Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Moderator

  • important moderator
  • potential moderator

  • Terms modified by Moderator

  • moderator analysis
  • moderator effect
  • moderator variable

  • Selected Abstracts


    In this diary study conducted in Hong Kong, we examined a theoretical model in which negative emotions serve as an explanatory mechanism through which daily stressors impact daily counterproductive work behavior (CWB). We further theorized that personality variables (negative affectivity, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness) would exert cross-level effects on the within-person relationships. Hierarchical linear modeling results based on a sample of 231 individuals and 5,583 observations across 25 days provide partial support for the mediating role of negative emotions in the within-person stressor,CWB relationships. Specifically, we found that negative emotions (a) partially mediated the within-person relation of perceived ambiguity with CWB directed at the organization, (b) fully mediated the relation of supervisor interpersonal injustice with CWB directed at individuals, and (c) fully mediated the relation of customer interpersonal injustice with CWB directed at the organization. High levels of trait negative affectivity were found to strengthen the within-person relation between daily supervisor interpersonal injustice and daily negative emotions. As expected, high levels of trait Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were found to weaken the within-person relations of daily negative emotions with daily CWB directed at the organization and individuals. [source]

    Interdependence as a Moderator of the Relationship Between Competitiveness and Objective Sales Performance

    Chet Robie
    In this study, we investigated the moderating role of interdependence (a personality trait that measures the extent to which individuals desire working in a group-based, cooperative setting) on the relationship between competitiveness and one-year objective sales performance. On the basis of data from 133 sales representatives, results indicated that: (a) competitiveness was related to objective sales performance; and (b) interdependence moderated the relationship between competitiveness and objective sales performance such that competitiveness predicted objective sales performance more strongly for those who scored low in interdependence versus those who scored high in interdependence. Implications for sales selection and reward systems and directions for future research are considered. [source]

    Social Support as a Moderator of the Big-Fish-in-a-Little-Pond Effect in Online Self-Help Support Groups,

    Cynthia M. H. Bane
    Downward social comparisons to others in a relatively unsuccessful group can bolster mood, a phenomenon known as the big-fish-in-a-little-pond effect (BFLPE). The current study examined social support as a moderator of the BFLPE in online weight-management support groups (SGs). Participants (N= 149) were recruited from weight-management message boards. In an Internet survey, participants made weight-related social comparisons to the average person and the average SG member. Big fish indicated that they would feel more self-pride after reading a downward social comparison message than did other participants, but the BFLPE occurred only for participants with lower weight-related social support. Social support could foster collective identity in online self-help support groups, reducing the BFLPE. [source]

    Negative Beliefs as a Moderator of the Intention,Behavior Relationship: Decisions to Use Performance-Enhancing Substances

    Tonya Dodge
    The theory of reasoned action framework was used to examine performance-enhancing substance use among a sample of college athletes in a prospective longitudinal design. Results indicate that attitudes and subjective norms predicted intention to use the substances, and these intentions predicted actual substance use 6 weeks later. A statistically significant interaction emerged between negative beliefs and intentions predicting behavior such that as negative beliefs grew increasingly negative, the intention,behavior relationship became stronger. Practical and theoretical implications of the influence of negative information on the intention,behavior relationship are discussed. [source]

    Variations in the Understanding of Interpersonal Behavior: Adherence to the Interpersonal Circle as a Moderator of the Rigidity,Psychological Well-Being Relation

    Terence J. G. Tracey
    ABSTRACT The idiothetic structure of interpersonal trait perceptions was examined as it moderated the interpersonal rigidity,psychological well-being relation. The focus was on the extent to which individuals' perceptions of the similarity of interpersonal behavior fits (i.e., adhered to) the normative interpersonal circle. In two samples of college students, individual differences in adherence to the interpersonal circle moderated the relation of interpersonal rigidity with various indices of psychological well-being. We found that those individuals whose perceptions of interpersonal traits were better represented by the interpersonal circle had negative relations between interpersonal rigidity and satisfaction with life, self-confidence, self-liking, and complementarity and positive relations with interpersonal problems. The results suggest that adherence to the interpersonal circle may be a new means of viewing traitedness and that cognitive interpretation of traits may have an important moderating function. [source]

