Mobile Phase (mobile + phase)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Mobile Phase

  • isocratic mobile phase
  • organic mobile phase

  • Terms modified by Mobile Phase

  • mobile phase additive
  • mobile phase composition
  • mobile phase condition
  • mobile phase consisting
  • mobile phase containing
  • mobile phase ph

  • Selected Abstracts

    Stability-indicating assay of sodium cromoglicate in ophthalmic solution using mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction chromatography

    Mohammed Shahid Ali
    Abstract A hydrophilic interaction chromatographic (HILIC) procedure for the quantification of Sodium Cromoglicate (SCG) in ophthalmic solution is developed. Mobile phase consists of ACN and buffer, 86:14 v/v. Atlantis HILIC,Si column, 25 cm4.6 mm, is used as stationary phase. Detection is carried out using a variable wavelength UV-Vis detector at 326 nm. Linearity range and percent recoveries for SCG were 50,400 ,g/mL and 100.44%, respectively. The SCG HILIC-UV assay was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The method separates two impurities and degradation products resulting from stress environment. Influence of organic solvent, ionic strength and mobile phase pH on the retention of SCG is studied. The paper provides optimization of polar anionic solute (SCG) on unmodified silica by HILIC. Proposed method can be used as a stability-indicating assay for SGC and can be proved to be beneficial in ESI-MS for enhanced sensitivity. [source]

    Resolution of triacylglycerol positional isomers by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    Svetlana Momchilova
    Abstract The ability of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to separate some positionally isomeric disaturated and monounsaturated triacylglycerols (TAGs) as intact species is demonstrated for the first time. Mobile phases of acetonitrile modified with methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, acetone, or dichloromethane were tested for the separation of POP-PPO, PLP-PPL, PEP-PPE, and PDP-PPD (P , palmitic, O , oleic, L , linoleic, E , eicosapentaenoic, D , docosahexaenoic acid residue) on a single RP-HPLC column. The resolution improved with increasing number of double bonds in the acyl residues. While POP and PPO were only partially resolved, PDP and PPD were fully separated with all tested mobile phases, except those containing methanol. Also separated were the four TAGs having the same equivalent carbon number (ECN = 42), PEP, PPE, PDP, and PPD, on a single RP-HPLC column with mobile phase acetonitrile,2-propanol (70:30, v/v) at 0.8 mL/min. In all cases the isomer with the unsaturated acyl residue in either 1- or 3-position was retained more strongly than the respective 2-isomer. [source]

    An HPLC/mass spectrometry platform for the development of multimodality contrast agents and targeted therapeutics: prostate-specific membrane antigen small molecule derivatives

    Valerie Humblet
    Abstract The production of disease-targeted agents requires the covalent conjugation of a targeting molecule with a contrast agent or therapeutic, followed by purification of the product to homogeneity. Typical targeting molecules, such as small molecules and peptides, often have high charge-to-mass ratios and/or hydrophobicity. Contrast agents and therapeutics themselves are also diverse, and include lanthanide chelates for MRI, 99mTc chelates for SPECT, 90Y chelates for radiotherapy, 18F derivatives for PET, and heptamethine indocyanines for near-infrared fluorescent optical imaging. We have constructed a general-purpose HPLC/mass spectrometry platform capable of purifying virtually any targeted agent for any modality. The analytical sub-system is composed of a single dual-head pump that directs mobile phase to either a hot cell for the purification of radioactive agents or to an ES-TOF MS for the purification of nonradioactive agents. Nonradioactive agents are also monitored during purification by ELSD, absorbance and fluorescence. The preparative sub-system is composed of columns and procedures that permit rapid scaling from the analytical system. To demonstrate the platform's utility, we describe the preparation of five small molecule derivatives specific for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA): a gadolinium derivative for MRI, indium, rhenium and technetium derivatives for SPECT, and an yttrium derivative for radiotherapy. All five compounds are derived from a highly anionic targeting ligand engineered to have a single nucleophile for N -hydroxysuccinimide-based conjugation. We also describe optimized column/mobile phase combinations and mass spectrometry settings for each class of agent, and discuss strategies for purifying molecules with extreme charge and/or hydrophobicity. Taken together, our study should expedite the development of disease-targeted, multimodality diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    An improved validated ultra high pressure liquid chromatography method for separation of tacrolimus impurities and its tautomers

    Acharya Subasranjan
    Abstract A selective, specific and sensitive ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method was developed for determination of tacrolimus degradation products and tautomers in the preparation of pharmaceuticals. The chromatographic separation was performed on Waters ACQUITY UPLC system and BEH C8 column using gradient elution of mobile phase A (90:10 v/v of 0.1% v/v triflouroacetic acid solution and Acetonitrile) and mobile phase B (90:10 v/v acetonitrile and water) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL min,1. Ultraviolet detection was performed at 210 nm. Tacrolimus, tautomers and impurities were chromatographed with a total run time of 25 min. Calibration showed that the response of impurity was a linear function of concentration over the range 0.3,6 g mL,1 (r2 , 0.999) and the method was validated over this range for precision, intermediate precision, accuracy, linearity and specificity. For precision study, percentage relative standard deviation of each impurity was < 15% (n = 6). The method was found to be precise, accurate, linear and specific. The proposed method was successfully employed for estimation of tacrolimus impurities in pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    CEC-ESI ion trap MS of multiple drugs of abuse

