Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Engineering

Kinds of Module

  • additional module
  • binding module
  • carbohydrate-binding module
  • catalytic module
  • cellulose-binding module
  • control module
  • developmental module
  • different module
  • fiber membrane module
  • first module
  • functional module
  • hollow fiber membrane module
  • learning module
  • membrane module
  • photovoltaic module
  • production module
  • protein module
  • regulatory module
  • sensor module
  • silicon module
  • software module
  • solar module
  • specific module
  • teaching module
  • thermoelectric module
  • training module
  • treatment module

  • Terms modified by Module

  • module design
  • module performance

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT This module will introduce you to the ethical concepts underlying applied ethical decision-making in the area of research involving human participants. We will also learn what the issues are that people involved in research on research ethics are concerned with. Ethics without an understanding of historical and legal context makes arguably little sense. It is for this reason that this module will begin with a brief history of research ethics and ends with a brief overview of the relevant national and international guidelines pertaining to ethical issues in research involving human participants. [source]


    ABSTRACT The objective of this module is to familiarise you with the concept of informed consent, its ethical basis, its elements, and typical problems that are encountered even by the most well intentioned researchers when trying to achieve genuine informed consent. [source]


    An action training program that teaches inspirational communication of a vision as part of a training of charismatic leadership for managers is presented (1½ days) and evaluated in 2 studies (N= 25 and N= 22). We used the research design "nonequivalent dependent variable design" (Cook & Campbell, 1979, p, 118) or "internal referencing strategy" (Haccoun & Hamtieux, 1994), which compared the trained behaviors (charismatic inspirational communication) with behaviors that were not trained (public speech) to control for testing and Hawthorne effects. The training had specific positive effects on those behaviors that were trained but not on those variables that were not trained. Good to excellent effect sizes appeared as a result of the training. We suggest that this research design is useful for evaluation of training effects within the constraints of commercial settings and, moreover, we argue that this design is in many ways superior to a nonequivalent nontraining control group design because it controls for testing effects and for effects that otherwise would need a pseudo-training control group. [source]

    Configuration Space Control for Wendelstein 7-X

    T. Dodson
    Abstract The Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (W7-X) is a superconducting fusion experiment presently under construction at the Greifswald branch of the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Greifswald, Germany. W7-X is a device with extreme geometrical complexity due to the close-packing of components inside the cryostat and their complex three-dimensional shapes. The task of the Configuration Space Control department is to ensure that these components do not collide with each other under the defined set of configurations such as during assembly, at cool down, or during operation at various coil currents, among others. To fulfill this task, sophisticated tools and procedures were developed and implemented within the realm of a newly founded division that focuses on design, configuration control, and configuration management. This paper will discuss the Configuration Space Control process, explore the advantages to the project resulting from the process, and demonstrate its application in the analysis of the cryogenic cooling pipes of Module 5 (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Estimating driver risk using alcohol biomarkers, interlock blood alcohol concentration tests and psychometric assessments: initial descriptives

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2010
    Paul Marques
    ABSTRACT Aim To identify alcohol biomarker and psychometric measures that relate to drivers' blood alcohol concentration (BAC) patterns from ignition interlock devices (IIDs). Design, setting, participants, measurements In Alberta, Canada, 534 drivers, convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI), installed IIDs and agreed to participate in a research study. IID BAC tests are an established proxy for predicting future DUI convictions. Three risk groups were defined by rates of failed BAC tests. Program entry and follow-up blood samples (n = 302, 171) were used to measure phosphatidyl ethanol (PETH), carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and other biomarkers. Program entry urine (n = 130) was analyzed for ethyl glucuronide (ETG) and ethyl sulphate (ETS). Entry hair samples were tested for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) (n = 92) and ETG (n = 146). Psychometric measures included the DSM-4 Diagnostic Interview Schedule Alcohol Module, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the time-line follow-back (TLFB), the Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DRINC) and the Temptation and Restraint Inventory (TRI). Findings Except for FAEE, all alcohol biomarkers were related significantly to the interlock BAC test profiles; higher marker levels predicted higher rates of interlock BAC test failures. PETH, the strongest with an overall analysis of variance F ratio of 35.5, had significant correlations with all nine of the other alcohol biomarkers and with 16 of 19 psychometric variables. Urine ETG and ETS were correlated strongly with the IID BAC tests. Conclusions The findings suggest that several alcohol biomarkers and assessments could play an important role in the prediction and control of driver alcohol risk when re-licensing. [source]

    Rule based processing of the CD4000, CD3200 and CD Sapphire analyser output using the Cerner Discern Expert Module

    Summary The latest version of our Laboratory Information System haematology laboratory expert system that handles the output of Abbott Cell-Dyn Sapphires, CD4000s and a CD3200 full blood count analyser in three high-volume haematology laboratories is described. The three hospital laboratories use Cerner Millennium Version 2007.02 software and the expert system uses Cerner Millennium Discern Expert rules and some small Cerner Command Language in-house programs. The entire expert system is totally integrated with the area-wide database and has been built and maintained by haematology staff members, as has the haematology database. Using patient demographic data, analyser numeric results, analyser error and morphology flags and previous results for the patient, this expert system decides whether to validate the main full blood count indices and white cell differential, or if the analyser results warrant further operator intervention/investigation before verifying, whether a blood film is required for microscopic review and if abnormal results require phoning to the staff treating the patient. The principles of this expert system can be generalized to different haematology analysers and haematology laboratories that have different workflows and different software. [source]

