Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Morphogenesis

  • branching morphogenesi
  • cardiac morphogenesi
  • cell morphogenesi
  • craniofacial morphogenesi
  • early morphogenesi
  • gland morphogenesi
  • heart morphogenesi
  • hyphal morphogenesi
  • normal morphogenesi
  • skeletal morphogenesi
  • spine morphogenesi
  • tissue morphogenesi

  • Selected Abstracts

    Regional heterogeneity in the developing palate: morphological and molecular evidence for normal and abnormal palatogenesis

    Junko Okano
    ABSTRACT Development of the mammalian secondary palate involves the growth, elevation, medial elongation and midline fusion of palatal shelves. Recent morphological and molecular studies on palatogenesis suggest that the developing palate is not a homogeneous organ but each part may behave differently during organogenesis. Especially, some key molecules involved in palate development have been shown to exhibit heterogeneous patterns of expression in the palatal tissue. Therefore it seems necessary to recognize the regional heterogeneity of the developing palate along the dorsoventral and anteroposterior axes when analyzing the mechanisms of normal and abnormal morphogenesis. Based on recent studies, we discuss the issue of the regional heterogeneity in the fetal palate and propose a principle that divides the fetal palate into several regions from the morphological and molecular standpoint. [source]

    Alterations of M-cadherin, neural cell adhesion molecule and , -catenin expression in satellite cells during overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2006
    M. Ishido
    Abstract Aim:, Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and M-cadherin are cell adhesion molecules expressed on the surface of skeletal muscle satellite cell (SC). During myogenic morphogenesis, M-cadherin participates in mediating terminal differentiation and fusion of myoblasts by forming a complex with , -catenin and that NCAM contributes to myotube formation by fusion of myoblasts. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of functionally overloaded skeletal muscle results from the fusion with SCs into the existing myofibres or new myofibre formation by SC,SC fusion. However, the alterations of NCAM, M-cadherin and , -catenin expressions in SCs in response to functional overload have not been investigated. Methods:, Using immunohistochemical approaches, we examined the temporal and spatial expression patterns of these factors expressed in SCs during the functional overload of skeletal muscles. Results:, Myofibres with SCs showing NCAM+/M-cadherin,, NCAM+/M-cadherin+ or NCAM,/M-cadherin+ were detected in overloaded muscles. The percentage changes of myofibres with SCs showing NCAM+/M-cadherin,, NCAM+/M-cadherin+ or NCAM,/M-cadherin+ were elevated in day-3 post-overloaded muscles, and then only the percentage changes of myofibres with SCs showing NCAM,/M-cadherin+ were significantly increased in day-7 post-overload muscles (P < 0.05). Both , -catenin and M-cadherin were co-localized throughout quiescent, proliferation and differentiation stages of SCs. Conclusion:, These results suggested that the expressions of NCAM, M-cadherin and , -catenin in SCs may be controlled by distinct regulatory mechanisms during functional overload, and that interactions among NCAM, M-cadherin and , -catenin in SCs may play important roles to contribute to overload-induced muscle hypertrophy via fusion with each other or into the existing myofibres of SCs. [source]

    Symmetry-breaking in mammalian cell cohort migration during tissue pattern formation: Role of random-walk persistence

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 4 2005
    S. Huang
    Abstract Coordinated, cohort cell migration plays an important role in the morphogenesis of tissue patterns in metazoa. However, individual cells intrinsically move in a random walk-like fashion when studied in vitro. Hence, in the absence of an external orchestrating influence or template, the emergence of cohort cell migration must involve a symmetry-breaking event. To study this process, we used a novel experimental system in which multiple capillary endothelial cells exhibit spontaneous and robust cohort migration in the absence of chemical gradients when cultured on micrometer-scale extracellular matrix islands fabricated using microcontact printing. A computational model suggested that directional persistence of random-walk and dynamic mechanical coupling of adjacent cells are the critical control parameters for this symmetry-breaking behavior that is induced in spatially-constrained cell ensembles. The model predicted our finding that fibroblasts, which exhibit a much shorter motility persistence time than endothelial cells, failed to undergo symmetry breaking or produce cohort migration on the matrix islands. These findings suggest that cells have intrinsic motility characteristics that are tuned to match their role in tissue patterning. Our results underscore the importance of studying cell motility in the context of cell populations, and the need to address emergent features in multicellular organisms that arise not only from cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, but also from properties that are intrinsic to individual cells. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 61:201,213, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Coordinated regulation of dorsal bone morphogenetic protein 4 and ventral Sonic hedgehog signaling specifies the dorso-ventral polarity in the optic vesicle and governs ocular morphogenesis through fibroblast growth factor 8 upregulation