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 7 2010
    Zeineb Aturki
    Abstract This article describes a method for the separation and determination of nine drugs of abuse in human urine, including amphetamines, cocaine, codeine, heroin and morphine. This method was based on SPE on a strong cation exchange cartridge followed by CEC-MS. The CEC experiments were performed in fused silica capillaries (100,,m30,cm) packed with a 3,,m cyano derivatized silica stationary phase. A laboratory-made liquid junction interface was used for CEC-MS coupling. The outlet capillary column was connected with an emitter tip that was positioned in front of the MS orifice. A stable electrospray was produced at nanoliter per minute flow rates applying a hydrostatic pressure (few kPa) to the interface. The coupling of packed CEC columns with mass spectrometer as detector, using a liquid junction interface, provided several advantages such as better sensitivity, low dead volume and independent control of the conditions used for CEC separation and ESI analysis. For this purpose, preliminary experiments were carried out in CEC-UV to optimize the proper mobile phase for CEC analysis. Good separation efficiency was achieved for almost all compounds, using a mixture containing ACN and 25,mM ammonium formate buffer at pH 3 (30:70, v/v), as mobile phase and applying a voltage of 12,kV. ESI ion-trap MS detection was performed in the positive ionization mode. A spray liquid, composed by methanol,water (80:20, v/v) and 1% formic acid, was delivered at a nano-flow rate of ,200,nL/min. Under optimized CEC-ESI-MS conditions, separation of the investigated drugs was performed within 13,min. CEC-MS and CEC-MS2 spectra were obtained by providing the unambiguous confirmation of these drugs in urine samples. Method precision was determined with RSDs values ,3.3% for retention times and ,16.3% for peak areas in both intra-day and day-to-day experiments. LODs were established between 0.78 and 3.12,ng/mL for all compounds. Linearity was satisfactory in the concentration range of interest for all compounds (r2,0.995). The developed CEC-MS method was then applied to the analysis of drugs of abuse in spiked urine samples, obtaining recovery data in the range 80,95%. [source]

    Preparation and evaluation of the highly cross-linked poly(1-hexadecane-co-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) monolithic column for capillary electrochromatography

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 20 2009
    Minghua Lu
    Abstract In this paper, a novel highly cross-linked porous monolithic stationary phase having a long alkyl chain ligand (C16) was introduced and evaluated in CEC. The monolithic stationary phase was prepared by in situ copolymerization of 1-hexadecene, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) in the presence of ternary porogenic solvent (cyclohexanol/1,4-butanediol/water). In preparing monoliths, the ternary cross-linker trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate was usually applied to preparing molecularly imprinted polymers or molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction, instead of binary cross-linker ethylene dimethacrylate. 1-Hexadecene was introduced to provide the non-polar sites (C16) for chromatographic retention, while AMPS was used to generate the EOF for transporting the mobile phase through the monolithic capillary. Monolithic columns were prepared by optimizing proportion of porogenic solvent and AMPS content in the polymerization solution as well as the cross-linkers. The monolithic stationary phases could generate a strong and stable EOF in various pH values and exhibit an RP-chromatographic behavior for neutral compounds. For charged compounds, the separation was mainly based on the association of hydrophobic, electrostatic and electrophoretic interaction. [source]

    Chromatographic evaluation and comparison of three ,-cyclodextrin-based stationary phases by capillary liquid chromatography and pressure-assisted capillary electrochromatography

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 19 2008
    Bo Lin
    Abstract Enantiomer separations were performed on three ,-cyclodextrin-based chiral stationary phases (CSP) containing the pernaphthylcarbamoylated ,-cyclodextrin (CSP 1), peracetylated ,-cyclodextrin (CSP 2) and permethylated ,-cyclodextrin (CSP 3) as chiral selectors by capillary liquid chromatography and pressure-assisted capillary electrochromatography in this study. Triethylammonium acetate/MeOH or phosphate buffer/MeOH was used as the mobile phase. The experimental factors affecting chiral separations have been examined for each CSP, including pH of the buffers, methanol content and applied voltage. Under optimal separation conditions, a number of racemic compounds were resolved into their enantiomers on three cyclodextrin-based CSP. A comparative study on the performance of three CSP revealed the presence of carbonyl functional groups as well as aromatic rings in the cyclodextrin derivatives, enhanced the interaction between the analytes and CSP, and thus improved enantioselectivity of the CSP. [source]

    Methacrylate-based monolithic column with mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/strong cation-exchange stationary phase for capillary liquid chromatography and pressure-assisted CEC