    Multimedia satellite communications experiments to the international space station

    Carlo Matarasso
    Abstract In the present concept of the International Space Station ISS, it is planned to provide the communication services between the European Columbus module of the ISS and the ground equipment via the TDRS (tracking and data relay satellite) network provided by the American NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Agency). Especially because of its low uplink data rate, an unacceptable limitation of the communication services with Columbus is to be expected. In order to investigate possible improvements to this situation, the MEDIS proposal studies the feasibility of a 150 Mbps full duplex communication system to the Columbus Module on via two MEO satellites. A mixed topology with optical inter satellite links and Ka-band up/down-links shall be employed. Also possible liaisons with the Artemis mission will be considered. The MEDIS project is a collaboration of Astrium GmbH, which is project manager, Bosch SatCom, GMD-Fokus and the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The preparation phase of the project will investigate the concept of the communications infrastructure and the experiments that could be realized when the MEOs are launched. This stage has been completed in February 2001. An additional study phase followed, which will be completed with a presentation in July 2002. Briefly the following aspects have been studied by DLR in the preparation phase: the overall concept of experimental communication services for Columbus, the system requirements and network topology, the relevant protocol and hardware architectures, useful satellite constellations and link scenarios. Two phases could follow the preparation phase, in phase one the satellite will be launched and the link will be tested. In phase two the satellites will be connected to the ISS. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Mercury CSD 2.0, new features for the visualization and investigation of crystal structures

    Clare F. Macrae
    The program Mercury, developed by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre, is designed primarily as a crystal structure visualization tool. A new module of functionality has been produced, called the Materials Module, which allows highly customizable searching of structural databases for intermolecular interaction motifs and packing patterns. This new module also includes the ability to perform packing similarity calculations between structures containing the same compound. In addition to the Materials Module, a range of further enhancements to Mercury has been added in this latest release, including void visualization and links to ConQuest, Mogul and IsoStar. [source]

    Social capital, age and religiosity in people who are lonely

    William Lauder PhD
    Aims and objectives., The aims of the study were to (i) investigate age and loneliness, (ii) investigate the association between religiosity and loneliness, and (iii) and explore the relationship between social capital and loneliness. Background., Loneliness is the subjective experience of social isolation and is a risk factor for a wide range of health problems including heart disease and depression. Poor self-rated health, domestic violence and poor economic conditions are associated with greater loneliness. Design., The study was a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of adults aged 18 years and over. Methods., A random sample of 1289 subjects was interviewed by computer-assisted telephone interviewing. This interview included the Loneliness Scale and items from the Social Capital Module of the General Household Survey. Findings., Loneliness is more common in men and people without strong religious beliefs. An income-loneliness gradient is evident. Little support was found for the association between social capital and loneliness. Conclusion., The prevalence of loneliness is relatively stable in this population. Loneliness is linked to income and unemployment and as such pathways between socio-economic factors, loneliness and health need to guide interventions and future research. Relevance to clinical practice., Loneliness is linked to a range of social and economic factors. Current Health Visiting practice recognizes the importance of tackling the effects of poverty and social deprivation and places community building at the core of much Health Visiting practice. This broad community level approach can usefully transfer into all community nursing and health promotion activity. [source]

    Qualitative case studies of innovative pedagogical practices using ICT

    R.B. Kozma
    Abstract The Second Instructional Technology in Education Study: Module 2 (SITES M2) is a series of qualitative studies that identify and describe innovative pedagogical practices in 28 participating countries that use technology. The project resulted in 174 case study reports of innovative practice that are currently being analysed. This paper describes the goals, research questions, and methodology for this study and provides a context for the other papers that are published in this issue. Given the large number of case studies, a combined qualitative and quantitative approach to the research is described. [source]

    The influence of IT: perspectives from five Australian schools

    J. Ainley
    Abstract Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are now widespread in Australian schools but with variation in how, where, when and how much they are used. Computers may be located in a computer laboratory, distributed throughout the school, or students may use their own laptop computers. IT may be a subject in its own right or ICT may be used across all areas of the curriculum. It is how ICT is used in the school setting that is important in providing students with the skills to be participate in a ,knowledge society'. This paper examines the ways in which information and communication technologies influence teaching and learning in five Australian schools. Data were gathered through observation, interviews and document analysis in schools operating at the elementary and secondary grades in relatively technology rich environments. Each of the schools participated in the Australian component of the Second Information Technology in Education Study, Module 2 (SITES-M2) of innovative pedagogical practices. Several of the studies were of specific projects where ICT was the key enabler of the learning programme. Others focused on an entire school's approach to ICT as an agent for changed approaches to learning. [source]

    The Moderating Effect of Religiosity on the Genetic Variance of Problem Alcohol Use

