Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Monkeys

  • Cynomolgu monkey
  • black howler monkey
  • blue monkey
  • capuchin monkey
  • colobine monkey
  • colobus monkey
  • control monkey
  • cynomolgu monkey
  • fasciculari monkey
  • female cynomolgu monkey
  • female monkey
  • female rhesus monkey
  • goeldi monkey
  • green monkey
  • howler monkey
  • macaca fasciculari monkey
  • macaque monkey
  • male rhesus monkey
  • marmoset monkey
  • new world monkey
  • old world monkey
  • patas monkey
  • proboscis monkey
  • rhesus monkey
  • snub-nosed monkey
  • spider monkey
  • squirrel monkey
  • titi monkey
  • tufted capuchin monkey
  • vervet monkey
  • wild capuchin monkey
  • woolly monkey
  • world monkey

  • Terms modified by Monkeys

  • monkey kidney
  • monkey model
  • monkey population
  • monkey species

  • Selected Abstracts

    Making the Monkey: How the Togean Macaque Went from "New Form" to "Endemic Species" in Indonesians' Conservation Biology

    Celia Lowe
    Indonesian scientists inhabit a postcolonial world where they are both elite (within the nation) and subaltern (within transnational science) at precisely the same moments. A study of science that is neither "ethno" nor "Euro" requires a postcolonial refiguration not only of how science's matter is made but of where and by whom. In the 1990s, the Togean macaque (Macaca togeanus) was proposed as a new species endemic to the Togean Islands, the proposed site of a new conservation area in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In the scientific production of biodiverse nature, Indonesian primatologists identified the monkey first as a "new form," then as a "dubious name," and subsequently, as an "endemic species." Throughout these acts of making, unmaking, and remaking the monkey, its unique and endemic status was important for developing Indonesian conservation biology, attracting foreign donors, and enlisting government and public interest in Togean Island nature, even as forms of nature important to Togean peoples were overwritten in this process. [source]

    Ethanol Self-Administration and Alterations in the Livers of the Cynomolgus Monkey, Macaca fascicularis

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2007
    Priscilla Ivester
    Background: Most of the studies of alcoholic liver disease use models in which animals undergo involuntary administration of high amounts of ethanol and consume diets that are often high in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate whether cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) drinking ethanol voluntarily and consuming a diet with moderate amounts of lipid would demonstrate any indices of alcoholic liver disease past the fatty liver stage and (2) to determine whether these alterations were accompanied by oxidative stress. Methods: Six adult male and 6 adult female cynomolgus monkeys were allowed to consume ethanol voluntarily for 18 to 19 months. Additional monkeys were maintained on the same consumption protocol, but were not provided with ethanol. During the course of the study, liver biopsy samples were monitored for lipid deposition and inflammation, serum for levels of liver enzymes, and urine for concentrations of the isoprostane (IsoP) metabolite, 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F2t -IsoP, a biomarker for oxidative stress. Liver mitochondria were monitored for respiratory control and liver for concentrations of neutral lipids, adenine nucleotides, esterified F2 isoprostanes, oxidized proteins, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)-protein adducts, and protein levels of cytochrome P-450 2E1 and 3A4. Results: Ethanol consumption ranged from 0.9 to 4.05 g/kg/d over the period of the study. Serum levels of aspartate amino transferase were elevated in heavy-consuming animals compared with those in ethanol-naïve or moderate drinkers. Many of the ethanol consumers developed fatty liver and most showed loci of inflammation. Both hepatic energy charge and phosphorylation potential were decreased and NADH-linked respiration was slightly, but significantly depressed in coupled mitochondria as a result of heavy ethanol consumption. The urinary concentrations of 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F2t -IsoP increased as high as 33-fold over that observed in ethanol-abstinent animals. Liver cytochrome P-450 2E1 concentrations increased in ethanol consumers, but there were no ethanol-elicited increases in hepatic concentrations of the esterified F2 isoprostanes, oxidized proteins, or HNE-protein adducts. Conclusion: Our studies show that cynomolgus monkeys undergoing voluntary ethanol consumption for 1.5 years exhibit many of the features observed in the early stages of human alcoholic liver disease. Ethanol-elicited fatty liver, inflammation, and elevated serum aspartate amino transferase were evident with a diet that contained modest amounts of polyunsaturated lipids. The dramatic increases in urinary IsoP demonstrated that the animals were being subjected to significant oxidative stress that correlated with their level of ethanol consumption. [source]

    A Monkey Figurine from Tel Beth Shemesh

    Raz Kletter
    This paper presents a unique clay figurine found at Tel Beth Shemesh, Judah, in a late Iron Age II context. The figurine portrays a monkey-faced horse, a combination that is rare in the ancient Near East and unknown, so far, from Judah. Comparisons are sought, followed by a discussion of the Monkey in small representations in the ancient Near East and Mesopotamia. Monkeys were exotic, held as pet animals by the higher classes and related to sex, music, ugliness, lack of intelligence, and various other human characteristics. It is suggested that the significance of this figurine lies in such ,secular' connotations, rather than in a religious realm [source]

    Developmental Changes of Seminiferous Tubule in Prenatal, Postnatal and Adult Testis of Bonnet Monkey (Macaca radiata)