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 19 2008
    Jian Lin
    Abstract A novel porous polymethacrylate-based monolithic column by in situ copolymerization of 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate (SPMA) and pentaerythritol triacrylate in a binary porogenic solvent consisting of cyclohexanol/ethylene glycol was prepared. The monolith possessed in their structures bonded sulfonate groups and hydroxyl groups and was evaluated as a hydrophilic interaction and strong cation-exchange stationary phases in capillary liquid chromatography (cLC) and pressure-assisted CEC using small polar neutral and charged solutes. While the SPMA was introduced as multifunctional monomer, the pentaerythritol triacrylate was used to replace ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker with much more hydrophilicity due to a hydroxyl sub-layer. The different characterization of monolithic stationary phases were specially designed and easily prepared by altering the amount of SPMA in the polymerization solution as well as the composition of the porogenic solvent for cLC and pressure-assisted CEC. The resulting monolith showed the different trends about the effect of the permeabilities on efficiency in the pressure-assisted CEC and cLC modes. A typical hydrophilic interaction chromatography mechanism was observed at higher organic solvent content (ACN%>70%) for polar neutral analytes. For polar charged analytes, both hydrophilic interaction and electrostatic interaction contributed to their retention. Therefore, for charged analytes, selectivity can be readily manipulated by changing the composition of the mobile phase (e.g., pH, ionic strength and organic modifier). With the optimized monolithic column, high plate counts reaching greater than 170,000,plates/m for pressure-assisted CEC and 105,000 plates/m for cLC were easily obtained, respectively. [source]

    Open-tubular capillary electrochromatography using a capillary coated with octadecylamine-capped gold nanoparticles

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 4 2008
    Qishu Qu Dr.
    Abstract Octadecylamine-capped gold nanoparticles (ODA-Au-NPs) were prepared and characterized by using UV,Vis adsorption spectrum, transmission electron chromatography (TEM), SEM, and FT-IR. A simple but robust hydrophobic coating was easily developed by flushing a capillary with a solution of ODA-Au-NPs, because the positive charges were carried by the nanoparticles which strongly adsorb to the negatively charged inner surface of a fused-silica capillary via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The chromatographic characteristics of the coated capillary was investigated by varying the experimental parameters such as buffer pH, buffer concentration, and percentage of organic modifier in the mobile phase. The results show that (i) resolution between thiourea and naphthalene is almost the same when comparing the electrochromatograms obtained using pH,7 buffer as mobile phase after and before the capillary column was operated using pH,11 and 3 mobile phase; (ii) no significant changes in retention time and deterioration in peak efficiency were found after 60,runs of test aromatic mixtures; and (iii) column efficiency up to 189,000 theoretical plates/meter for testosterone was obtained. All of the results indicated that the coating could act as a stable stationary phase for open tubular CEC as well as for bioanalysis. [source]

    Analysis of urinary metabolites for metabolomic study by pressurized CEC

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 23 2007
    Guoxiang Xie
    Abstract A new approach for the metabolomic study of urinary samples using pressurized CEC (pCEC) with gradient elution is proposed as an alternative chromatographic separation tool with higher degree of resolution, selectivity, sensitivity, and efficiency. The pCEC separation of urinary samples was performed on a RP column packed with C18, 5,,m particles with an ACN/water mobile phase containing TFA. The effects of the acid modifiers, applied voltage, mobile phase, and detection wavelength were systematically evaluated using eight spiked standards, as well as urine samples. A typical analytical trial of urine samples from Sprague Dawley (S.D.) rats exposed to high-energy diet was carried out following sample pretreatment. Significant differences in urinary metabolic profiles were observed between the high energy diet-induced obesity rats and the healthy control rats at the 6th,wk postdose. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed the differential metabolites in response to the diet, which were partially validated with the putative standards. This work suggests that such a pCEC-based separation and analysis method may provide a new and cost-effective platform for metabolomic study uniquely positioned between the conventional chromatographic tools such as HPLC, and hyphenated analytical techniques such as LC-MS. [source]

    Development of HPLC and NACE methods for the simultaneous determination of benzoic and sorbic acids in sour snap beans containing oil

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 22 2007
    Po Han
    Abstract The practical methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of benzoic acid (BA) and sorbic acid (SA) in sour snap bean samples containing oil. BA and SA in the samples were extracted by ultrasonication with water, followed by cleanup procedures with precipitation for removing the potential proteins and with petroleum ether liquid,liquid extraction for removing the edible oil contained in the samples. The HPLC method was developed using Supelco C18 (250,mm4.6,mm id, 5,,m) as column, MeOH,20,mM NH4Ac (25:75 v/v) at 1.0,mL/min as the mobile phase and 230,nm as the detection wavelength. The optimal NACE method was established with a running buffer of 20.0,mM NH4Ac in 95% MeOH (pH*,10.6), and an applied voltage of ,30,kV over a capillary of 50,,m id48.5,cm (40,cm to the detector window), which gave a baseline separation of BA and SA, and as well as of the blank matrix within ca. 10,min. Both HPLC and NACE methods gave the relatively lower limits of quantification at about 0.01,0.02 and 0.04,0.05,mg/kg, respectively, whereas the overall recoveries were larger than 85.0%. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to measure 15 real sour bean samples and the content profile of BA and SA in sour bean samples was obtained and evaluated. [source]

