use of nicotine replacement may be able to help HIV+ patients to quit smoking. [source]

    Cyclical electrical field flow fractionation

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 9 2005
    Bruce K. Gale
    Abstract Cyclical electrical field flow fractionation (Cy/ElFFF) is demonstrated in a standard electrical field flow fractionation (ElFFF) channel for the first time. Motivation for the use of alternating current (AC) fields in a traditionally direct current (DC) technique are discussed. The function of the system over a wide range of operating conditions is explored and challenges associated with various operating conditions reported. Retention of polystyrene nanoparticle standards is accomplished and the effect of varying parameters of the applied field, such as voltage and frequency, are explored. The first separations using this technique are demonstrated. The experimental results are compared to analytical models previously reported in the literature. The general trend of the experimental results is similar to those predicted in theoretical models and possible reasons for discrepancies are elucidated. Suggestions are made for improving the separation and analysis method, and possible applications explored. [source]

    Jonson's Joyless Economy: Theorizing Motivation and Pleasure in Volpone

    Oliver Hennessey
    Departing from a tradition of expedient, often pious, interpretations of Volpone as a straightforward fable of avarice, miserliness, and material misappropriation, this essay takes a fresh look at old Volp's actions in the light of radical reconsiderations of consumer motivation by the contemporary economist, Tibor Scitovsky. Scitovsky's The Joyless Economy broke with conventional economic doxa by asking whether modern consumer behavior was in fact irrational, and, further, whether Americans are encouraged to pursue styles of life that foster ennui. Applying the Scitovskian paradigm to another commodity culture, Volpone's seventeenth-century Venice, forces us to confront an aspect of the play most usually finessed: the joy of gulling. Volpone, and early modern city comedy more generally, offers us a chance to examine the multi-faceted response of individuals in the early Seventeenth Century coming to terms with Europe's expanding commercial scene and the commodity culture to which the playhouse responded, and within which it was implicated. [source]

    The Effect of Small Business Managers' Growth Motivation on Firm Growth: A Longitudinal Study

    Frédéric Delmar
    This study addresses the role of small business managers' growth motivation for business growth, taking into account the important effects of previous motives and feedback from earlier performance. We hypothesize that small business managers' growth motivation has a unique influence on firm outcome measured as growth in sales and in number of employees. Data were gathered from two different Swedish samples of small firms using telephone interviews. Using cross-lagged regression analysis, we find support for our hypotheses when examining employment growth, but only partial support when examining sales. [source]

    The impact of a social network intervention on retention in Belgian therapeutic communities: a quasi-experimental study

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2006
    Veerle Soyez
    ABSTRACT Background Although numerous studies recognize the importance of social network support in engaging substance abusers into treatment, there is only limited knowledge of the impact of network involvement and support during treatment. The primary objective of this research was to enhance retention in Therapeutic Community treatment utilizing a social network intervention. Aims The specific goals of this study were (1) to determine whether different pre-treatment factors predicted treatment retention in a Therapeutic Community; and (2) to determine whether participation of significant others in a social network intervention predicted treatment retention. Design, setting and participants Consecutive admissions to four long-term residential Therapeutic Communities were assessed at intake (n = 207); the study comprised a mainly male (84.9%) sample of polydrug (41.1%) and opiate (20.8%) abusers, of whom 64.4% had ever injected drugs. Assessment involved the European version of the Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), the Circumstances, Motivation, Readiness scales (CMR), the Dutch version of the family environment scale (GKS/FES) and an in-depth interview on social network structure and perceived social support. Network members of different cohorts were assigned to a social network intervention, which consisted of three elements (a video, participation at an induction day and participation in a discussion session). Findings Hierarchical regression analyses showed that client-perceived social support (F1,198 = 10.9, P = 0.001) and treatment motivation and readiness (F1,198 = 8.8; P = 0.003) explained a significant proportion of the variance in treatment retention (model fit: F7,197 = 4.4; P = 0.000). By including the variable ,significant others' participation in network intervention' (network involvement) in the model, the fit clearly improved (F1,197 = 6.2; P = 0.013). At the same time, the impact of perceived social support decreased (F1,197 = 2.9; P = 0.091). Conclusions Participation in the social network intervention was associated with improved treatment retention controlling for other client characteristics. This suggests that the intervention may be of benefit in the treatment of addicted individuals. [source]

    Education, Motivation and Pay of UK Graduates: are they different for women?