    S. Prakash
    Summary This paper is a part of our study on the male reproductive system of bonnet monkey. The developmental changes in testis of bonnet monkey were studied qualitatively and quantitatively, at the light microscopy level. Testicular development appears to primarily involve tubular growth that starts immediately after birth. There is a gradual increase in the number of tubules in the prenatal to neonatal stage in testis, without an increase in the volume. Increase in the number of tubules in the neonatal testis was achieved by an increase in the length of the tubules and reduction in the interstitial proportion. Scattered spermatogonial cells in the tubules of neonatal testis indicate the rapid growth rate of the tubules. Increase in tubular length along with diameter seems to be a continuous process until puberty. This is the first report on the developmental changes in the testis during fetal, postnatal and adult stages in the bonnet monkey. [source]

    Morphology of the Dorsal Lingual Papillae in the Japanese Macaque and Savanna Monkey

    S. Emura
    Summary The dorsal lingual surfaces of infant Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) and adult savanna monkey (Cercopithecus aethiopus) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Filiform, fungiform, foliate and vallate papillae were found. The filiform papillae were distributed over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue. The fungiform papillae were round in shape, and more densely distributed on the lingual apex. The foliate papillae were seen on the dorsolateral aspect of the tongue. The three vallate papillae were arranged like a triangle with the apex of the triangle directing caudally. Each papilla was surrounded by a groove. The rudiments of the fungiform, foliate and vallate papillae were visible earlier than those of the filiform papillae. [source]

    The Influence of Large Tree Density on Howler Monkey (Alouatta palliata mexicana) Presence in Very Small Rain Forest Fragments

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 6 2007
    Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez
    First page of article [source]

    Learning large-scale spatial relationships in a maze and effects of MK-801 on retrieval in the rhesus monkey

    Jian Hong Wang
    Abstract Monkeys have strong abilities to remember the visual properties of potential food sources for survival in the nature. The present study demonstrated the first observations of rhesus monkeys learning to solve complex spatial mazes in which routes were guided by visual cues. Three monkeys were trained in a maze (6 m × 6 m) included of four different mazes. We recorded the cue and cup errors, latencies, and pathway for each trial. The data showed that monkeys learned the target place after three days in the first maze and spent a shorter time in learning the following mazes. The maze was an efficient method to measure the ability and proceeding of spatial memory in monkeys. Moreover, working memory can also be tested by using the maze. MK-801 at 0.02 mg/kg but not at 0.005 mg/kg impaired monkeys' retrieval of spatial memory after they learned all four mazes. The present maze may provide an efficient method to help bridging the gap in cognition between nonhuman primates and humans, and in particular to gain insight into human cognitive function and dysfunction. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2007. [source]

    Effects of Pair-Bond and Social Context on Male,Female Interactions in Captive Titi Monkeys (Callicebus moloch, Primates: Cebidae)

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 12 2000
    Eduardo Fernandez-Duque
    In monogamous species, an abiding relationship between a specific adult male and a specific adult female is a defining feature of the social system. The interactions between these individuals are influenced by many factors, including not only the history of their relationship (for example, development of a mutual bond), but also the immediate effects of the prevailing social context (for example, presence and sex of extra-pair conspecifics). In this study we examined the effects of an existing bond and of social context on interactions between adult heterosexual pairs of the monogamous titi monkeys (Callicebus moloch). Twelve adult males and 12 adult females were tested with their cagemates and with an unfamiliar partner of the opposite sex in five social contexts: (1) mated male,female pair; (2) unfamiliar pair; (3) single female; (4) single male; and (5) empty stimulus cage. Results show that mated pairs were more affiliative than unfamiliar pairs and differentiated social contexts more sharply. Males were more responsive to context than females. Distance between mates was less and physical contact was more frequent in the presence of male,female pairs or a single male, than in the presence of a single female or an empty cage. These findings suggest that the presence and sex of strangers have a stronger influence on male,female interactions when the pair has an existing relationship. [source]

    Distinct contributions of the amygdala and hippocampus to fear expression

    Yogita Chudasama
    Abstract The present study attempted to distinguish the independent contributions of the amygdala and hippocampus to fear expression. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with bilateral excitotoxic amygdala lesions (n = 4), bilateral excitotoxic hippocampal lesions (n = 8) and unoperated controls (n = 9) were allowed to reach over a neutral junk object or fear-provoking stimulus (i.e., a rubber snake or a jumping rubber spider) to retrieve a food reward. Monkeys were exposed to each stimulus for 30 s. On each trial we recorded the monkey's latency to retrieve the food reward and scored their whole-body reactions to the object. Confirming previous work we found that, relative to controls, both operated groups showed shorter food-retrieval latencies and exhibited fewer defensive and more approach behaviors when exposed to the fear-provoking stimuli. However, only monkeys with amygdala lesions showed an abnormal, excessive visual interest in the snake and spider. By contrast, monkeys with hippocampal lesions displayed behaviors that were unrelated to the presence of the fear stimuli, thereby indicating a lack of interest in, and emotional reactivity towards, the snake and spider. These data show that the hippocampus and amygdala contribute independently to the overall expression of defensive responses. [source]

    Disruption of self-organized actions in monkeys with progressive MPTP-induced parkinsonism: II.