    Age of Drinking Onset as a Moderator of the Efficacy of Parent-Based, Brief Motivational, and Combined Intervention Approaches to Reduce Drinking and Consequences Among College Students

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2010
    Kimberly A. Mallett
    Background:, The current study tested age of onset as a moderator of intervention efficacy on drinking and consequence outcomes among a high-risk population of college students (i.e., former high school athletes). Methods:, Students were randomized to one of four conditions: assessment only control, combined parent-based intervention (PBI) and brief motivational intervention (BMI), PBI alone, and BMI alone. Participants (n = 1,275) completed web-administered measures at baseline (summer before starting college) and 10-month follow-up. Results:, Overall, the combined intervention demonstrated the strongest and most consistent reductions across all outcomes, particularly with the youngest initiators. Participants who initiated drinking at the youngest ages had significantly lower peak drinking, typical weekly drinking, and reported consequences at follow-up when they received the combined intervention when compared to the control group. The BMI and PBI groups, when examined independently, demonstrated significant effects across outcomes but were inconsistent across the different age groups. Conclusion:, Results suggest the combination of a PBI and a peer-delivered BMI is an appropriate and efficacious way to reduce drinking and related consequences among individuals who initiated drinking earlier in adolescence and are at an increased risk of experiencing alcohol problems. [source]

    Anxiety Sensitivity as a Moderator of the Association between Smoking Rate and Panic-Relevant Symptoms among a Community Sample of Middle-aged Adult Daily Smokers

    Alison C. McLeish PhD
    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the moderating role of anxiety sensitivity (AS) in the relation between smoking rate and panic vulnerability variables among a community-based sample of adults. Results indicated that the interaction between AS and smoking rate significantly predicted anxious arousal, agoraphobic avoidance, and anticipatory anxiety. Specifically, participants who reported higher levels of AS and heavier smoking rates reported the highest levels of panic vulnerability. These data suggest that this combination of high AS and heavier smoking is particularly problematic in regard to panic symptoms. [source]

    Technological Innovativeness as a Moderator of New Product Design Integration and Top Management Support

    Morgan Swink
    Many war stories, as well as a number of empirical research studies, point to the value of design integration and top management support in new product development (NPD) efforts, where design integration is conceptualized as the coordination of product and process design activities performed by various organizational groups. However, some emerging evidence suggests that these aspects of program management are not equally valuable in all NPD contexts. Furthermore, the benefits of these approaches may not extend to all dimensions of NPD performance. This article addresses these issues as they relate to technological innovativeness. The author reports the results of a research study designed to (1) assess the direct contributions of design integration and top management support to several dimensions of NPD performance, and (2) identify potential moderating influences of technological innovativeness on these direct effects. A survey of 136 NPD projects drawn from firms representing most of the major U.S. manufacturing industries provides data for the study. The overall goals of the study were to amplify our understanding of management's role in NPD and to further the development of contingency theory explaining new product success. The results indicate that design integration is positively associated with higher design quality in NPD, but it is not significantly linked with better financial performance. In addition, design integration appears to be an important influence on achieving NPD time goals, but only in cases of high technological innovativeness. This result suggests that increased design integration produces its greatest impacts when development processes are full of uncertainty. Top management support is positively associated with better time-based performance, design quality, and financial performance on the whole. However, a significant interaction effect suggests that high levels of top management support are ineffective in securing good financial performance in high technologically innovative environments. Other forces appear to be at work in these circumstances, making top management support less important. The article discusses the implications of these findings for management practice, a contingency-oriented view of NPD processes, and future research. [source]

    A Cross-National Examination of Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Autonomy/Job Strain Relationships