    Arnaud Chevalier
    First page of article [source]

    On implicit,explicit consistency: the moderating role of individual differences in awareness and adjustment

    Wilhelm Hofmann
    A moderated process model is presented that attempts to explain the consistency between implicit and explicit indicators as a function of awareness, i.e. the degree to which persons become aware of their implicit attitude, and adjustment, i.e. the degree to which they adjust for the explicit response. In two experiments on attitudes of West Germans toward East Germans and Turks, a number of dispositional moderators pertaining to awareness and adjustment were tested. Concerning moderators affecting awareness, no reliable first-order effects were found for Private Self-Consciousness or Attitudinal Self-Knowledge. However, Attitude Importance generated the expected effect. Concerning moderators influencing adjustment, consistent effects were obtained for Motivation to Control Prejudiced Reactions. Social Desirability and Self-Monitoring did not moderate the implicit,explicit relationship in the expected direction. Some evidence was found for a second-order moderator effect between awareness and adjustment, suggesting that adjustment effects may be more pronounced under conditions of high awareness. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Social creativity strikes back: improving motivated performance of low status group members by valuing ingroup dimensions

    Belle Derks
    Motivation of stigmatized group members to perform on status-relevant ,outgroup' dimensions can be impaired after ingroup failure. Three experiments examined whether social creativity by valuing ingroup dimensions (dimensions on which an ingroup outperforms an outgroup) can increase motivation and performance on outgroup dimensions. It was hypothesized that under high social identity threat, motivation on the outgroup dimension would benefit from valuing an ingroup dimension. Experiments 1 and 2 show that when social identity threat is increased, low status group members who personally value ingroup dimensions show higher motivation to perform on the outgroup dimension. Experiment 3 shows that the induction of high contextual value of both ingroup and outgroup dimensions improves low status group members' well-being and motivated performance on the outgroup dimension. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Relationship Between Classroom Motivation and Academic Achievement in Elementary-School-Aged Children

    Sheri Coates Broussard
    The relationship between motivation and academic success has been better established with older children and adults than with younger children. As part of a larger project, the purpose of this study was to examine the relation-ship between classroom motivation and academic achievement in young elementary-school-aged children. The participants were 122 first-grade and 129 third-grade children from a mid-sized city in the southern United States. The findings from the current study were consistent with previous research in that higher levels of mastery motivation and judgment motivation were found to be related to higher math and reading grades in third graders. However, higher levels of mastery motivation, not judgment motivation, were related to higher math and reading grades in first graders. [source]

    An International Comparison of Socially Constructed Language Learning Motivation and Beliefs

    Sandra G. Kouritzin
    French; Japanese; relevant to all languages Abstract: In our global economy, it is important to understand all factors influencing successful language learning. A survey of more than 6,000 university students in Canada, Japan, and France revealed differences in language learning beliefs, attitudes, and motivations in the three countries. Learners in Canada and France exhibited primarily instrumental and integrative motivation, respectively, whereas learners from Japan displayed a different form, social capital motivation, in which knowledge of a foreign language carries value in and of itself. Knowledge of these different forms of motivation has pedagogical and political implications for language teachers. [source]

    On the Background and Motivation of Students in a Beginning Spanish Program

    Article first published online: 9 SEP 2010, Paul B. Mandell
    ABSTRACT: A number of recent articles have examined the motivation, purpose of study, and demographics of first- and second-year language learners of French or Spanish (see, e.g., Ossipov, 2000; Rava, 2000; Voght, 2000; Wen, 1997) This study surveyed the make-up of a sample of first-and second-year university-level Spanish learners at a major postsecondary institution in a city with a substantial, growing population of monolingual and bilingual Spanish speakers. The results of the survey were used to address questions about learner preparation prior to entering a four-year university course of study, preferred and desired activities in the current curriculum, and motivations for the study of Spanish. Generalizations about the nature of the typical learner in this context and the implications of the appreciation of and desire for grammar-related and communicative activities , as expressed by the respondents , in the contemporary liberal arts curriculum are discussed. [source]

    Student Motivation to Learn English as a Foreign Language

    Kassim A. Shaaban
    Data were gathered through administering a modified version of the motivation scale developed by Wen (1997). The findings revealed that integrative motivation, effort, valence, expectancy, and self-estimation of ability were internally related determinants of motivation for learning EFL. Instrumental motivation was found to be related to integrative motivation and valence only. The findings also revealed that female students were more motivated than their male counterparts. Similarly, level II proficiency students were more motivated than were level III students. However, the findings did not show a significant effect on motivation related to either students' first foreign language or university major. [source]