    Effects of reward preference
    Abstract The motor and cognitive symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are well documented, but little is known about the functionality of motivational processes mediated by the limbic circuits of basal ganglia. The aim of this study was to test the ability of motivational processes to direct and to urge behaviour, in four vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) progressively intoxicated with systemic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) injections (0.3,0.4 mg/kg every 4,7 days). In the food preference task, the monkeys had to retrieve two types of directly visible food, simultaneously available in the wells of a reward board. At all stages of MPTP-induced parkinsonism, the monkeys continued to take their favourite food first. In the symbol discrimination task, the wells were covered with sliding plaques cued by symbols indicating the absence or presence of a reward, and the different types of food were blocked in separate sessions. Monkeys with mild or moderate parkinsonism made fewer attempts and took longer to retrieve non-preferred compared with preferred rewards. These results indicate that motivational processes are still able to direct (food preference task) and to urge (symbol discrimination task) behaviour in MPTP-lesioned monkeys. Such a functional preservation may be related to the relatively spared dopaminergic innervation of the limbic circuits that we found in our monkeys, in agreement with the literature on humans. Furthermore, the frequency of executive disorders (such as hesitations and freezing) appeared to be much lower with the preferred rewards. Thus, the preserved motivational processes may help to overcome executive dysfunction in the early stages of human PD. [source]

    Perirhinal cortex resolves feature ambiguity in complex visual discriminations

    Timothy J. Bussey
    Abstract The present experiment tested predictions of a ,perceptual,mnemonic/feature conjunction' (PMFC) model of perirhinal cortex function. The model predicts that lesions of perirhinal cortex should disrupt complex visual discriminations with a high degree of ,feature ambiguity', a property of visual discrimination problems that can emerge when features of an object are rewarded when they are part of one object, but not when part of another. As feature ambiguity is thought to be the critical factor, such effects should be independent of the number of objects to be discriminated. This was tested directly, by assessing performance of control monkeys and monkeys with aspiration lesions of perirhinal cortex on a series of concurrent discriminations in which the number of object pairs was held constant, but the degree of feature ambiguity was varied systematically. Monkeys were tested in three conditions: Maximum Feature Ambiguity, in which all features were explicitly ambiguous (AB+, CD+, BC,, AD,; the biconditional problem); Minimum Feature Ambiguity, in which no features were explicitly ambiguous (AB+, CD+, EF,, GH,); and Intermediate Feature Ambiguity, in which half the features were explicitly ambiguous (AB+, CD+, CE,, AF,). The pattern of results closely matched that predicted by simulations using a connectionist network: monkeys with perirhinal cortex lesions were unimpaired in the Minimum Feature Ambiguity condition, mildly impaired in the Intermediate Feature Ambiguity condition and severely impaired in the Maximum Feature Ambiguity condition. These results confirm the predictions of the PMFC model, and force a reconsideration of prevailing views regarding perirhinal cortex function. [source]

    Environment-spatial conditional learning in rats with selective lesions of medial septal cholinergic neurons

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 2 2004
    Agnieszka M. Janisiewicz
    Abstract Cholinergic medial septal neurons may regulate several aspects of hippocampal function, including place field stability and spatial working memory. Monkeys with damage to septal cholinergic neurons are impaired in visual-spatial conditional learning tasks; however, this candidate function of septal cholinergic neurons has not been studied extensively in the rat. In the present study, rats with selective lesions of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (MS/VDB), made with 192 IgG-saporin, were tested on a conditional associative learning task. In this task, which we term "environment-spatial" conditional learning, the correct location of a spatial response depended on the array of local environmental cues. MS/VDB-lesioned rats were impaired when the two parts of the conditional problem were presented concurrently, but not when one environment had been learned before the full conditional problem was presented. Our findings suggest that cholinergic MS/VDB neurons participate in some aspects of conditional associative learning in rats. They may also shed light on the involvement of cholinergic projections to the hippocampus in modulating and remodeling hippocampal spatial representations. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Experimental hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis): evidence of active extrahepatic site of HAV replication

    Luciane A. Amado
    Summary This work studied the replication sites of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) after intravenous inoculation. The cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with the Brazilian hepatitis A virus strain (HAF-203). Monkeys were euthanized on days 15, 30, 45 and 60 postinoculation (pi). Liver samples, submandibular salivary gland, mesenteric lymph node and tonsils were removed for virological and pathological evaluation. Immunofluorescence analyses on liver and salivary gland sections using confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the presence of HAV antigen (HAV Ag). The presence of HAV genome was monitored by real-time PCR. The HAV RNA was detected at 7 days postinoculation (dpi), concomitantly in serum, saliva and faeces. The highest HAV viral load was observed in faeces at 15 dpi (105 copies/ml), followed by serum viral load of 104 copies/ml at 20 dpi and saliva viral load of 103 copies/ml at 7 dpi. The animals showed first histological and biochemical signs of hepatitis at 15 dpi. The HAV antigen (Ag) was present from day 7 until day 60 pi in the liver and salivary glands. The HAV replicative intermediate was also detected in the liver (4.5 × 104 copies/mg), salivary glands (1.9 × 103 copies/mg), tonsils (4.2 × 101 copies/mg) and lymph nodes (3.4 × 101 copies/mg). Our data demonstrated that the salivary gland as an extrahepatic site of early HAV replication could create a potential risk of saliva transmitted infection. In addition, the cynomolgus monkey was confirmed as a suitable model to study the pathogenesis of HAV human infection. [source]

    Intermittently Administered Human Parathyroid Hormone(1,34) Treatment Increases Intracortical Bone Turnover and Porosity Without Reducing Bone Strength in the Humerus of Ovariectomized Cynomolgus Monkeys