    Takuma Kobayashi
    Dorsal and ventral specification in the early optic vesicle plays a crucial role in vertebrate ocular morphogenesis, and proper dorsal-ventral polarity in the optic vesicle ensures that distinct structures develop in separate domains within the eye primordium. The polarity is determined progressively during development by coordinated regulation of extraocular dorsal and ventral factors. In the present study, we cultured discrete portions of embryonic chick brains by preparing anterior cephalon, anterior dorsal cephalon and anterior ventral cephalon, and clearly demonstrate that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) constitute a dorsal-ventral signaling system together with fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8). BMP4 and Shh upregulate Tbx5 and Pax2, as reported previously, and at the same time Shh downregulates Tbx5, while BMP4 affects Pax2 expression to downregulate similarly. Shh induces Fgf8 expression in the ventral optic vesicle. This, in turn, determines the distinct boundary of the retinal pigmented epithelium and the neural retina by suppressing Mitf expression. The lens develops only when signals from both the dorsal and ventral regions come across together. Inverted deposition of Shh and BMP4 signals in organ-cultured optic vesicle completely re-organized ocular structures to be inverted. Based on these observations we propose a novel model in which the two signals govern the whole of ocular development when they encounter each other in the ocular morphogenic domain. [source]

    Spatially and temporally regulated expression of specific heparan sulfate epitopes in the developing mouse olfactory system

    Jun Takatoh
    Heparan sulfate (HS) comprises a structurally diverse group of glycosaminoglycans present ubiquitously on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix. The spatially and temporally regulated expression of specific HS structures is essential for various developmental processes in the nervous system but their distributions in the mouse olfactory system have not been explored. Here, we examined the spatiotemporal distribution of particular HS species in the developing mouse olfactory system using three structure-specific monoclonal antibodies (HepSS-1, JM403 and NAH46). The major findings were as follows. (i) During olfactory bulb morphogenesis, the HepSS-1 epitope was strongly expressed in anterior telencephalic cells and coexpressed with fibroblast growth factor receptor 1. (ii) In early postnatal glomeruli, the JM403 epitope was expressed at different levels among individual glomeruli. The expression pattern and levels of the JM403 epitope were both associated with those of ephrin-A3. (iii) In the vomeronasal system, the JM403 epitope was expressed in all vomeronasal axons but became increasingly restricted to vomeronasal axons terminating in the anterior region of the accessory olfactory bulb by 3 weeks of age. Our results demonstrate that each HS epitope exhibits a unique expression pattern during the development of the mouse olfactory system. Thus, each HS epitope is closely associated with particular developmental processes of the olfactory system and might have a particular role in developmental events. [source]

    Retinoic acid is a negative physiological regulator of N-cadherin during early avian heart morphogenesis

    Mahmoud Romeih
    The vitamin A-deficient (VAD) early avian embryo has a grossly abnormal cardiovascular system that is rescued by treating the embryo with the vitamin A-active form, retinoic acid (RA). Here we examine the role of N-cadherin (N-cad) in RA-regulated early cardiovascular morphogenesis. N-cad mRNA and protein are expressed globally in the presomite through HH14 normal and VAD quail embryos. The expression in VAD embryos prior to HH10 is significantly higher than that in normal embryos. Functional analyses of the N-cad overproducing VAD embryos reveal N-cad involvement in the RA-regulated cardiovascular development and suggest that N-cad expression may be mediated by Msx1. We provide evidence that in the early avian embryo, endogenous RA is a negative physiological regulator of N-cad. We hypothesize that a critical endogenous level of N-cad is needed for normal early cardiovascular morphogenesis to occur and that this level is ensured by stage-specific, developmentally regulated RA signaling. [source]

    Dan is required for normal morphogenesis and patterning in the developing chick inner ear