    European College of Gerodontology: undergraduate curriculum guidelines in Gerodontology

    GERODONTOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Anastassia Kossioni
    Effective undergraduate teaching of gerodontology to present and future dental students is important if good oral health care of older people is to be assured. A review of the undergraduate curriculum for gerodontology is presented and indicates the need for a knowledge base from which new graduates can develop a special interest in care of older patients. The aim is improved care of older patients, satisfaction for teaching staff involved and improved professional standing for Dentistry. Motivation of students could also be achieved by the positive match between rising patient awareness and ethical responsibility of the profession for those older patients. As it stands, the undergraduate curriculum should include topics on specific care for the elderly and other patient groups, which extend the competences already agreed by the Association for Dental Education in Europe (ADEE). The logistics of teaching these topics will need co-ordination of those staff with appropriate skill and interest, preferably as a development of existing curriculum content. [source]

    On the intertemporal value relevance of conventional financial accounting in Australia

    ACCOUNTING & FINANCE, Issue 4 2007
    Mark Brimble
    G10; G14; M41 Abstract This paper examines whether the relevance of conventional (earnings focused) accounting information for valuation has declined in Australia over a recent period of 28 years. Motivation is provided by the anecdotal concerns of financial analysts, accounting regulators, and a cluster of US centric academic research papers that conclude that the relevance of financial accounting (and earnings in particular) has declined over time. After controlling for nonlinearities and stock price inefficiencies, we find that the value relevance of core accounting earnings has not declined. A possible exception is found for small stocks. We also observe that net book values are relatively less important in Australia when compared to the USA. Our results are informative for investors who require feedback on valuation issues and the International Accounting Standards Board regulators in any further moves towards a balance sheet focus. [source]

    Motivation, agency and public policy: of knights and knaves, pawns and queens, by Julian Le Grand.

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 1 2005
    2003., Oxford, Oxford University Press
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Experimental Evidence of the Knowledge Gap: Message Arousal, Motivation, and Time Delay

    Maria Elizabeth Grabe
    This study experimentally tested the knowledge gap from an information processing perspective. Specifically, knowledge acquisition was investigated under conditions of medium and low news message arousal, with time delay. Results show the persistence of a knowledge gap, particularly for low arousing messages. In fact, at low levels of message arousal, the gap is larger than at medium levels of arousal. Some existing research suggests that message salience explains the knowledge gap. Findings from this study show that information processing aptitude may also be a significant factor. Measures of several dimensions of participant motivation to cognitively engage with news messages were added as covariates to statistical analyses. These were found not to affect the knowledge gap outcomes in this data set. Résumé Des preuves expérimentales de l,écart des savoirs : intérêt des messages, motivation et décalage de temps Cette étude a testé expérimentalement l'écart des savoirs à partir d,une perspective du traitement de l'information. En particulier, l,acquisition des connaissances fut étudiée dans des conditions d'intérêt moyen et faible des messages d,information, avec un décalage de temps. Les résultats démontrent la persistance d'un écart des savoirs, particulièrement pour les messages à faible intérêt. En fait, l,écart est plus large à de faibles niveaux d'intérêt qu,à des niveaux moyens. Des recherches préalables suggèrent que la prépondérance des messages explique l'écart des savoirs. Les résultats de cette étude démontrent que les aptitudes de traitement de l,information peuvent aussi être un facteur important. Les mesures de plusieurs dimensions de la motivation des participants à s'impliquer cognitivement avec les messages informatifs furent ajoutées comme covariables aux analyses statistiques. Elles n,ont pas paru avoir d'effets sur les résultats de l,écart des savoirs dans cet ensemble de données. Mots clés : écart des savoirs, modèle de capacité limitée du traitement motivé des messages médiatiques (limited capacity model of mediated motivated message processing), cognition, statut socioéconomique, éducation, intérêt des messages, mémoire, décalage de temps, motivation, prépondérange des messages, informations Abstract Ein experimenteller Nachweis der Wissenskluft: Botschaftserregung, Motivation und Zeitverzögerung Diese Studie testete die Wissensklufthypothese experimentell aus einer Informationsverarbeitungsperspektive. Insbesondere wurde die Wissensaneignung bei Nachrichten unter Bedingungen eines mittleren und niedrigen Botschaftserregungsniveaus mit Zeitverzögerung untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigen das Fortdauern einer Wissenskluft insbesondere bei wenig erregenden Botschaften. Tatsächlich ist die Kluft bei einem geringen Niveau der Botschaftserregung größer als bei mittleren Erregungsniveaus. Bestehende Forschung legt nahe, dass die Wissenskluft durch die Botschaftssalienz erklärt werden kann. Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie zeigen, dass die Informationsverarbeitungsfähigkeit ebenfalls ein signifikanter Faktor sein könnte. Messungen verschiedenen Dimensionen der Motivation der Teilnehmer, sich kognitiv mit den Nachrichtenbotschaften zu beschäftigen, wurden als Kovariate in die statistische Analyse einbezogen. Diese zeigten keine Auswirkungen auf die Wissenskluft in dieser Stichprobe. Resumen La Evidencia Experimental de la Brecha de Conocimiento: La Excitación del Mensaje, la Motivación, y la Demora de Tiempo Este estudio puso a prueba experimental la brecha de conocimiento desde la perspectiva del procesamiento de la información. Específicamente, la adquisición de conocimiento fue investigada bajo condiciones de excitación mediana y baja a los mensajes de noticias, con una demora de tiempo. Los resultados muestran la persistencia de la brecha de conocimiento, particularmente en los mensajes de excitación baja. De hecho, en los niveles de excitación de mensaje bajos la brecha fue mayor que en los niveles de excitación medianos. Algunas investigaciones existentes sugieren que la notabilidad del mensaje explica la brecha de conocimiento. Los hallazgos de este estudio muestran que la aptitud de procesamiento de información puede ser un factor significante también. Las medidas de varias dimensiones de la motivación del participante para involucrarse cognitivamente con los mensajes de noticias fueron agregadas como covarianzas a los análisis estadísticos. Se encontró que éstos no afectaron los resultados de la brecha de conocimiento en este grupo de datos. Palabras claves: brecha de conocimiento, modelo de capacidad limitada de procesamiento de mensajes motivadores mediatizados, cognición, estatus socioeconómico, educación, excitación del mensaje, memoria, demora de tiempo, motivación, notabilidad del mensaje, noticias. ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]