    David B. Burr
    Abstract Cortical porosity in patients with hyperparathyroidism has raised the concern that intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) given to treat osteoporotic patients may weaken cortical bone by increasing its porosity. We hypothesized that treatment of ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys for up to 18 months with recombinant human PTH(1,34) [hPTH(1,34)] LY333334 would significantly increase porosity in the midshaft of the humerus but would not have a significant effect on the strength or stiffness of the humerus. We also hypothesized that withdrawal of PTH for 6 months after a 12-month treatment period would return porosity to control OVX values. OVX female cynomolgus monkeys were given once daily subcutaneous (sc) injections of recombinant hPTH(1,34) LY333334 at 1.0 ,g/kg (PTH1), 5.0 ,g/kg (PTH5), or 0.1 ml/kg per day of phosphate-buffered saline (OVX). Sham OVX animals (sham) were also given vehicle. After 12 months, PTH treatment was withdrawn from half of the monkeys in each treatment group (PTH1-W and PTH5-W), and they were treated for the remaining 6 months with vehicle. Double calcein labels were given before death at 18 months. After death, static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements were made intracortically and on periosteal and endocortical surfaces of sections from the middiaphysis of the left humerus. Bone mechanical properties were measured in the right humeral middiaphysis. PTH dose dependently increased intracortical porosity. However, the increased porosity did not have a significant detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of the bone. Most porosity was concentrated near the endocortical surface where its mechanical effect is small. In PTH5 monkeys, cortical area (Ct.Ar) and cortical thickness (Ct.Th) increased because of a significantly increased endocortical mineralizing surface. After withdrawal of treatment, porosity in PTH1-W animals declined to sham values, but porosity in PTH5-W animals remained significantly elevated compared with OVX and sham. We conclude that intermittently administered PTH(1,34) increases intracortical porosity in a dose-dependent manner but does not reduce the strength or stiffness of cortical bone. [source]

    Therapeutic immunization with Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) vaccines in SIV-infected rhesus monkeys undergoing antiretroviral therapy

    Klaus Überla
    Abstract Background, The long-term benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients are limited by emergence of drug-resistant variants and side effects. Therefore, we studied the concept of therapeutic immunization in 18 rhesus monkeys infected with a highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) swarm. Methods, Monkeys were treated with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine (PMPA) for 19 weeks starting 10 days after infection. After suppression of viremia, one group of monkeys was immunized with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vectors expressing gag-pol and env. A second group received MVA vectors expressing the regulatory genes tat, rev and nef, while a third group was not immunized. Results, Immunization with gag-pol and env expressing MVA enhanced SIV antibody titers. Following discontinuation of PMPA treatment, a rebound in viral load was observed. However, in three of six monkeys immunized with MVA gag-pol and MVA env, and two of six monkeys immunized MVA expressing regulatory genes set point RNA levels were below or close to a threshold level of 104 RNA copies/ml, while only one of six unvaccinated monkeys maintained such low RNA levels. Conclusions, Although a subset of animals seem to benefit from therapeutic immunization with MVA vectors, the difference in set point RNA levels between the groups did not reach statistical significance. [source]

    Sexual Differentiation of Behaviour in Monkeys: Role of Prenatal Hormones

    K. Wallen
    The theoretical debate over the relative contributions of nature and nurture to the sexual differentiation of behaviour has increasingly moved towards an interactionist explanation that requires both influences. In practice, however, nature and nurture have often been seen as separable, influencing human clinical sex assignment decisions, sometimes with disastrous consequences. Decisions about the sex assignment of children born with intersex conditions have been based almost exclusively on the appearance of the genitals and how other's reactions to the gender role of the assigned sex affect individual gender socialisation. Effects of the social environment and gender expectations in human cultures are ubiquitous, overshadowing the potential underlying biological contributions in favour of the more observable social influences. Recent work in nonhuman primates showing behavioural sex differences paralleling human sex differences, including toy preferences, suggests that less easily observed biological factors also influence behavioural sexual differentiation in both monkeys and humans. We review research, including Robert W. Goy's pioneering work with rhesus monkeys, which manipulated prenatal hormones at different gestation times and demonstrated that genital anatomy and specific behaviours are independently sexually differentiated. Such studies demonstrate that, for a variety of behaviours, including juvenile mounting and rough play, individuals can have the genitals of one sex but show the behaviour more typical of the other sex. We describe another case, infant distress vocalisations, where maternal responsiveness is best accounted for by the mother's response to the genital appearance of her offspring. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that sexual differentiation arises from complex interactions where anatomical and behavioural biases, produced by hormonal and other biological processes, are shaped by social experience into the behavioural sex differences that distinguish males and females. [source]

    Effects of Long-Term Hormone Treatment and of Tibolone on Monoamines and Monoamine Metabolites in the Brains of Ovariectomised, Cynomologous Monkeys

    R. B. Gibbs
    The effects of long-term hormone treatment on monoamines and monoamine metabolites in different regions of the primate brain were examined and compared. Ovariectomised Cynomologous monkeys received daily oral administration of either conjugated equine oestrogens (CEE), CEE + medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), or a low or high dose of tibolone, for a period of 2 years. Tissue punches collected from frozen sections through various regions of the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain were assayed for levels of dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), and norepinephrine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Few differences between hormone-treated animals and ovariectomised controls were observed. No statistically significant effects of CEE relative to controls were detected in any of the seven brain regions analysed. Animals treated with CEE + MPA showed significant reductions in 5-HIAA in the dorsal raphe nucleus, a significant reduction in dopamine in the hypothalamus, and a significant reduction in serotonin (5-HT) levels in area 8AD of the frontal cortex. Similar to CEE, no significant effects of tibolone relative to controls were detected; however, animals treated with high-dose tibolone showed a decrease in 5-HT levels in the frontal cortex that approached significance and was similar to the effect of CEE + MPA. Collectively, the findings suggest that long-term oral administration of these compounds has relatively few effects on the levels of dopamine, serotonin, and their primary metabolites in the primate brain. This differs from the significant effects on serotonergic and dopaminergic systems detected following parenteral treatment with oestradiol and progesterone, and likely reflects differences between the effects of treating with CEE + MPA versus oestradiol and progesterone on brain monoaminergic systems. [source]