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Margaret M. Nauta
    This study evaluated the cross-national validity of cognitive appraisal theories (e.g. Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) of stress by examining differences in the interaction of job autonomy and generalised self-efficacy in the prediction of psychological and physical strains among US and Chinese employees. As posited by cognitive appraisal theories, high self-efficacy served as a buffer against low job autonomy in the prediction of psychological and physical strains among US employees. However, the buffering effect of self-efficacy was unclear among Chinese employees. For Chinese employees with high self-efficacy, job autonomy was negatively related to job strains, but for Chinese employees with low self-efficacy, job autonomy was positively related to job strains. The results highlight the importance of attending to culture in examinations of stressor,strain relations. Cette étude porte sur la validité transnationale des théories de l'évaluation cognitive du stress (par exemple: Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) par l'analyse de différences dans l'interaction entre l'autonomie dans le travail et l'auto-efficience globale dans la prédiction des tensions physiques et psychologiques chez des salariés américains et chinois. Comme les théories de l'évaluation cognitive le prévoient, un niveau élevé d'auto-efficience compense le manque d'autonomie dans la prédiction de tensions physiques et psychologiques chez les salariés américains. Toutefois, l'effet compensatoire de l'auto-efficience n'apparaît pas clairement chez les salariés chinois. Pour les salariés chinois disposant d'une forte auto-efficience, l'autonomie dans le travail était négativement corrélée aux tensions professionnelles, mais chez ceux qui étaient dotés d'une auto-efficience faible, l'autonomie était positivement liée aux tensions professionnelles. Ces résultats mettent en évidence la nécessité de prendre la culture en considération dans l'étude de la relation entre les facteurs de stress et les tensions. [source]

    Psychological Collectivism as a Moderator of the Impact of Supervisor,Subordinate Personality Similarity on Employees' Service Quality

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    C. Harry Hui
    Des chercheurs ont démontré que le collectivisme psychologique joue un rôle modérateur dans la relation entre certains construits. Les caractéristiques situationnelles peuvent avoir différents impacts sur les individualistes et les collectivistes dont les attitudes et valeurs divergent face aux relations interpersonnelles. Les collectivistes accordent beaucoup d'importance aux relations harmonieuses avec autrui, et seraient démoralisés quand ces relations sont menacées ou qu'elles ne se développent pas. Les individualistes voient l'individu comme la base de la survie et sont moins affectés par un manque d'harmonie. Nous avions prévu que l'effet de la similitude de personnalité entre superviseur,subordonné sur la qualité des services qu'un employé offre serait plus grand pour les collectivistes que pour les individualistes. Cette hypothèse a été testée auprès de 605 représentants à la clientèle et 113 superviseurs pour qui la similitude de personnalité a été mesurée par le nombre d'items pour lesquels les deux parties ont donné la même réponse. Bien que le collectivisme psychologique n'a pas d'effet direct sur la qualité du service, une analyse de régression indique que cette variable entre en interaction avec la similitude de personnalité. Ce résultat donne plus de soutien au modèle du rôle modérateur du collectivisme psychologique. Researchers have found psychological collectivism (PC) to play a moderating role in relationships among certain constructs. Situational characteristics may have different impacts on individualists and collectivists, who have discrepant attitudes and values regarding interpersonal relationships. The collectivists strongly value harmonious relationships with others, and would be demoralised when such relationships are threatened or do not materialise at all. The individualists view the self as the basic unit of survival, and are less affected even if harmony is not guaranteed. On the basis of this PC-as-moderator perspective, we expected that the effect of supervisor,subordinate personality similarity on the quality of service an employee delivers would be stronger among collectivists than among individualists. This hypothesis was tested with 605 front-line customer service staff and 113 supervisors, whose personality similarity was indexed by the number of personality items to which both parties gave the same answers. Although psychological collectivism does not have direct effect on service quality, regression analysis shows that it interacts with personality similarity, lending further support to the PC-as-moderator model. [source]