    Takahiro Yamanishi
    During vertebrate inner ear development, compartmentalization of the auditory and vestibular apparatuses along two axes depends on the patterning of transcription factors expressed in a region-specific manner. Although most of the patterning is regulated by extrinsic signals, it is not known how Nkx5.1 and Msx1 are patterned. We focus on Dan, the founding member of the Cerberus/Dan gene family that encodes BMP antagonists, and describe its function in morphogenesis and patterning. First, we confirmed that Dan is expressed in the dorso-medial region of the otic vesicle that corresponds to the presumptive endolymphatic duct and sac (ed/es). Second, we used siRNA knockdown to demonstrate that depletion of Dan induced both a severe reduction in the size of the ed/es and moderate deformities of the semicircular canals and cochlear duct. Depletion of Dan also caused suppression of Nkx5.1 in the dorso-lateral region, suppression of Msx1 in the dorso-medial region, and ectopic induction of Nkx5.1 and Msx1 in the ventro-medial region. Most of these phenotypes also appeared following misexpression of the constitutively active form of BMP receptor type Ib. Thus, Dan is required for the normal morphogenesis of the inner ear and, by inhibiting BMP signaling, for the patterning of the transcription factors Nkx5.1 and Msx1. [source]

    Development of the endoderm and gut in medaka, Oryzias latipes

    Daisuke Kobayashi
    We performed an extensive analysis of endodermal development and gut tube morphogenesis in the medaka embryo by histology and in situ hybridization. The markers used in these analyses included sox17, sox32, foxA2, gata-4, -5, -6 and shh. sox17, sox32, foxA2, and gata-5 and -6 are expressed in the early endoderm to the onset of gut tube formation. Sections of medaka embryos hybridized with foxA2, a pan-endodermal marker during gut morphogenesis, demonstrated that gut tube formation is initiated in the anterior portion and that the anterior and mid/posterior gut undergo distinct morphogenetic processes. Tube formation in the anterior endoderm that is fated to the pharynx and esophagus is much delayed and appears to be independent of gut morphogenesis. The overall aspects of medaka gut development are similar to those of zebrafish, except that zebrafish tube formation initiates at both the anterior and posterior portions. Our results therefore describe both molecular and morphological aspects of medaka digestive system development that will be necessary for the characterization of medaka mutants. [source]

    Mesenchymal epimorphin is important for pancreatic duct morphogenesis

    Sidhartha S. Tulachan
    Epithelial,mesenchymal interactions are crucial for the proper development of many organs, including the pancreas. Within the pancreas, the ducts are thought to harbor stem/progenitor cells, and possibly to give rise to pancreatic ductal carcinoma. Little is known about the mechanism of formation of pancreatic ducts in the embryo. Pancreatic mesenchyme contains numerous soluble factors which help to sustain the growth and differentiation of exocrine and endocrine structures. Here, we report that one such morphoregulatory mesenchymal protein, epimorphin, plays an important role during pancreatic ductal proliferation and differentiation. We found that epimorphin is expressed in pancreatic mesenchyme during early stages of development, and at mesenchymal,epithelial interfaces surrounding the ducts at later stages. Strong upregulation of epimorphin expression was seen during in vitro pancreatic duct differentiation. Similarly, in vitro pancreatic duct formation was inhibited by a neutralizing antibody against epimorphin, whereas addition of recombinant epimorphin partially rescued duct formation. Together, our study demonstrates the role of epimorphin in pancreatic ductal morphogenesis. [source]

    Gastrulation in the sea urchin embryo: A model system for analyzing the morphogenesis of a monolayered epithelium

    Tetsuya Kominami
    Processes of gastrulation in the sea urchin embryo have been intensively studied to reveal the mechanisms involved in the invagination of a monolayered epithelium. It is widely accepted that the invagination proceeds in two steps (primary and secondary invagination) until the archenteron reaches the apical plate, and that the constituent cells of the resulting archenteron are exclusively derived from the veg2 tier of blastomeres formed at the 60-cell stage. However, recent studies have shown that the recruitment of the archenteron cells lasts as late as the late prism stage, and some descendants of veg1 blastomeres are also recruited into the archenteron. In this review, we first illustrate the current outline of sea urchin gastrulation. Second, several factors, such as cytoskeletons, cell contact and extracellular matrix, will be discussed in relation to the cellular and mechanical basis of gastrulation. Third, differences in the manner of gastrulation among sea urchin species will be described; in some species, the archenteron does not elongate stepwise but continuously. In those embryos, bottle cells are scarcely observed, and the archenteron cells are not rearranged during invagination unlike in typical sea urchins. Attention will be also paid to some other factors, such as the turgor pressure of blastocoele and the force generated by blastocoele wall. These factors, in spite of their significance, have been neglected in the analysis of sea urchin gastrulation. Lastly, we will discuss how behavior of pigment cells defines the manner of gastrulation, because pigment cells recently turned out to be the bottle cells that trigger the initial inward bending of the vegetal plate. [source]