    Differential gender effects of a reduced-calorie diet on systemic inflammatory and immune parameters in nonhuman primates

    J. L. Ebersole
    Background and Objective:, Dietary manipulation, including caloric restriction, has been shown to impact host response capabilities significantly, particularly in association with aging. This investigation compared systemic inflammatory and immune-response molecules in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Material and Methods:, Monkeys on continuous long-term calorie-restricted diets and a matched group of animals on a control ad libitum diet, were examined for systemic response profiles including the effects of both gender and aging. Results:, The results demonstrated that haptoglobin and ,1-antiglycoprotein levels were elevated in the serum of male monkeys. Serum IgG responses to Campylobacter rectus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis were significantly elevated in female monkeys. While only the antibody to Fusobacterium nucleatum was significantly affected by the calorie-restricted diet in female monkeys, antibody levels to Prevotella intermedia, C. rectus and Treponema denticola demonstrated a similar trend. Conclusion:, In this investigation, only certain serum antibody levels were influenced by the age of male animals, which was seemingly related to increasing clinical disease in this gender. More generally, analytes were modulated by gender and/or diet in this oral model system of mucosal microbial challenge. [source]

    Up-Regulation and Functional Effect of Cardiac ,3 -Adrenoreceptors in Alcoholic Monkeys

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2010
    Heng-Jie Cheng
    Background:, Recent studies link altered cardiac ,-adrenergic receptor (AR) signaling to the pathology of alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). However, the alteration and functional effect of ,3 -AR activation in ACM are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that chronic alcohol intake causes an up-regulation of cardiac ,3 -AR, which exacerbates myocyte dysfunction and impairs calcium regulation, thereby directly contributing to the progression of ACM. Methods:, We compared myocyte ,3 - and ,1 -AR expression and myocyte contractile ([Ca2+]i), transient ([Ca2+]iT), and Ca2+ current (ICa,L) responses to ,- and ,3 -AR stimulation in myocytes obtained from left ventricle (LV) tissue samples obtained from 10 normal control (C) and 16 monkeys with self-administered alcohol for 12 months prior to necropsy: 6 moderate (M) and 10 heavy (H) drinkers with group average alcohol intakes of 1.5 ± 0.2 and 3.3 ± 0.2 g/kg/d, respectively. Results:, Compared with control myocytes (C), in alcoholic cardiomyocytes, basal cell contraction (dL/dtmax, ,39%, H: 69.8 vs. C: 114.6 ,m/s), relaxation (dR/dtmax, ,37%, 58.2 vs. 92.9 ,m/s), [Ca2+]iT (,34%, 0.23 vs. 0.35), and ICa,L (,25%, 4.8 vs. 6.4pA/pF) were all significantly reduced. Compared with controls, in moderate and heavy drinkers, ,1 -AR protein levels decreased by 23% and 42%, but ,3 -AR protein increased by 46% and 85%, respectively. These changes were associated with altered myocyte functional responses to ,-AR agonist, isoproterenol (ISO), and ,3 -AR agonist, BRL-37344 (BRL). Compared with controls, in alcoholic myocytes, ISO (10,8 M) produced significantly smaller increases in dL/dtmax (H: 40% vs. C: 71%), dR/dtmax (37% vs. 52%), [Ca2+]iT (17% vs. 37%), and ICa,L (17% vs. 27%), but BRL (10,8 M) produced a significantly greater decrease in dL/dtmax (H: ,23% vs. C: ,11%), [Ca2+]iT (,30% vs. ,11%), and ICa,L (,28% vs. ,17%). Conclusions:, Chronic alcohol consumption down-regulates cardiac ,1 - and up-regulates ,3 -ARs, contributing to the abnormal response to catecholamines in ACM. The up-regulation of cardiac ,3 -AR signaling enhances inhibition of LV myocyte contraction and relaxation and exacerbates the dysfunctional [Ca2+]i regulation and, thus, may precede the development of ACM. [source]

    Differential Effects of Ethanol on Serum GABAergic 3,,5,/3,,5, Neuroactive Steroids in Mice, Rats, Cynomolgus Monkeys, and Humans