    Google Moderator, a New Tool for Public Deliberation

    Masahiro Matsuura

    Gender as a Moderator of the Relationship between Child Exposure to the World Trade Centre Disaster and Behavioural Outcomes

    William Bannon
    Objectives:, This study examined the moderating effect of gender on the relationship of child exposure to the World Trade Centre (WTC) disaster and child behavioural difficulties among a sample of very young children who resided in New York City on September 11, 2001. Methods:, The authors interviewed 180 parents of children who were age five or younger on September 11th, 2001. Parents were asked to provide information concerning family demographic characteristics, their own and their children's mental health, their children's behavioural difficulties in the aftermath of the WTC disaster, the number of WTC disaster experiences their children were exposed to, and the number of stressful life events their children experienced prior to the disaster. Results:, Gender moderated the relationship between child exposure to the WTC disaster and several behavioural outcomes. Specifically, among children who were highly exposed boys evidenced significantly higher scores on parent report measures of internalising and total behavioural difficulties relative to girls. Conclusions:, Findings are contrary to other research on children and trauma, in which gender differences are more often reported with higher rates of internalising behaviour among girls. Future research is needed that examines how and whether younger children's vulnerabilities in the face of trauma may differ by gender. [source]

    Peer Group Status as a Moderator of Group Influence on Children's Deviant, Aggressive, and Prosocial Behavior

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2007
    Wendy E. Ellis
    Group status was examined as a moderator of peer group socialization of deviant, aggressive, and prosocial behavior. In the fall and 3 months later, preadolescents and early adolescents provided self-reported scores for deviant behavior and group membership, and peer nominations for overt and relational aggression, prosocial behavior, and social preference. Using the social cognitive map, 116 groups were identified involving 526 children (282 girls; M age = 12.05). Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that high group centrality (visibility) magnified group socialization of relational aggression, deviant behavior, and prosocial behavior, and low group acceptance magnified socialization of deviant behavior. Results suggest group influence on behavior is not uniform but depends on group status, especially group visibility within the larger peer context. [source]

    What works for whom in a computer-mediated communication intervention in community psychiatry?

    Moderators of outcome in a cluster randomized trial
    Objective:, An intervention to structure patient,key worker communication has been tested in a randomized controlled trial. The aim of this paper was to investigate effectiveness of the intervention in terms of moderators of effectiveness. Method:, A total of 507 patients with schizophrenia were included. Moderators of effectiveness were investigated using two-way anovas. Results:, Patients with a better relationship with their key worker and a shorter duration of illness at baseline benefited more from the intervention in terms of quality of life. Patients who received the intervention who were in competitive employment or had a shorter duration of illness showed greater reduction of unmet needs. Older patients receiving the intervention had better treatment satisfaction. Conclusion:, Outcome of the intervention was moderated by patient characteristics. Moreover, the moderating characteristics varied depending on the specific outcome. Evidence on moderators is very limited, even though, they are significant for understanding, targeting and implementing complex interventions. [source]

    Moderators and mediators of two brief interventions for alcohol in the emergency department

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2010
    Nancy P. Barnett
    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate moderators and mediators of brief alcohol interventions conducted in the emergency department. Methods Patients (18,24 years; n = 172) in an emergency department received a motivational interview with personalized feedback (MI) or feedback only (FO), with 1- and 3-month booster sessions and 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Gender, alcohol status/severity group [ALC+ only, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT+) only, ALC+/AUDIT+], attribution of alcohol in the medical event, aversiveness of the event, perceived seriousness of the event and baseline readiness to change alcohol use were evaluated as moderators of intervention efficacy. Readiness to change also was evaluated as a mediator of intervention efficacy, as were perceived risks/benefits of alcohol use, self-efficacy and alcohol treatment seeking. Results Alcohol status, attribution and readiness moderated intervention effects such that patients who had not been drinking prior to their medical event, those who had low or medium attribution for alcohol in the event and those who had low or medium readiness to change showed lower alcohol use 12 months after receiving MI compared to FO. In the AUDIT+ only group those who received MI showed lower rates of alcohol-related injury at follow-up than those who received FO. Patients who had been drinking prior to their precipitating event did not show different outcomes in the two interventions, regardless of AUDIT status. Gender did not moderate intervention efficacy and no significant mediation was found. Conclusions Findings may help practitioners target patients for whom brief interventions will be most effective. More research is needed to understand how brief interventions transmit their effects. [source]