    Identification and characterization of novel calcium-binding proteins of Dictyostelium and their spatial expression patterns during development

    Haruyo Sakamoto
    Five putative Ca2+ -binding proteins, CBP5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, all having EF-hand motifs, were found by searching the Dictyostelium cDNA database ( 45Ca2+ -overlay experiments revealed that four of these (excluding CBP9) are real Ca2+ -binding proteins. Northern blot analysis revealed that the genes encoding CBP5, 6, 7 and 8 are all developmentally regulated. In situ hybridization analyses revealed that spatial expression of these genes was regulated in several different ways. CBP1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 are expressed in prespore cells in the slug stage. Transcripts of the genes for CBP1 and 5 are enriched in prestalk subtype PstO cells. In contrast, CBP4 is expressed predominantly in PstO cells. CBP8 is evenly expressed at a very low level throughout the whole slug. Such distinct spatial expression patterns suggest that the CBP might be involved in morphogenesis and might have their own roles either in prespore or in prestalk cell differentiation of Dictyostelium. [source]

    Differential distribution of spicule matrix proteins in the sea urchin embryo skeleton

    Takashi Kitajima
    Spicule matrix proteins are the products of primary mesenchyme cells, and are present in calcite spicules of the sea urchin embryo. To study their possible roles in skeletal morphogenesis, monoclonal antibodies against SM50, SM30 and another spicule matrix protein (29 kDa) were obtained. The distribution of these proteins in the embryo skeleton was observed by immunofluorescent staining. In addition, their distribution inside the spicules was examined by a ,spicule blot' procedure, direct immunoblotting of proteins embedded in crystallized spicules. Our observations showed that SM50 and 29 kDa proteins were enriched both outside and inside the triradiate spicules of the gastrulae, and also existed in the corresponding portions of growing spicules in later embryos and micromere cultures. The straight extensions of the triradiate spicules and thickened portions of body rods in pluteus spicules were also rich in these proteins. The SM30 protein was only faintly detected along the surface of spicules. By examination using the spicule blot procedure, however, SM30 was clearly detectable inside the body rods and postoral rods. These results indicate that SM50 and 29 kDa proteins are concentrated in radially growing portions of the spicules (normal to the c-axis of calcite), while SM30 protein is in the longitudinally growing portions (parallel to the c-axis). Such differential distribution suggests the involvement of these proteins in calcite growth during the formation of three-dimensionally branched spicules. [source]

    Misexpression of genes in brain vesicles by in ovo electroporation

    Harukazu Nakamura
    Transfection to living chick embryos in ovo by electroporation has been recently developed. In this mini-review, misexpression in brain vesicles is introduced. To transfect, expression plasmid is inserted in the brain vesicle, and the square pulse of 25 V, 50 ms was charged five times. The translation product of the transfected gene is detected 2 h after electroporation, and reaches the peak at 24 h after electroporation. Transfection is so effective that this method is contributing greatly to the study of the molecular mechanisms of morphogenesis. [source]

    Functional retinoid receptors in budding ascidians

    Mika Kamimura
    A homolog of retinoid X receptors (RXR), named PmRXR, was cloned from the budding ascidian, Polyandrocarpa misakiensis. Gel-shift assays revealed that PmRXR and a previously identified P. misakiensis retinoic acid receptor (PmRAR) formed a complex to bind vertebrate-type retinoic acid response element (RARE). Transfection assays were carried out using a reporter gene containing a RARE upstream of lacZ. Two chimeric effector genes were constructed by placing PmRXR and PmRAR cDNA fragments (containing the DNA-binding, ligand-binding and ligand-dependent transactivation domains) downstream of the human RXR, and RAR, cDNA (covering the N-terminal coding region), respectively. Each chimeric cDNA was ligated to a notochord-specific enhancer. In case the embryos were transfected with all three transgenes and treated with retinoic acid (RA), the reporter gene was activated in the notochord cells. The result suggests that the PmRXR/PmRAR complex functions as an RA-dependent transcriptional activator. The PmRXR mRNA was detected in a mesenchymal cell type, called glomerulocyte, in the developing Polyandrocarpa bud. As this cell type has been shown to express PmRAR mRNA, it seems possible that the PmRXR/PmRAR complex mediates RA signaling in this cell type to induce the expression of genes involved in the morphogenesis of the developing bud. [source]