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2010
    Patrizia Porcu
    Background:, Acute ethanol administration increases plasma and brain levels of progesterone and deoxycorticosterone-derived neuroactive steroids (3,,5,)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3,,5,-THP) and (3,,5,)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3,,5,-THDOC) in rats. However, little is known about ethanol effects on GABAergic neuroactive steroids in mice, nonhuman primates, or humans. We investigated the effects of ethanol on plasma levels of 3,,5,- and 3,,5,-reduced GABAergic neuroactive steroids derived from progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and testosterone using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Methods:, Serum levels of GABAergic neuroactive steroids and pregnenolone were measured in male rats, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, cynomolgus monkeys, and humans following ethanol administration. Rats and mice were injected with ethanol (0.8 to 2.0 g/kg), cynomolgus monkeys received ethanol (1.5 g/kg) intragastrically, and healthy men consumed a beverage containing 0.8 g/kg ethanol. Steroids were measured after 60 minutes in all species and also after 120 minutes in monkeys and humans. Results:, Ethanol administration to rats increased levels of 3,,5,-THP, 3,,5,-THDOC, and pregnenolone at the doses of 1.5 g/kg (+228, +134, and +860%, respectively, p < 0.001) and 2.0 g/kg (+399, +174, and +1125%, respectively, p < 0.001), but not at the dose of 0.8 g/kg. Ethanol did not alter levels of the other neuroactive steroids. In contrast, C57BL/6J mice exhibited a 27% decrease in serum 3,,5,-THP levels (p < 0.01), while DBA/2J mice showed no significant effect of ethanol, although both mouse strains exhibited substantial increases in precursor steroids. Ethanol did not alter any of the neuroactive steroids in cynomolgus monkeys at doses comparable to those studied in rats. Finally, no effect of ethanol (0.8 g/kg) was observed in men. Conclusions:, These studies show clear species differences among rats, mice, and cynomolgus monkeys in the effects of ethanol administration on circulating neuroactive steroids. Rats are unique in their pronounced elevation of GABAergic neuroactive steroids, while this effect was not observed in mice or cynomolgus monkeys at comparable ethanol doses. [source]

    Zolpidem Generalization and Antagonism in Male and Female Cynomolgus Monkeys Trained to Discriminate 1.0 or 2.0 g,/,kg Ethanol

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2008
    Christa M. Helms
    Background:, The subtypes of , -aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors mediating the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol in nonhuman primates are not completely identified. The GABAA receptor positive modulator zolpidem has high, intermediate, and low activity at receptors containing ,1, ,2/3, and ,5 subunits, respectively, and partially generalizes from ethanol in several species. The partial inverse agonist Ro15-4513 has the greatest affinity for ,4/6 -containing receptors, higher affinity for ,5 - and lower, but equal, affinity for ,1 - and ,2/3 -, containing GABAA receptors, and antagonizes the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol. Methods:, This study assessed Ro15-4513 antagonism of the generalization of zolpidem from ethanol in male (n = 9) and female (n = 8) cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) trained to discriminate 1.0 g/kg (n = 10) or 2.0 g/kg (n = 7) ethanol (i.g.) from water with a 30-minute pretreatment interval. Results:, Zolpidem (0.017 to 5.6 mg/kg, i.m.) completely generalized from ethanol (,80% of total session responses on the ethanol-appropriate lever) for 6/7 monkeys trained to discriminate 2.0 g/kg and 4/10 monkeys trained to discriminate 1.0 g/kg ethanol. Zolpidem partially generalized from 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg ethanol in 6/7 remaining monkeys. Ro15-4513 (0.003 to 0.30 mg/kg, i.m., 5-minute pretreatment) shifted the zolpidem dose,response curve to the right in all monkeys showing generalization. Analysis of apparent pKB from antagonism tests suggested that the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol common with zolpidem are mediated by low-affinity Ro15-4513 binding sites. Main effects of sex and training dose indicated greater potency of Ro15-4513 in males and in monkeys trained to discriminate 1.0 g/kg ethanol. Conclusions:, Ethanol and zolpidem share similar discriminative stimulus effects most likely through GABAA receptors that contain ,1 subunits, however, antagonism by Ro15-4513 of zolpidem generalization from the lower training dose of ethanol (1.0 g/kg) may involve additional zolpidem-sensitive GABAA receptor subtypes (e.g., ,2/3 and ,5). [source]

    Impact of Sex: Determination of Alcohol Neuroadaptation and Reinforcement

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2006
    Kristine M. Wiren
    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Santa Barbara, California. The organizers/chairs were Kristine M. Wiren and Deborah A. Finn. Following a brief introduction by Deborah Finn, the presentations were (1) The Importance of Gender in Determining Expression Differences in Mouse Lines Selected for Chronic Ethanol Withdrawal Severity, by Kristine M. Wiren and Joel G. Hashimoto; (2) Sex Differences in Ethanol Withdrawal Involve GABAergic and Stress Systems, by Paul E. Alele and Leslie L. Devaud; (3) The Influence of Sex on Ethanol Consumption and Reward in C57BL/6 Mice, by Kimber L. Price and Lawrence D. Middaugh; and (4) Sex Differences in Alcohol Self-administration in Cynomolgus Monkeys, by Kathleen A. Grant. [source]

    Development of Alcoholic Fatty Liver and Fibrosis in Rhesus Monkeys Fed a Low n-3 Fatty Acid Diet

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2004
    Robert J. Pawlosky
    Background: The amount and type of dietary fat seem to be important factors that modulate the development of alcohol-induced liver steatosis and fibrosis. Various alcohol-feeding studies in animals have been used to model some of the symptoms that occur in liver disease in humans. Methods: Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were maintained on a diet that had a very low concentration of ,-linolenic acid and were given free access to an artificially sweetened 7% ethanol solution. Control and ethanol-consuming animals were maintained on a diet in which the linoleate content was adequate (1.4% of energy); however, ,-linoleate represented only 0.08% of energy. Liver specimens were obtained, and the fatty acid composition of the liver phospholipids, cholesterol esters, and triglycerides of the two groups were compared at 5 years and histopathology of tissue samples were compared at 3 and 5 years. Results: The mean consumption of ethanol for this group over a 5-year period was 2.4 g · kg,1· day,1. As a consequence of the ethanol-dietary treatment, there were significantly lower concentrations of several polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver phospholipids of the alcohol-treated group, including arachidonic acid and most of the n-3 fatty acids and particularly docosahexaenoic acid, when compared with dietary controls. Liver specimens from animals in the ethanol group at 5 years showed a marked degree of steatosis, both focal and diffuse cellular necrosis, and an increase in the development of fibrosis compared with specimens obtained at 3 years and with those from dietary controls, in which there was no evidence of fibrotic lesions. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the advancement of ethanol-induced liver disease in rhesus monkeys may be modulated by the amount and type of dietary essential fatty acids and that a marginal intake of n-3 fatty acids may be a permissive factor in the development of liver disease in primates. [source]