    Development of a new method for analysis of Sudan dyes by pressurized CEC with amperometric detection

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 11 2007
    Shaofeng Liu
    Abstract A new analytical method, pressurized CEC (pCEC) with amperometric detection (AD) using 1.5,,m RP nonporous silica packed columns has been developed for the rapid separation and determination of four Sudan dyes in hot chilli. The influence of several experimental parameters on the retention behavior has been investigated. The electrochemical oxidation of Sudans I,IV separated by pCEC can be reliably monitored with a carbon electrode at +0.95,V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Fast and efficient separation of the analytes was achieved within 7,min by pCEC under the optimum conditions with an ACN/water (95:5%) mobile phase containing formic acid (pH,4.3), 5% acetone and 0.002% triethylamine using a separation voltage of 12,kV. The detection limits for four Sudan dyes ranged from 8.0,,10,7 to 1.2,,10,6,mol/L. To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of this method, the proposed pCEC-AD method was further demonstrated with hot chilli samples spiked with Sudan dyes. [source]

    Speciation of selenium compounds by open tubular capillary electrochromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 21 2006
    Shu-Yu Lin
    Abstract We introduce a T-type interface and a crossflow nebulizer to find ways to combine CEC with inductively coupled plasma MS (ICP-MS) detection for selenium speciation. For CEC separation, we employed a macrocyclic polyamine-bonded phase capillary as the separation column and a bare fused-silica capillary filled with the make-up liquid (0.05,M,HNO3). The effect of nebulizer gas flow rate, make-up liquid flow, type, concentration and pH of the mobile phase on the separation have been studied. Tris buffer of 50,mM at pH,8.50 gave the best performance for selenium speciation. The reproducibility of the retention time indicated that sample injection by electrokinetic and nebulizer gas flow was better than that by self-aspiration alone. The detection limits for selenate, selenite, selenocystine and selenomethionine were found to be 2.40, 3.53, 12.86 and 11.25,ng/mL, respectively. Due to the high sensitivity and element-specific detection, as well as the high selectivity of the bonded phase, quantitative analysis of selenium speciation in urine was also achieved. [source]

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles-coated column for capillary electrochromatographic separation of oligopeptides

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 21 2005
    Yi-Ling Hsieh
    Abstract A novel column made through the condensation reaction of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2,NPs) with silanol groups of the fused-silica capillary is described. EOF measurements under various buffer constitutions were used to monitor the completion of reactions. The results indicated that the EOF was dependent on the interactions between buffers and the bonded TiO2,NPs. With formate/Tris buffer, EOF reversal at pH below,5 and cathodic EOF at pH above,5 were indicated. The pI of the bonded TiO2,NPs was found at ,ph,5. Only cathodic EOF was illustrated by substituting the mobile phase with either glutamate or phosphate buffer. It was elucidated that both glutamate and phosphate buffer yield a negative charge layer on the surface of TiO2,NPs attributable to the formation of a titanium complex. The CEC performance of the column was tested with angiotensin-type oligopeptides. Some parameters that would affect the retention behavior were investigated. The interactions between the bonded phases and the analytes were explicated by epitomized acid,base functional groups of the oligopepetides and the speciation of the surface oxide in different pH ranges. The average separation efficiencies of 3.1104,plates/m is readily achieved with a column of 70,cm (50,cm)50,,m,ID under an applied voltage of 15,kV, phosphate buffer (pH,6.0, 40,mM), and UV detection at 214,nm. [source]

    On-line concentration of proteins in pressurized capillary electrochromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 7-8 2005
    Zhen Liang
    Abstract Pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) have been hyphenated for protein analysis. Taken cytochrome,c, lysozyme, and insulin as samples, the limits of detection (LODs) for absolute concentrations are 10,11,mol (signal-to-noise ratio S/N = 3) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of retention time and peak area, respectively, of less than 1.7% and 4.8%. In order to improve the detection sensitivity, on-line concentration by field-enhanced sample-stacking effect and chromatographic zone-sharpening effect has been developed, and parameters affecting separation and detection, such as pH and electrolyte concentration in the mobile phase, separation voltage, as well as enrichment voltage and time, have been studied systematically. Under the optimized conditions, the LODs of the three proteins could be decreased up to 100-fold. In addition, the feasibility of such techniques has been further demonstrated by the analysis of modified insulins at a concentration of 20,,g/mL. [source]

    Analyses of preservatives by capillary electrochromatography using methacrylate ester-based monolithic columns