    Hierarchical Zeolite Catalysts: Zeolite Catalysts with Tunable Hierarchy Factor by Pore-Growth Moderators (Adv. Funct.

    On page 3972, Pérez-Ramírez et al. introduce the hierarchy factor as a valuable descriptor to categorize hierarchical zeolites and to optimize their design for catalytic applications. They demonstrate a direct correlation between the catalytic performance of ZSM-5 in benzene alkylation and the hierarchy factor. Maximization of the hierarchy factor is achieved by enhancing the mesopore surface area without reducing the micropore volume. For this purpose, a novel desilication variant involving NaOH treatment in the presence of pore growth moderators (quaternary ammonium cations) is presented. [source]

    Zeolite Catalysts with Tunable Hierarchy Factor by Pore-Growth Moderators

    Javier Pérez-Ramírez
    Abstract The design of hierarchical zeolite catalysts is attempted through the maximization of the hierarchy factor (HF); that is, by enhancing the mesopore surface area without severe penalization of the micropore volume. For this purpose, a novel desilication variant involving NaOH treatment of ZSM-5 in the presence of quaternary ammonium cations is developed. The organic cation (TPA+ or TBA+) acts as a pore-growth moderator in the crystal by OH, -assisted silicon extraction, largely protecting the zeolite crystal during the demetallation process. The protective effect is not seen when using cations that are able to enter the micropores, such as TMA+ Engineering the pore structure at the micro- and mesolevel is essential to optimize transport properties and catalytic performance, as demonstrated in the benzene alkylation with ethylene, a representative mass-transfer limited reaction. The hierarchy factor is an appropriate tool to classify hierarchically structured materials. The latter point is of wide interest to the scientific community as it not only embraces mesoporous zeolites obtained by desilication methods but it also enables to quantitatively compare and correlate various materials obtained by different synthetic methodologies. [source]

    A meta-analysis of home visiting programs: Moderators of improvements in maternal behavior,