    Building Bridges: The Transdisciplinary Study of Craving From the Animal Laboratory to the Lamppost

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2004
    Peter M. Monti
    Abstract: This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2003 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, organized and chaired by Peter M. Monti. The presentations and presenters were (1) Alcohol Seeking and Self-Administration in Rats: The Role of Serotonin Activity, by Cristine L. Czachowski; (2) Assessing Binge Drinking in Monkeys, by Kathleen A. Grant; (3) Craving and the Perception of Time, by Michael Sayette; (4) Ecological and Laboratory Assessment of Alcohol Urges and Drinking: Effects of Naltrexone, by Peter M. Monti; and (5) Discussion, by Damaris J. Rohsenow. [source]

    Ethanol Consumption Alters Electroretinograms and Depletes Neural Tissues of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Rhesus Monkeys: Nutritional Consequences of a Low n-3 Fatty Acid Diet

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2001
    Robert J. Pawlosky
    Background: Alcohol amblyopia is a rare neuropathy characterized by the development of blurred vision and a reduction in visual acuity. Further diagnostic details of this condition have shown abnormalities in the electroretinogram (ERG) that include an increase in implicit times in the a- and b-waves and a depression of b-wave amplitude. Methods: Periodically, the ERGs and the fatty acyl composition of nervous tissue were analyzed from alcohol-consuming rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) (mean consumption 2.6 g kg/day over a 5-year period) and controls that were maintained on a nutritionally sufficient diet that had low, yet adequate, amounts of linoleic acid but very low ,-linolenic acid. Results: Animals consuming alcohol had increased a- and b-wave implicit times and decreased b-wave amplitudes in their electroretinograms compared with those of the dietary control group at 2.5 and 5 years. The fatty acyl composition of brain specimens obtained by surgical biopsy at baseline, 2.5 years, and 5 years demonstrated that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had decreased in both groups of animals compared with baseline values. In the brains of the alcohol-treated animals, DHA was even further decreased (2.5 years: ,20%; 5 years: ,33%) compared with the diet controls. In the retinas of the alcohol-consuming animals at 5 years, there was a similar decrease in DHA (-35%) compared with controls. Generally, the n-6 fatty acid, docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6) increased in these tissues, apparently compensating for the loss of DHA. Conclusions: A reciprocal change in the DHA/DPAn-6 ratio is known to be associated with abnormal electroretinograms in a number of species. Thus, a marginal intake of n-3 fatty acids in some alcohol abusers may, in part, be responsible for the biochemical changes that underlie the diminished retinal function associated with the visual abnormalities observed in alcohol-amblyopic patients. [source]

    Induction and Maintenance of Ethanol Self-Administration in Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis): Long-Term Characterization of Sex and Individual Differences

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2001
    J. A. Vivian
    Background: Investigations of oral ethanol self-administration in nonhuman primates have revealed important parallels with human alcohol use and abuse, yet many fundamental questions concerning the individual risk to, and the biological basis of, excessive ethanol consumption remain unanswered. Moreover, many conditions of access to ethanol in nonhuman primate research are largely unexplored. This set of experiments extends within- and across-session exposure to ethanol to more fully characterize individual differences in oral ethanol self-administration. Methods: Eight male and eight female adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were exposed to daily oral ethanol self-administration sessions for approximately 9 months. During the first 3 months, a fixed-time (FT) schedule of food delivery was used to induce the consumption of an allotted dose of ethanol in 16-hr sessions. Subsequently, the FT schedule was suspended, and ethanol was available ad libitum for 6 months in 16- or 22-hr sessions. Results: Cynomolgus monkeys varied greatly in their propensity to self-administer ethanol, with sex and individual differences apparent within 10 days of ethanol exposure. Over the last 3 months of ethanol access, individual average ethanol intakes ranged from 0.6 to 4.0 g/kg/day, resulting in blood ethanol concentrations from 5 to 235 mg/dl. Males drank approximately 1.5-fold more than females. In addition, heavy-, moderate-, and light-drinking phenotypes were identified by using daily ethanol intake and the percentage of daily calories obtained from ethanol as criteria. Conclusions: Cynomolgus monkeys displayed a wide intersubject range of oral ethanol self-administration with a procedure that used a uniform and prolonged induction that restricted early exposure to ethanol and subsequently allowed unlimited access to ethanol. There were sex and stable individual differences in the propensity of monkeys to consume ethanol, indicating that this species will be important in characterizing risk factors associated with heavy-drinking phenotypes. [source]

    On the Demonstration of Blindsight in Monkeys

    MIND & LANGUAGE, Issue 4 2006
    The present paper reveals a problem in Cowey and Stoerig's case for blindsight in monkeys. The problem is that Cowey and Stoerig's results would only provide good evidence for blindsight if there is no difference between their two experimental paradigms with regard to the sorts of stimuli that are likely to come to consciousness. We show that the paradigms could differ in this respect, given the connections that have been shown to exist between working memory, perceptual load, attention, and consciousness. [source]

    Can Traditions Emerge from the Interaction of Stimulus Enhancement and Reinforcement Learning?