    Recombinant EDA or Sonic Hedgehog rescue the branching defect in Ectodysplasin A pathway mutant salivary glands in vitro

    K.L. Wells
    Abstract Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by defective ectodermal organ development. This includes the salivary glands (SGs), which have an important role in lubricating the oral cavity. In humans and mice, HED is caused by mutations in Ectodysplasin A (Eda) pathway genes. Various phenotypes of the mutant mouse EdaTa/Ta, which lacks the ligand Eda, can be rescued by maternal injection or in vitro culture supplementation with recombinant EDA. However, the response of the SGs to this treatment has not been investigated. Here, we show that the submandibular glands (SMGs) of EdaTa/Ta mice exhibit impaired branching morphogenesis, and that supplementation of EdaTa/Ta SMG explants with recombinant EDA rescues the defect. Supplementation of EdardlJ/dlJ SMGs with recombinant Sonic hedgehog (Shh) also rescues the defect, whereas treatment with recombinant Fgf8 does not. This work is the first to test the ability of putative Eda target molecules to rescue Eda pathway mutant SMGs. Developmental Dynamics 239:2674,2684, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    MMP-2 contributes to the development of the mouse ventral prostate by impacting epithelial growth and morphogenesis

    Alexandre Bruni-Cardoso
    Abstract Epithelial growth, branching, and canalization are important morphogenetic events of the rodent ventral prostate (VP) that take place during the first postnatal week. In this study, we evaluated the effect of knocking out MMP-2 (MMP-2,/,), by examining developmental and structural aspects of the VP in MMP-2,/, mice. Neonate (day 6) MMP-2,/, mice showed fewer epithelial tips, a lower epithelial cell proliferation rate, and also reticulin fiber accumulation. The VP of adult MMP-2,/, mice showed lower relative weight, smaller epithelial and smooth-muscle cell volume, and a larger amount of thicker reticulin fibers. No differences in cell proliferation or apoptotic index were noted between adult MMP-2,/, and wild-type mice. MMP-9 was found in the adult MMP-2,/,, but not in the wild-type. In conclusion, MMP-2 function is essential for the epithelial morphogenesis of the mouse VP, and expression of MMP-9 is not sufficient for acquisition of the normal adult histology. Developmental Dynamics 239:2386,2392, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cell type,specific expression of adenomatous polyposis coli in lung development, injury, and repair

    Aimin Li
    Abstract Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) is critical for Wnt signaling and cell migration. The current study examined Apc expression during lung development, injury, and repair. Apc was first detectable in smooth muscle layers in early lung morphogenesis, and was highly expressed in ciliated and neuroendocrine cells in the advanced stages. No Apc immunoreactivity was detected in Clara or basal cells, which function as stem/progenitor cell in adult lung. In ciliated cells, Apc is associated mainly with apical cytoplasmic domain. In response to naphthalene-induced injury, Apcpositive cells underwent squamous metaplasia, accompanied by changes in Apc subcellular distribution. In conclusion, both spatial and temporal expression of Apc is dynamically regulated during lung development and injury repair. Differential expression of Apc in progenitor vs. nonprogenitor cells suggests a functional role in cell-type specification. Subcellular localization changes of Apc in response to naphthalene injury suggest a role in cell shape and cell migration. Developmental Dynamics 239:2288,2297, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Jarid2 is among a set of genes differentially regulated by Nkx2.5 during outflow tract morphogenesis

    Jeremy L. Barth
    Abstract Nkx2.5, a transcription factor implicated in human congenital heart disease, is required for regulation of second heart field (SHF) progenitors contributing to outflow tract (OFT). Here, we define a set of genes (Lrrn1, Elovl2, Safb, Slc39a6, Khdrbs1, Hoxb4, Fez1, Ccdc117, Jarid2, Nrcam, and Enpp3) expressed in SHF containing pharyngeal arch tissue whose regulation is dependent on Nkx2.5. Further investigation shows that Jarid2, which has been implicated in OFT morphogenesis, is a direct target of Nkx2.5 regulation. Jarid2 expression was up-regulated in SHF mesoderm of Nkx2.5-deficient embryos. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed Nkx2.5 interaction with consensus binding sites in the Jarid2 promoter in pharyngeal arch cells. Finally, Jarid2 promoter activity and mRNA expression levels were down-regulated by Nkx2.5 overexpression. Given the role of Jarid2 as a regulator of early cardiac proliferation, these findings highlight Jarid2 as one of several potential mediators of the critical role played by Nkx2.5 during OFT morphogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 239:2024,2033, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cellular dynamics of epithelial clefting during branching morphogenesis of the mouse submandibular gland