    M. Angela Nievar
    A meta-analysis of home visiting programs for at-risk families (K = 35, N = 6,453) examined differences in the effects of programs on maternal behavior. On average, programs with more frequent visitation had higher success rates. The frequency of home visits explained significant variance of effect sizes among studies in the United States, with two visits per month predicting a small, substantive effect. Intensive programs or programs with at least three visits per month were more than twice as effective as were less intensive programs. Home visiting programs using nurses or mental health professionals as providers were not significantly more effective than were programs using paraprofessionals. In general, programs showed a positive effect on maternal behavior, but programs with frequent home visits were more successful. Un meta-análisis de programas de visita a casa para familias bajo riesgo (K = 35, N = 6,453) examinó las diferencias en cuanto a los efectos de programas sobre la conducta maternal. En promedio, los programas con visitas más frecuentes tuvieron puntajes más altos en cuanto al éxito del programa. La frecuencia de las visitas a casa explicó la significativa variación del alcance de los efectos tal como se presenta en los estudios en los Estados Unidos, con el resultado de que dos visitas por mes predijeron un efecto pequeño y substancial. Los programas intensivos, o programas con tres visitas por mes por lo menos fueron más del doble efectivos que los programas menos intensivos. Los programas de visitas a casa en los que participan enfermeras o profesionales de la salud mental como proveedores del servicio no fueron significativamente más efectivos que los programas en los que participan ayudantes de profesionales. En general, los programas mostraron un efecto positivo en la conducta maternal, pero los programas con frecuentes visitas a casa fueron más exitosos. Une méta-analyse de programmes de visite à domicile pour des familles à risques (K = 35, N = 6,453) a examiné les différences dans les effets des programmes sur le comportement maternel. En moyenne, les programmes avec des visites plus fréquentes ont reçu de meilleurs taux de succès. La fréquence des visites à domicile a expliqué une variance importante de tailles d'effet au sein des études aux Etats-Unis, avec deux visites par mois prédisant un petit effet d'importance. Les programmes intensifs ou les programmes avec au moins trois visites par mois se sont avérés être deux fois plus efficaces que les programmes moins intensifs. Les programmes de visite à domicile utilisant des infirmières ou des professionnels de la santé mentale comme visiteurs ne se sont pas avérés être plus efficaces que les programmes utilisant des paraprofessionnels. En général, les programmes ont fait état d'un effet positif sur le comportement maternel, mais les programmes avec des visites à domicile fréquentes se sont avérés plus couronnés de succès. Eine Meta-Analyse von Unterstützungsprogrammen für gefährdete Familien (K = 35, N = 6453) die im häuslichen Umfeld stattfinden, untersuchte Unterschiede der Wirkung auf das Verhalten der Mütter. Im Durchschnitt zeigten Programme mit häufigeren Besuchen höhere Erfolgsraten. Die Häufigkeit der Hausbesuche zeigte einen signifikanten Effekt innerhalb der nordamerikanischen Studien. Zwei monatliche Besuche zeigten bereits einen kleinen aber stichhaltigen Effekt. Intensive Programme und solche mit mindestens drei monatlichen Besuchen waren bereits mehr als doppelt so wirksam wie die weniger intensive Programme. Die Programme mit Hausbesuchen, in denen Krankenschwestern oder Experten der seelischen Gesundheit eingesetzt wurden, waren nicht signifikant wirksamer als Programme, in denen ungeschulte Mitarbeiter einsetzt wurden. Generell zeigten die Programme eine positive Wirkung auf das mütterliche Verhalten, wobei die Programme mit häufigeren Hausbesuchen erfolgreicher waren. [source]

    Self-Regulation in Goal Striving: Individual Differences and Situational Moderators of the Goal-Framing/Performance Link,

    Christopher J. R. Roney
    We propose that negative goal framing (i.e., defining a goal as a negative state to be avoided) can adversely affect performance. Study 1 (N = 133) revealed that negative goal framing predicted poorer future performance independent of goal level, expectancy, and earlier performance. Study 2 (N = 188) examined the relation between goal framing and performance at 2 times in the academic year, and with respect to individual differences in defensive pessimism. As predicted, the negative goal-framing/poorer-performance link was greater on a later exam (after receiving feedback) than an earlier one, and was greater for nondefensive pessimists than for defensive pessimists. The findings implicate self-regulatory processes in understanding how goal framing affects performance. [source]

    Dispositional and Situational Moderators of the Relationship Between Leader,Member Exchange and Work Tension

    Robyn Brouer
    This paper examines the relationship between leader,member exchange (LMX) and experienced work tension. The dispositional moderators of positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) and the situational moderator of frequency of interaction with the supervisor are included. We tested these relationships in a sample of 537 employees from various organizations. Specifically, we found that high NA coupled with high LMX produced the highest levels of work tension. Additionally, low frequency of interaction with the supervisor coupled with high LMX produced the highest levels of work tension. Finally, we found that the lowest levels of work tension were reported when individuals had high PA, high LMX, and high frequency of interaction with their supervisors. [source]

    Neuroticism and Social Comparison Orientation as Moderators of Affective Responses to Social Comparison at Work