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 18-19 2004
    Hsi-Ya Huang
    Abstract Five common food preservatives were analyzed by capillary electrochromatography, utilizing a methacrylate ester-based monolithic capillary as separation column. In order to optimize the separation of these preservatives, the effects of the pore size of the polymeric stationary phase, the pH and composition of the mobile phase on separation were examined. For all analytes, it was found that an increase in pore size caused a reduction in retention time. However, separation performances were greatly improved in monolithic columns with smaller pore sizes. The pH of the mobile phase had little influence on separation resolution, but a dramatic effect on the amount of sample that was needed to be electrokinetically injected into the monolithic column. In addition, the retention behaviors of these analytes were strongly influenced by the level of acetonitrile in the mobile phase. An optimal separation of the five preservatives was obtained within 7.0 min with a pH 3.0 mobile phase composed of phosphate buffer and acetonitrile 35:65 v/v. Finally, preservatives in real commercial products, including cold syrup, lotion, wine, and soy sauces, were successfully determined by the methacrylate ester-based polymeric monolithic column under this optimized condition. [source]

    High-efficiency peptide analysis on monolithic multimode capillary columns: Pressure-assisted capillary electrochromatography/capillary electrophoresis coupled to UV and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 21 2003
    Alexander R. Ivanov
    Abstract High-efficiency peptide analysis using multimode pressure-assisted capillary electrochromatography/capillary electrophoresis (pCEC/pCE) monolithic polymeric columns and the separation of model peptide mixtures and protein digests by isocratic and gradient elution under an applied electric field with UV and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection is demonstrated. Capillary multipurpose columns were prepared in silanized fused-silica capillaries of 50, 75, and 100 ,m inner diameters by thermally induced in situ copolymerization of methacrylic monomers in the presence of n -propanol and formamide as porogens and azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator. N -Ethylbutylamine was used to modify the chromatographic surface of the monolith from neutral to cationic. Monolithic columns were termed as multipurpose or multimode columns because they showed mixed modes of separation mechanisms under different conditions. Anion-exchange separation ability in the liquid chromatography (LC) mode can be determined by the cationic chromatographic surface of the monolith. At acidic pH and high voltage across the column, the monolithic stationary phase provided conditions for predominantly capillary electrophoretic migration of peptides. At basic pH and electric field across the column, enhanced chromatographic retention of peptides on monolithic capillary column made CEC mechanisms of migration responsible for separation. The role of pressure, ionic strength, pH, and organic content of the mobile phase on chromatographic performance was investigated. High efficiencies (exceeding 300,000 plates/m) of the monolithic columns for peptide separations are shown using volatile and nonvolatile, acidic and basic buffers. Good reproducibility and robustness of isocratic and gradient elution pressure-assisted CEC/CE separations were achieved for both UV and ESI-MS detection. Manipulation of the electric field and gradient conditions allowed high-throughput analysis of complex peptide mixtures. A simple design of sheathless electrospray emitter provided effective and robust low dead volume interfacing of monolithic multimode columns with ESI-MS. Gradient elution pressure-assisted mixed-mode separation CE/CEC-ESI-MS mass fingerprinting and data-dependent pCE/pCEC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of a bovine serum albumin (BSA) tryptic digest in less than 5 min yielding high sequence coverage (73%) demonstrated the potential of the method. [source]

    Separation and aquatic toxicity of enantiomers of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin,

    Chao Xu
    Abstract Chiral pollutants are receiving growing environmental concern due to differential biological activities of their enantio-mers. In the present study, enantiomeric separation of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using the columns of Chiralpak AD (amylase tris[3,5-dimethyl-phenylcarbamate]), Chiralpak AS (amylase tris[(S)-1-phenyl carbamate]), Chiralcel OD (cellulose tris[3,5-dimethylphenyl carbamate]), and Chiralcel OJ (cellulose tris[4-methyl benzoate]) with different chiral stationary phases. The differential toxicities of the enantiomers in aquatic systems were evaluated using the acute zebrafish (Danio rerio) toxicity test and the zebrafish embryo test. The enantiomers of LCT were separated completely on all the columns tested and detected by circular dichroism at 236 nm. Better separations were achieved at lower temperatures (e.g., 20C) and lower levels of polar modifiers (,5%) in mobile phase. Ethanol was found to be a good modifier of the mobile phase for all the columns, although isopropanol acted better for the Chiralcel OD column. The (,)-enantiomer was >162 times more toxic than its antipode to zebrafish in the acute test. The embryo test indicated that the exposure to LCT enantioselectively induced crooked body, yolk sac edema, and pericardial edema and that the (,)-enantiomer was 7.2 times stronger than the (+)-enantiomer in 96-h mortality. The malformations were induced by the racemate and its (,)-enantiomer at lower concentrations tested (e.g., 50 ,g L,1), whereas the (+)-enantiomer induced malformations at relatively higher concentrations (,100 ,g L,1). These results suggest that the toxicological effects of chiral pesticides must be evaluated using their individual enantiomers. [source]