    Yuichi Kadoya
    Abstract We cultured the rudimental submandibular gland (SMG) of mice with a non,cell-permeable fluorescent tracer, and observed cell behavior during epithelial branching morphogenesis using confocal time-lapse microscopy. We traced movements of individual cells as shadowgraph movies. Individual epithelial cells migrated dynamically but erratically. The epithelial cleft extended by wiggling and separated a cluster of cells into two buds during branching. We examined the ultrastructure of the clefts in SMG rudiments treated with the laminin peptide A5G77f, which induces epithelial clefting. A short cytoplasmic shelf with a core of microfilaments was found at the deep end of the cleft. We propose that epithelial clefting involves a dynamic movement of cells at the base of the cleft, and the formation of a shelf within a cleft cell. The shelf might form a matrix attachment point at the base of the cleft with a core of microfilaments driving cleft elongation. Developmental Dynamics 239:1739,1747, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Generation and characterization of a novel neural crest marker allele, Inka1-LacZ, reveals a role for Inka1 in mouse neural tube closure

    Bethany S. Reid
    Abstract Previous studies identified Inka1 as a gene regulated by AP-2, in the neural crest required for craniofacial morphogenesis in fish and frog. Here, we extend the analysis of Inka1 function and regulation to the mouse by generating a LacZ knock-in allele. Inka1-LacZ allele expression occurs in the cephalic mesenchyme, heart, and paraxial mesoderm prior to E8.5. Subsequently, expression is observed in the migratory neural crest cells and their derivatives. Consistent with expression of Inka1 in tissues of the developing head during neurulation, a low percentage of Inka1,/, mice show exencephaly while the remainder are viable and fertile. Further studies indicate that AP-2, is not required for Inka1 expression in the mouse, and suggest that there is no significant genetic interaction between these two factors during embryogenesis. Together, these data demonstrate that while the expression domain of Inka1 is conserved among vertebrates, its function and regulation are not. Developmental Dynamics 239:1188,1196, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Analysis of conserved residues in the ,pat-3 cytoplasmic tail reveals important functions of integrin in multiple tissues

    Xiaojian Xu
    Abstract Integrin cytoplasmic tails contain motifs that link extracellular information to cell behavior such as cell migration and contraction. To investigate the cell functions mediated by the conserved motifs, we created mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans ,pat-3 cytoplasmic tail. The ,1D (799FK800), NPXY, tryptophan (784W), and threonine (797TT798) motifs were disrupted to identify their functions in vivo. Animals expressing integrins with disrupted NPXY motifs were viable, but displayed distal tip cell migration and ovulation defects. The conserved threonines were required for gonad migration and contraction as well as tail morphogenesis, whereas disruption of the ,1D and tryptophan motifs produced only mild defects. To abolish multiple conserved motifs, a ,1C-like variant, which results in a frameshift, was constructed. The ,pat-3(,1C) transgenic animals showed cold-sensitive larval arrests and defective muscle structure and gonad migration and contraction. Our study suggests that the conserved NPXY and TT motifs play important roles in the tissue-specific function of integrin. Developmental Dynamics 239:763,772, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Fzd3 and Fzd6 deficiency results in a severe midbrain morphogenesis defect

    Sebastian Stuebner
    Abstract Wnt/,-catenin signaling controls the proper development of the mid-/hindbrain region (MHR) and of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons, but the Frizzled (Fzd) receptors transducing these signals are still unknown. Fzd3 is expressed throughout the mouse anterior neural tube, whereas Fzd6 is restricted to the MHR. We show that the MHR is properly established and mDA neurons develop normally in Fzd6,/, mutants, but the number of mDA neurons is initially reduced and recovers at later stages in Fzd3,/, embryos. Fzd3,/,; Fzd6,/, double mutants exhibit a severe midbrain morphogenesis defect consisting of collapsed brain ventricles, apparent thickening of the neuroepithelium, focal disruption of the ventricular basal lamina and protrusion of individual cells, and increased proliferation at later stages, despite a normal closure of the anterior neural tube and the rescue of the mDA defect in these embryos. Fzd3 and Fzd6 thus control proper midbrain morphogenesis by a yet unknown mechanism in the mouse. Developmental Dynamics 239:246,260, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    What drives cell morphogenesis: A look inside the vertebrate photoreceptor