    Bram P. Buunk
    In a study among 72 nurses, the affective consequences of social comparison were examined and related to neuroticism (N) and to social comparison orientation (SCO). Participants were confronted with a bogus interview with an upward versus a downward comparison target. Positive affect and identification were higher, and negative affect was lower, in the upward than in the downward comparison condition. Independent of their SCO, the higher individuals were in N, the less they identified with the upward comparison target, the more they identified with the downward comparison target, and the less positive affect they showed following confrontation with the upward comparison target. In contrast, independent of their level of N, the higher individuals were in SCO, the more negative affect they showed following confrontation with the downward comparison target. The effects on negative affect stayed the same when controlling for positive affect, and the effects on positive affect stayed the same when controlling for negative affect. These effects were also obtained when perceived direction was used as a predictor instead of the experimentally manipulated direction. It is concluded that, although N and SCO are correlated, these variables seem to have independent and distinct effects upon the responses to social comparison information. [source]

    Moderators of the negativity effect: Commitment, identification, and consumer sensitivity to corporate social performance

    PSYCHOLOGY & MARKETING, Issue 1 2010
    Tsung-Chi Liu
    Numerous studies have identified constructs such as commitment and brand familiarity as moderators of negativity effects. However, boundary conditions for this moderation have yet to be identified within a retailing context. This study tries to rectify this gap in the literature. This study finds that three factors (commitment, consumer,company identification, and consumer sensitivity to corporate social performance) moderate attitude change toward a retailer following exposure to moderately negative (vs. positive) publicity. However, given extremely negative information, the buffering effects of the moderating factors disappear, and attitude changes are significant for all consumers. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Perceived Challenges to Obtaining Informed Consent for a Time-sensitive Emergency Department Study of Pediatric Status Epilepticus: Results of Two Focus Groups

    James M. Chamberlain MD
    Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to describe the perspective of research personnel on issues of informed consent in a time-sensitive clinical study under emergency circumstances. Methods:, The authors convened concurrent focus groups of research staff and investigators involved in a pharmacokinetic study of lorazepam for status epilepticus (SE). Moderators led discussion with open-ended questions on selected issues of parental consent, communication and understanding, patient assent, and comparison to other types of studies. Focus group transcripts were analyzed to identify themes and subthemes from the discussions. Results:, Most themes and subthemes were identified in both research staff and investigator focus groups. Focus group discussion points were categorized into three main themes: barriers to and enablers of informed consent, barriers to and enablers of actual enrollment, and overall ethical concerns about the research. Many of the issues identified were unique to emergency research. Conclusions:, From the perspectives of research staff and investigators enrolling patients in a time-sensitive emergency department study, the authors identified several areas of concern that should be addressed when planning future emergency studies. [source]

    Psychological Treatment and Medication for the Mood and Anxiety Disorders: Moderators, Mediators, and Domains of Outcome

    David J. MiklowitzArticle first published online: 11 MAY 200
    Studies that combine pharmacotherapy with psychological treatment for the mood and anxiety disorders must consider the role of moderators (pretreatment variables that specify the conditions under which treatments are effective) and mediators (change mechanisms in the causal pathways between treatments and outcomes) in explaining the impact of experimental treatments. This article gives examples of the kinds of moderators and mediators,both psychosocial and biological,that are important to examine in combination treatment studies. It conceptualizes outcome as involving multiple domains, including mood and anxiety symptoms, life functioning, and illness costs. Research should also examine the appropriate sequencing of pharmacological and psycho-social interventions and how this sequencing may vary from disorder to disorder. [source]

    Treatment of Social Phobia: Potential Mediators and Moderators

    Stefan G. Hofmann
    Although the efficacy of numerous psychosocial interventions for social phobia has been clearly demonstrated, little is known about the mediators and moderators of treatment change. Three potential mediators here are discussed that are derived from prominent psychological theories: negative cognitive appraisal (estimated social costs), perceived self-efficacy (perceived social skills), and perceived emotional control. Furthermore, the generalized subtype of social phobia and the additional diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder are considered as potential treatment moderators. [source]

    The on-demand virtual advisory team: A new consulting paradigm?