    Analysis of hepatic vitamins A1, A2, their fatty acyl esters, and vitamin E for biomonitoring mammals feeding on freshwater fish

    Anne Kkel
    Abstract In tissues of freshwater fish,feeding mammals, 3,4-didehydroretinol (A2) is a major form of vitamin A. In mink liver, with organochlorine exposure, this analog has been found to decrease more than retinol (A1) and thus has potential as a sensitive freshwater biomarker. The presence of the analogs A1 and A2 as alcohol and different fatty acyl esters, which react to polychlorinated biphenyls differently, necessitates detailed analyses achieved by using direct extraction of tissue homogenate. In direct hexane extraction, compared to total levels of the vitamins obtained in the saponification procedure, a large proportion of the vitamins was released only after repeated and long-time vortex mixing with the extraction solvent. Thus, in tissue extraction, the use of internal standardization alone can lead to a rough underestimation of the levels of these fat-soluble vitamins. For analyses of vitamins A1 and A2 in liver, we applied the argentation high-performance liquid chromatography, which provided good separation of individual A1 and A2 fatty acyl esters. We report retention times for numerous esters of A1 and A2 and, to aid identification, the change in their retention properties after adding AgNO3 to the mobile phase. The argentation did not affect the recoveries of any forms of the retinoids studied but destroyed half the vitamin E. Despite selective acylation of fatty acids into the vitamin A esters, the fatty acids of the esters were the same as those found to be the major fatty acids in the gas,liquid chromatography of total lipids. The goal of this work was to create a methodology that is suitable for biomonitoring alcoholic and esterified vitamins A1 and A2 in tissues of freshwater fish,feeding mammals. [source]

    Predicting the Tails of Breakthrough Curves in Regional-Scale Alluvial Systems

    GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2007
    Yong Zhang
    The late tail of the breakthrough curve (BTC) of a conservative tracer in a regional-scale alluvial system is explored using Monte Carlo simulations. The ensemble numerical BTC, for an instantaneous point source injected into the mobile domain, has a heavy late tail transforming from power law to exponential due to a maximum thickness of clayey material. Haggerty et al.'s (2000) multiple-rate mass transfer (MRMT) method is used to predict the numerical late-time BTCs for solutes in the mobile phase. We use a simple analysis of the thicknesses of fine-grained units noted in boring logs to construct the memory function that describes the slow decline of concentrations at very late time. The good fit between the predictions and the numerical results indicates that the late-time BTC can be approximated by a summation of a small number of exponential functions, and its shape depends primarily on the thicknesses and the associated volume fractions of immobile water in "blocks" of fine-grained material. The prediction of the late-time BTC using the MRMT method relies on an estimate of the average advective residence time, tad. The predictions are not sensitive to estimation errors in tad, which can be approximated by , where is the arithmetic mean ground water velocity and L is the transport distance. This is the first example of deriving an analytical MRMT model from measured hydrofacies properties to predict the late-time BTC. The parsimonious model directly and quantitatively relates the observable subsurface heterogeneity to nonlocal transport parameters. [source]

    Simultaneous determination of chlorinated bacteriostats in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products

    L.-H. Wang
    A high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for simultaneous determination of triclosan (2,4,4-trichloro-2-hydroxydiphenyl ether) and triclocarban (3,4,4-trichlorocarbanilide) in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The two compounds could be separated on a Nucleosil C18 column and eluted with acetonitrile and water (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase and detected with a differential refractive index detector. The retention times of triclosan and triclocarban were 5.81 and 2.99 min, respectively. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained by a differential pulse voltammetric method. [source]

    Preparation of normal-phase HPLC stationary phase based on monodisperse hydrophilic polymeric beads and their application

    Bolin Gong
    Abstract The monodisperse, 5.0 ,m hydrophilic macroporous poly(glycidymethacrylate- co -ethylenedimethacrylate) beads were first prepared based on monosized linear poly(glycidylmethacrylate) beads as seed by using a single-step swelling and polymerization method. The seed beads prepared by dispersion polymerization exhibited good absorption of the monomer phase. The pore size distribution of the beads was evaluated by mercury instrusion method. The surface area was calculated from the BET isotherms of nitrogen adsorption and desorption. The beads were modified to be a normal-phase liquid chromatographic (NPLC) stationary phase for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the following steps. First, the beads were completely hydrolyzed. Second, hydrolyzed particles were reacted with epichlorihydrin followed by another hydrolysis of the newly introduced epoxide groups. The retention properties of the NPLC stationary phase were easily modulated by changes in the composition of the mobile phase. The performance of theses beads was demonstrated with the separation of a variety of polar compounds. The satisfactory results were obtained. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 2007 [source]

    Determination of glycyrrhetic acid in human plasma by HPLC-MS method and investigation of its pharmacokinetics