    An Experimental Model
    ABSTRACT, The study of social learning in captivity and behavioral traditions in the wild are two burgeoning areas of research, but few empirical studies have tested how learning mechanisms produce emergent patterns of tradition. Studies have examined how social learning mechanisms that are cognitively complex and possessed by few species, such as imitation, result in traditional patterns, yet traditional patterns are also exhibited by species that may not possess such mechanisms. We propose an explicit model of how stimulus enhancement and reinforcement learning could interact to produce traditions. We tested the model experimentally with tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), which exhibit traditions in the wild but have rarely demonstrated imitative abilities in captive experiments. Monkeys showed both stimulus enhancement learning and a habitual bias to perform whichever behavior first obtained them a reward. These results support our model that simple social learning mechanisms combined with reinforcement can result in traditional patterns of behavior. RÉSUMÉ, L'étude de l'apprentissage social en captivité et les traditions behavioristes à l'état sauvage sont deux domaines de recherche en plein essor, mais peu d'études empiriques ont mis à l'essai comment les mécanismes de l'apprentissage produisent des schémas émergents de tradition. Des études ont examiné comment les mécanismes de l'apprentissage social qui sont d'une complèxité cognitive et qui sont possédés par peu d'espèces, telle que l'imitation, résultent en schémas traditionnels; cependant, les schémas traditionnels sont aussi exposés par des espèces qui ne possèdent peut-être pas tels mécanismes. Nous proposons un modèle explicite de la façon dont le stimulus renforcé et l'apprentissage de renforcement puisse réagir afin de produire des schémas traditionnels. Nous avons mis à l'essai le modèle avec des singes capucins touffus (Cebus apella), qui exhibent des traditions à l'état sauvage, mais qui ont rarement démontré des aptitudes imitatives dans les expériences en captivité. Les singes ont montré aussi bien l'apprentissage de stimulus renforcé qu'une tendance habituelle à exécuter n'importe quelle manière d'agir qui leur a premièrement rapporté une récompense. Ces résultats soutiennent notre modèle, que les mécanismes simples de l'apprentissage social combinés avec le renforcement peuvent résulter en schémas behavioristes traditionnels. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG, Die Studie des sozialen Lernens durch Laborversuche und Freilandstudien von Verhaltenstraditionen sind zwei weit verbreitete Forschungsgebiete, aber nur wenige empirische Studien haben geprüft, wie Lernmechanismen traditionelle Verhaltensmuster hervorrufen können. Studien haben überprüft, wie kognitiv komplexe soziale Lernmechanismen wie etwa Imitation, die nur wenige Tierarten aufweisen, Verhaltenstraditionen hervorrufen können, dennoch werden Verhaltenstraditionen auch bei Tierarten gesehen, die solch komplexe Mechanismen wahrscheinlich nicht besitzen. Wir beschreiben ein detailliertes Modell, in dem eine Wechselwirkung von Reizverstärkung und verstärkendem Lernen traditionelles Verhalten erwirken kann. Wir testeten unser Modell mit Gehaubten Kapuzinern (Cebus apella), die Traditionen in freier Wildbahn aufweisen, aber nur selten Imitationsfähigkeiten in Laborexperimenten gezeigt haben. Die Affen zeigten Lernen durch Reizverstärkung und eine Gewohnheitstendenz die Verhaltensvariante durchzuführen, die ihnen zuerst dazu verhalf ein Stück Futter zu erhalten. Diese Ergebnisse sind mit unserem Modell in Einklang und unterstützen die Ansicht, dass einfache soziale Lernmechanismen kombiniert mit verstärkendem Lernen zu traditionellen Verhaltensmustern führen können. [source]

    A Monkey Figurine from Tel Beth Shemesh

    Raz Kletter
    This paper presents a unique clay figurine found at Tel Beth Shemesh, Judah, in a late Iron Age II context. The figurine portrays a monkey-faced horse, a combination that is rare in the ancient Near East and unknown, so far, from Judah. Comparisons are sought, followed by a discussion of the Monkey in small representations in the ancient Near East and Mesopotamia. Monkeys were exotic, held as pet animals by the higher classes and related to sex, music, ugliness, lack of intelligence, and various other human characteristics. It is suggested that the significance of this figurine lies in such ,secular' connotations, rather than in a religious realm [source]

    Monkeys and apes: Are their cognitive skills really so different?

    Federica Amici
    Abstract Differences in cognitive skills across taxa, and between monkeys and apes in particular, have been explained by different hypotheses, although these often are not supported by systematic interspecific comparisons. Here, we directly compared the cognitive performance of the four great apes and three monkey species (spider monkeys, capuchin monkeys, and long-tailed macaques), differing in their phylogenetic-relatedness and socioecology. We tested subjects on their ability to remember object locations (memory task), track object displacements (transposition task), and obtain out-of-reach rewards (support task). Our results showed no support for an overall clear-cut distinction in cognitive skills between monkeys and apes as species performance varied substantially across tasks. Although we found differences in performance at tracking object displacements between monkeys and apes, interspecific differences in the other two tasks were better explained in terms of differential socioecology, especially differential levels of fission,fusion dynamics. A cluster analysis using mean scores of each condition of the three tasks for each species suggested that the only dichotomy might be between members of the genus Pan and the rest of the tested species. These findings evidence the importance of using multiple tasks across multiple species in a comparative perspective to test different explanations for the enhancement of specific cognitive skills. Am J Phys Anthropol 143:188,197, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]