    Motivation to learn and diversity training: Application of the theory of planned behavior

    Carolyn Wiethoff
    Although training programs are an important component in most companies' diversity initiatives, little theoretical guidance is available for their implementation. This article proposes a model based on the theory of planned behavior, which addresses the roles of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control in motivation to learn from a diversity training program. The model suggests a number of hypotheses that could be tested to enhance our understanding of the motivation-to-learn construct. Additionally, the model provides practical advice for companies seeking to implement successful diversity training programs. [source]

    The impact of Investors in People: a case study of a hospital trust

    Irena Grugulis
    This article reports on case study research conducted in a hospital trust and explores the impact that the Investors in People award had on employees. Investors in People is widely seen as the principal mechanism for increasing workforce skills within a voluntarist system as well as supporting ,good' employment policies. Yet in this case study, as elsewhere, most of the ,soft' HR initiatives had existed prior to accreditation and the internal marketing of corporate value statements was met with both amnesia and cynicism. More worrying, training activity was focused on ,business need', which was defined in the narrowest sense, with the result that some employees had fewer opportunities for individual development. Motivation and commitment levels were high, staff were enthusiastic about their work and many actively engaged in training and development. But this owed little to Investors in People, and its impact here raises questions about its influence on skill levels more broadly. [source]

    Anger and Approach Motivation in Infancy: Relations to Early Childhood Inhibitory Control and Behavior Problems

    INFANCY, Issue 3 2010
    Jie He
    The relations among infant anger reactivity, approach behavior, and frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, and their relations to inhibitory control and behavior problems in early childhood were examined within the context of a longitudinal study of temperament. Two hundred nine infants' anger expressions to arm restraint were observed at 4 months of age. Infants' approach behaviors during play with an unpredictable toy and baseline frontal EEG asymmetry were assessed at 9 months of age. Inhibitory control during a Go/No-Go task and parent report of behavior problems were evaluated at 4 years of age. High anger-prone infants with left, but not right, frontal EEG asymmetry showed significantly more approach behaviors and less inhibitory control relative to less anger-prone infants. Although a link between anger proneness in infancy and behavior problems in early childhood was not found, a combination of low approach behaviors and poor inhibitory control was predictive of internalizing behaviors. [source]