    W.-J. Zhao PhD
    Summary Objective:, To develop a high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method for the determination of the glycyrrhetic acid (GA) in human plasma and for the investigation of its pharmacokinetics after the oral administration of 150 mg diammonium glycyrrhizinate test and reference capsule formulations. Methods:, The GA in plasma was extracted with ethyl acetate, separated on a C18 column with a mobile phase of methanol (5 mmol/L ammonium acetate),water (85 : 15, V/V) and analysed using a MS detector. Ursolic acid (UA) was used as internal standard. The target ions were m/z 4695 for GA and m/z 4556 for UA, the fragment voltages were 200 V and 100 V for GA and UA respectively. Results:, The calibration curve was linear over the range of 05,200 ng/mL (r = 09974). The limit of quantification for GA in plasma was 05 ng/mL, the recovery was 760,800%, and the inter- and intra-day relative standard deviations (RSD) were <12%. The pharmacokinetic parameters of GA after a single dose of 150 mg diammonium glycyrrhizinate test and reference were as follows: the half life (t1/2) 965 354 h and 946 285 h, the time to peak concentration (Tmax) 1095 132 h and 1100 130 h, the peak concentration (Cmax) 9557 4306 ng/mL and 10389 4924 ng/mL; the area under time-concentration curve (AUC0,48 and AUC0,,) 128184 52711 ngh/mL and 136774 56327 ngh/mL, 131432 56640 ngh/mL and 139697 63006 ngh/mL. The relative bioavailability of diammonium glycyrrhizinate capsule was 9888 1298%. Conclusion:, The assay was sensitive, accurate and convenient, and can be used for the determination of GA in human plasma. Comparison of the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile of GA indicated that the test and reference capsules were bioequivalent. [source]

    Synthesis of 4-(7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-yl)benzeneisocyanate (DACB-NCO): A highly sensitive fluorescent derivatization reagent for alcohols in high-performance liquid chromatography,

    Haruko Takechi
    4-(7-Diethylaminocoumarin-3-yl)benzeneisocyanate (DACB-NCO) was synthesized as a new fluorescent derivatization reagent for alcohols for use in high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc). Saturated alcohols (C6 -C22) were derivatized in good yields into the corresponding fluorescent DACB-carbamic esters by treating with DACB-NCO. The DACB-carbamic esters of these alcohols were clearly separated on a reversed-phase hplc column (Inertsil ODS-2, mobile phase: methanol-water, excitation wavelength 402 nm; emission wavelength 488 nm). The detection limit (S/N = 3) of cetyl alcohol, as a test compound, was 5 fmol/10 ,l. [source]

    Analysis of tricyclic antidepressant drugs in plasma by means of solid-phase microextraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Claudete Alves
    Abstract Solid-phase microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (SPME-LC-MS) was used to analyze tricyclic antidepressant drugs desipramine, imipramine, nortriptyline, amitriptyline, and clomipramine (internal standard) in plasma samples. SPME was performed by direct extraction on a PDMS/DVB (60 m) coated fiber, employing a stirring rate of 1200 rpm for 30 min, pH 11.0, and temperature of 30 C. Drug desorption was carried out by exposing the fiber to the liquid chromatography mobile phase for 20 min, using a labmade SPME-LC interface at 50 C. The main variables experimentally influencing LC-MS response were evaluated and mathematically modeled. A rational optimization with fewer experiments was achieved using a factorial design approach. The constructed empirical models were adjusted with 96,98% of explained deviation allowing an adequate data set comprehension. The chromatographic separation was realized using an RP-18 column (150 mm 2.1 mm, 5 m particles) and ammonium acetate buffer (0.01 mol/l, pH 5.50) : acetonitrile (50 : 50 v/v) as mobile phase. Low detection levels were achieved with electrospray interface (0.1 ng/ml). The developed method showed specificity, linearity, precision, and limit of quantification adequate to assay tricyclic antidepressant drugs in plasma. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Determination of BAPTA-AM, the acetoxymethyl tetraester of BAPTA, in rat plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Feng Zheng
    Abstract BAPTA-AM is the acetoxymethylester of the calcium chelator BAPTA and has demonstrated efficacy in several animal models of cerebral ischemia. This paper describes the development of a method for the determination of BAPTA-AM in rat plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Owing to multiple ester groups in the structure of BAPTA-AM, [M + Na]+ was chosen as the analytical ion for quantification of BAPTA-AM. During the analytical method development, a high percentage of organic solvent and the addition of an amount of sodium acetate and formic acid in the mobile phase were found to favor the sensitivity and reproducibility of [M + Na]+. Poor fragmentation was usually observed in the MS/MS spectra of sodium adduct ions. However, abundant and reproducible fragment ions were observed for the BAPTA-AM sodium adduct ion, and therefore the traditional selective reaction-monitoring mode was used to further improve the sensitivity of MS detection. Because of the lability of the ester bond, a combination of fluoride and hydrochloric acid was applied to minimize the enzymatic hydrolysis, and acetonitrile was chosen to avoid the chemical hydrolysis or solvolysis during the sample collection and preparation procedure. On the basis of these studies, a rapid, sensitive and reproducible method for the determination of BAPTA-AM in rat plasma, using LC/ESI-MS/MS and a simple protein precipitation procedure, was developed and validated. Also, the present method was successfully applied to the determination of BAPTA-AM plasma concentrations for pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Exact mass measurement on an electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer: error distribution and selective averaging