    Breandán Kennedy
    Abstract Vision mediating photoreceptor cells are specialized light-sensitive neurons in the outer layer of the vertebrate retina. The human retina contains approximately 130 million of such photoreceptors, which enable images of the external environment to be captured at high resolution and high sensitivity. Rod and cone photoreceptor subtypes are further specialized for sensing light in low and high illumination, respectively. To enable visual function, these photoreceptors have developed elaborate morphological domains for the detection of light (outer segments), for changing cell shape (inner segments), and for communication with neighboring retinal neurons (synaptic terminals). Furthermore, rod and cone subtypes feature unique morphological variations of these specialized characteristics. Here, we review the major aspects of vertebrate photoreceptor morphology and key genetic mechanisms that drive their formation. These mechanisms are necessary for cell differentiation as well as function. Their defects lead to cell death. Developmental Dynamics 238:2115,2138, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Targeted deletion of Dicer disrupts lens morphogenesis, corneal epithelium stratification, and whole eye development

    Yan Li
    Abstract Dicer, a ribonuclease essential for miRNA processing, is expressed abundantly in developing mouse cornea and lens. We studied the roles of Dicer and miRNAs in eye development by conditionally deleting the Dicer gene in the mouse lens and corneal epithelium. Adult Dicer conditional null (DicerCN) mice had severe microphthalmia with no discernible lens and a poorly stratified corneal epithelium. Targeted deletion of Dicer effectively inhibited miRNA processing in the developing lens at 12.5 day of embryogenesis (E12.5). Lens development initiated normally but underwent progressive dystrophy between E14.5 and E18.5. Microarray analysis revealed activation of P53 signaling in DicerCN lenses at E13.5, consistent with increased apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation between E12.5 and E14.5. Expression of Pax6 and other lens developmental transcription factors were not greatly affected between E12.5 and E14.5 but decreased as the lens degenerated. Our data indicated an indispensible role for Dicer and miRNAs in lens and corneal development. Developmental Dynamics 238:2388,2400, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Conditional gene inactivation reveals roles for Fgf10 and Fgfr2 in establishing a normal pattern of epithelial branching in the mouse lung

    Lisa L. Abler
    Abstract Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) signaling through FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) is required for lung initiation. While studies indicate that Fgf10 and Fgfr2 are also important at later stages of lung development, their roles in early branching events remain unclear. We addressed this question through conditional inactivation of both genes in mouse subsequent to lung initiation. Inactivation of Fgf10 in lung mesenchyme resulted in smaller lobes with a reduced number of branches. Inactivation of Fgfr2 in lung epithelium resulted in disruption of lobes and small epithelial outgrowths that arose arbitrarily along the main bronchi. In both mutants, there was an increase in cell death. Also, the expression patterns of key signaling molecules implicated in branching morphogenesis were altered and a proximal lung marker was expanded distally. Our results indicate that both Fgf10 and Fgfr2 are required for a normal branching program and for proper proximal,distal patterning of the lung.Developmental Dynamics 238:1999,2013, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Tulp3 is a critical repressor of mouse hedgehog signaling

    Don A. Cameron
    Abstract Precise regulation of the morphogen sonic hedgehog (Shh) and modulation of the Shh signaling pathway is required for proper specification of cell fate within the developing limbs and neural tube, and resultant tissue morphogenesis. Tulp3 (tubby-like protein 3) is a protein of unknown function which has been implicated in nervous system development through gene knockout studies. We demonstrate here that mice lacking the Tulp3 gene develop abnormalities of both the neural tube and limbs consistent with improper regulation of Shh signaling. Tulp3,/, embryos show expansion of Shh target gene expression and display a ventralization of neural progenitor cells in the caudal neural tube. We further show that Tulp3,/,/Shh,/, compound mutant embryos resemble Tulp3 mutants, and express Shh target genes in the neural tube and limbs which are not expressed in Shh,/, embryos. This work uncovers a novel role for Tulp3 as a negative regulatory factor in the Hh pathway. Developmental Dynamics 238:1140,1149, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Pleiotropic function of FGF-4: Its role in development and stem cells