    Rob Steir
    In a Virtual Advisory Program, an executive handpicks a team of outside experts for unbiased input on a strategic decision facing the business. The lowcost service offers rapid, just-in-time access to people who have "been there, done that," and lets the executive see them in action before embarking on a business relationship or full-time hire. With the assistance of a talent integrator/moderator, the CEO of a high-growth company tapped a VAP team with the right industry and functional experience to help him evaluate the pros and cons of entering a new market, and, in the process, overcame his aversion to using consultants. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Appraising, researching and conceptualizing criminal thinking: a personal view

    Background,It is argued that current interest in the concept of criminal thinking has its roots in traditional theories of criminology and criminal justice such as Sutherland's differential association model, neutralization theory, and Yochelson and Samenow's criminal personality. Aim,The purpose of this paper is to briefly review and summarize theory, research, and practice on criminal thinking as it relates to the author's work in this area. Conclusions,Three self-report inventories , the Criminal Sentiments Scale (CSS), the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), and the Measures of Criminal Attitudes and Associates (MCAA); three principal areas of research , criminal thinking as a predictor of criminal behaviour, offence as a moderator of criminal thinking, and changes in criminal thinking leading to changes in criminal behaviour; and a general theory of criminal thinking are briefly reviewed in this paper. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A prospective test of anxiety sensitivity as a moderator of the relation between gender and posttraumatic symptom maintenance among high anxiety sensitive young adults

    Matthew T. Feldner M.D.
    Abstract The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the individual and combined influence of anxiety sensitivity (AS) and gender on the longitudinal prediction of posttraumatic symptoms. A large nonclinical sample of young adults (n=404) was prospectively followed over approximately 18 months. The primary findings indicated that gender and AS were uniquely associated with posttraumatic symptom levels during the follow-up period. Moreover, AS appeared more strongly (positively) related to posttraumatic stress symptoms during the follow-up period among females than males. These data provide novel prospective evidence regarding the interplay of relatively well-established risk factors implicated in the maintenance of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Depression and Anxiety 0:1,10, 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Involvement in Knowledge-Acquisition Activities by Venture Team Members and Venture Performance

    Gaylen N. Chandler
    This research uses concepts of organizational learning to analyze knowledge acquisition by management teams in emerging firms. Involvement in ongoing knowledge-acquisition activities is positively and significantly related to venture performance. In addition, task environment dynamism is a positive moderator of the relationship between involvement in knowledge-acquisition activities and venture performance. [source]

    Extended cognitive behavior therapy for cigarette smoking cessation

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2008
    Joel D. Killen
    ABSTRACT Primary aim Examine the effectiveness of extended cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in promoting longer-term smoking abstinence. Design Open-label treatment phase followed by extended treatment phase. Randomization conducted prior to entry into open-label treatment phase; analysis based on intention-to-treat to avoid threat of selection bias. Setting Community smoking cessation clinic. Participants A total of 304 adult smokers (,18 years of age; ,10 cigarettes/day). Intervention Open-label (8 weeks): all participants received bupropion SR, nicotine patch, CBT. Extended treatment (12 weeks): participants received either CBT + voicemail monitoring and telephone counseling or telephone-based general support. Measurements Seven-day point prevalence abstinence, expired-air carbon monoxide. Results At week 20 follow-up, CBT produced a higher 7-day point prevalence abstinence rate: 45% versus 29%, P = 0.006; at 52 weeks the difference in abstinence rates (31% versus 27%) was not significant. History of depression was a moderator of treatment. Those with a positive history had a better treatment response at 20 weeks when assigned to the less intensive telephone support therapy (P < 0.05). Conclusion The superiority of CBT to 20 weeks suggests that continued emphasis on the development of cognitive and behavioral strategies for maintaining non-smoking during an extended treatment phase may help smokers to maintain abstinence in the longer term. At present, the minimum duration of therapy is unknown. [source]