    Jiejun Wu
    Abstract An automated, accurate and reliable way of acquiring and processing flow injection data for exact mass measurement using a bench-top electrospray ionization time-of-flight (ESI-TOF) mass spectrometer is described. Using Visual Basic programs, individual scans were selected objectively with restrictions on ion counts per second for both the compound of interest and the mass reference peaks. The selected ,good scans' were then subjected to two different data-processing schemes (,combine-then-center' and ,center-then-average'), and the results were compared at various ion count limit settings. It was found that, in general, the average of mass values from individual scans is more accurate than the centroid mass value of the combined (same) scans. In order to acquire a large number of good scans in one injection (to increase the sampling size for statistically valid averaging), an on-line dilution chamber was added to slow down the typically rapid mass chromatographic peak decay in flow-injection analysis. This simple addition worked well in automation without the need for manual sample dilution. In addition, by dissolving the reference compound directly into the mobile phase, manual syringe filling can be eliminated. Twenty-seven samples were analyzed with the new acquisition and process routines in positive electrospray ionization mode. For the best method found, the percentage of samples with RMS error less than 5 ppm was 100% with repetitive injection data (6 injections per sample), and 95% with single injection data. Afterwards, 31 other test samples were run (with MW ranging from 310 to 3493 Da, 21 samples in ESI+ and 10 in ESI, mode) and processed with similar parameters and 100% of them were mass-calculated to RMS error less than 5 ppm also. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Unusual atmospheric pressure chemical ionization conditions for detection of organic peroxides

    David Rondeau
    Abstract Organic peroxides such as the cumene hydroperoxide I (Mr = 152 u), the di- tert -butyl peroxide II (Mr = 146 u) and the tert -butyl peroxybenzoate III (Mr = 194 u) were analyzed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a water,methanol mixture as solvent with a low flow-rate of mobile phase and unusual conditions of the source temperature (,50 C) and probe temperature (70,200 C). The mass spectra of these compounds show the formation of (i) an [M + H]+ ion (m/z 153) for the hydroperoxide I, (ii) a stable adduct [M + CH3OH2]+ ion (m/z 179) for the dialkyl peroxide II and (iii) several protonated adduct species such as protonated molecules (m/z 195) and different protonated adduct ions (m/z 227, 389 and 421) for the peroxyester III. Tandem mass spectrometric experiments, exact mass measurements and theoretical calculations were performed for characterize these gas-phase ionic species. Using the double-well energy potential model illustrating a gas-phase bimolecular reaction, three important factors are taken into account to propose a qualitative interpretation of peroxide behavior toward the CH3OH2+, i.e. thermochemical parameters () and two kinetic factors such as the capture constant of the initial stable ion,dipole and the magnitude of the rate constant of proton transfer reaction into the loose proton bond cluster. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Model for temperature profiles in large diameter electrochromatography columns

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 2 2003
    Craig Keim
    Scale-up of electrochromatographic separations has been problematic due to electrically induced heating. A two-dimensional transient temperature model for electrochromatography was developed, which accounts for physical properties of the stationary and mobile phase, and the column wall. The model also accounts for both the temperature effect on the electrical conductivity and a nonuniform, radially variant current density. This model was compared to experimental data from two electrochromatography systems with different cylindrical-column dimensions, packing materials, and operating conditions. In all cases, the model predicts the temperature to within 3C of the actual temperature, both for column heatup and cooldown. Separation of a mixture of model proteins on the 3.81-cm-ID scale was used as the basis for scale-up calculations. The model identifies equipment parameters that control heating characteristics and can be scaled up to process 75 mL of sample per run. [source]

    Mass transport and flow regimes in centrifugal partition chromatography

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 8 2002
    L. Marchal
    Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) is a support-free liquid,liquid separation process that depends for efficiency on the behavior of the two liquid phases. Hydrodynamics of phases was studied according to flow rate and centrifugal acceleration, using a transparent column and a stroboscopic video system. For the heptane-methanol two-phase system, three main flow regimes,stuck film, oscillating sheet, and atomization,are observed, highlighting the coriolis acceleration effect as well as the influence of the column shape. Mass transport in the CPC column is modeled by a plug flow with axial dispersion and mass transfer with a stagnant volume. Model parameters (residence time, Pclet number, partition ratio, and mass-transfer coefficient) are fitted on solute residence-time distribution. Off-column dispersion is an important source of peak broadening in CPC, whereas its irregular geometry provides a plug flow for mobile phase. Importance of flow pattern on mass transfer is demonstrated. CPC interest for preparative applications is confirmed. [source]