    Nobuyoshi Kosaka
    Abstract Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) were initially recognized as fibroblast-specific growth factor, and it is now apparent that these growth factors regulate multiple biological functions. The diversity of FGFs function is paralleled by the emerging diversity of interactions between FGF ligands and their receptors. FGF-4 is a member of the FGF superfamily and is a mitogen exhibiting strong action on numerous different cell types. It plays a role in various stages of development and morphogenesis, as well as in a variety of biological processes. Recent studies reveal the molecular mechanisms of FGF-4 gene regulation in mammalian cells, which is involved in the developmental process. Furthermore, FGF-4 also acts on the regulation of proliferation and differentiation in embryonic stem cells and tissue stem cells. In this review, we focus on the diverse biological functions of FGF-4 in the developmental process and also discuss its putative roles in stem cell biology. Developmental Dynamics 238:265,276, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Estimating the spatiotemporal pattern of volumetric growth rate from fate maps in chick limb development

    Yoshihiro Morishita
    Abstract Morphogenesis is achieved through volumetric growth of tissue at a rate varying over space and time. The volumetric growth rate of each piece of tissue reflects the behaviors of constituent cells such as cell proliferation and death. Hence, clarifying its spatiotemporal pattern accurately is a key to bridge between cell behaviors and organ morphogenesis. We here propose a new method to estimate the spatiotemporal pattern of volumetric growth rate from fate map data with limited resolution on space and time by using a mathematical model. We apply the method to chick wing data along the proximodistal axis, and find that the volumetric growth pattern is biphasic: it is spatially uniform in earlier stages (until stage 23), but in later stages the volumetric growth occurs approximately 4.5 times as fast as in the distal region (within approximately 100 ,m from the limb tip) than in the proximal region. Developmental Dynamics 238:415,422, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Morphogenesis of the node and notochord: The cellular basis for the establishment and maintenance of left,right asymmetry in the mouse

    Jeffrey D. Lee
    Abstract Establishment of left,right asymmetry in the mouse embryo depends on leftward laminar fluid flow in the node, which initiates a signaling cascade that is confined to the left side of the embryo. Leftward fluid flow depends on two cellular processes: motility of the cilia that generate the flow and morphogenesis of the node, the structure where the cilia reside. Here, we provide an overview of the current understanding and unresolved questions about the regulation of ciliary motility and node structure. Analysis of mouse mutants has shown that the motile cilia must have a specific structure and length, and that they must point posteriorly to generate the necessary leftward fluid flow. However, the precise structure of the motile cilia is not clear and the mechanisms that position cilia on node cells have not been defined. The mouse node is a teardrop-shaped pit at the distal tip of the early embryo, but the morphogenetic events that create the mature node from cells derived from the primitive streak are only beginning to be characterized. Recent live imaging experiments support earlier scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies and show that node assembly is a multi-step process in which clusters of node precursors appear on the embryo surface as overlying endoderm cells are removed. We present additional SEM and confocal microscopy studies that help define the transition stages during node morphogenesis. After the initiation of left-sided signaling, the notochordal plate, which is contiguous with the node, generates a barrier at the embryonic midline that restricts the cascade of gene expression to the left side of the embryo. The field is now poised to dissect the genetic and cellular mechanisms that create and organize the specialized cells of the node and midline that are essential for left,right asymmetry. Developmental Dynamics 237:3464,3476, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Man1, an inner nuclear membrane protein, regulates left,right axis formation by controlling nodal signaling in a node-independent manner

    Akihiko Ishimura
    Abstract Man1, an inner nuclear membrane protein, regulates transforming growth factor , signaling by interacting with receptor-associated Smads. In Man1 -deficient (Man1,/,) embryos, vascular remodeling is perturbed by misregulation of Smad activity. Here, we show that Man1,/, embryos exhibit abnormal heart morphogenesis including the looping abnormality. We searched for the molecular basis underlying the heart abnormalities and found that the left side-specific genes responsible for left,right (LR) asymmetry, Nodal, Lefty2, and Pitx2, were expressed bilaterally in the lateral plate mesoderm and that their expression was enhanced significantly in mutants. Notably, Lefty1, a marker for the midline barrier, was maintained in Man1,/, mutants. Crossing Man1,/+ with Nodal hypomorphs (Nodalneo/+), in which Nodal signaling in the node is disrupted, to generate double homozygous embryos (Man1,/,; Nodalneo/neo) revealed that the bilateral Nodal was retained in Man1,/,; Nodalneo/neo embryos. These results suggest that Man1 regulates LR asymmetry by controlling Nodal signaling in a node-independent manner. Developmental Dynamics 237:3565,3576, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]