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2010
    Tanya M. M. Button
    Background:, Previous studies have demonstrated that the heritability of alcohol-related phenotypes depends upon the social background in which it is measured (e.g., urbanicity, marital status, and religiosity). The aim of the current study was to identify whether religiosity moderated the genetic variance of problem alcohol use in men and women at two time points: adolescence and early adulthood. Method:, Participants were 312 male MZ pairs, 379 female MZ pairs, 231 male DZ pairs, 235 female DZ pairs, and 275 opposite sex DZ pairs participating in the University of Colorado Center on Antisocial Drug Dependence. Religiosity was measured using the Value on Religion Scale (Jessor and Jessor, 1977), and problem alcohol use was measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview,Substance Abuse Module (Cottler et al., 1989). Data were analyzed using a model-fitting approach to the twin data. Results:, In adolescence, genetic variance of problem alcohol use decreased significantly with increasing levels of religiosity in both men and women, whereas in early adulthood, religiosity did not moderate the genetic variance of problem alcohol use in either men or women. Conclusion:, Religiosity appears to moderate the genetic effects on problem alcohol use during adolescence, but not during early adulthood. The reduced genetic variance for problem alcohol use in adolescence may be the consequence of greater social control in adolescence than in young adulthood. [source]

    Electroencephalogram spindle activity during dexmedetomidine sedation and physiological sleep

    Background: Dexmedetomidine, a selective ,2 -adrenoceptor agonist, induces a unique, sleep-like state of sedation. The objective of the present work was to study human electroencephalogram (EEG) sleep spindles during dexmedetomidine sedation and compare them with spindles during normal physiological sleep, to test the hypothesis that dexmedetomidine exerts its effects via normal sleep-promoting pathways. Methods: EEG was continuously recorded from a bipolar frontopolar,laterofrontal derivation with Entropy Module (GE Healthcare) during light and deep dexmedetomidine sedation (target-controlled infusions set at 0.5 and 3.2 ng/ml) in 11 healthy subjects, and during physiological sleep in 10 healthy control subjects. Sleep spindles were visually scored and quantitatively analyzed for density, duration, amplitude (band-pass filtering) and frequency content (matching pursuit approach), and compared between the two groups. Results: In visual analysis, EEG activity during dexmedetomidine sedation was similar to physiological stage 2 (S2) sleep with slight to moderate amount of slow-wave activity and abundant sleep spindle activity. In quantitative EEG analyses, sleep spindles were similar during dexmedetomidine sedation and normal sleep. No statistically significant differences were found in spindle density, amplitude or frequency content, but the spindles during dexmedetomidine sedation had longer duration (mean 1.11 s, SD 0.14 s) than spindles in normal sleep (mean 0.88 s, SD 0.14 s; P=0.0014). Conclusions: Analysis of sleep spindles shows that dexmedetomidine produces a state closely resembling physiological S2 sleep in humans, which gives further support to earlier experimental evidence for activation of normal non-rapid eye movement sleep-promoting pathways by this sedative agent. [source]

    Follow-Up Comparisons of Intervention and Comparison Schools in a State Tobacco Prevention and Control Initiative

    Phyllis Gingiss
    The intervention, which was funded through the Texas Department of State Health Services, consisted of guidance, training, technical assistance, and reimbursement of approximately $2000 per year for program expenses. Self-administered written surveys for Principals and Health Coordinators, based on the School Health Education Profile Tobacco Module, were designed for periodic assessment of the status of school programs. Surveys were sent in 2002 to intervention (n = 74) and comparison (n = 60) schools. Response to the Principal Survey was received from 109 (81%) schools, and response to the Health Coordinator Survey was received from 84 (63%) schools. Survey analysis showed that intervention schools more frequently (p , .05) reported: (1) being extremely or moderately active in student cessation support, teacher training, policy development, family involvement, and assessment of the prevention program; (2) using recommended curricula, offering more tobacco-related lessons, involving more teachers, and using more recommended teaching methods such as role-playing, simulations or practice, and peer educators; and (3) having more interest in staff development and more funding to purchase release time. Similarities across schools are provided, as well as recommendations for future planning. (J Sch Health. 2006;76(3):98-103) [source]

    Validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in College Students

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2004
    Patricia K. Kokotailo
    Background: High-risk alcohol use among college students is associated with accidents, partner violence, unwanted sexual encounters, tobacco use, and performance issues. The identification and treatment of high-risk drinking students is a priority for many college campuses and college health centers. The goal of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in college students. Methods: A convenience sample of students coming into a college health clinic was asked to complete the 10-question AUDIT and then participate in a research interview. The interview focused on assessing students for alcohol abuse and dependence by using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Substance Abuse Module and timeline follow-back procedures to assess a 28-day drinking history. Results: A total of 302 students met the eligibility criteria and agreed to participate in the study. The sample consisted of 185 females (61%) and 117 males (39%), with a mean age of 20.3 years. Forty students were abstinent, 88 were high-risk drinkers, and 103 met criteria for a 12-month history of dependence. Receiver operator curves demonstrated that the AUDIT had the highest area under the cure for detecting high-risk alcohol use (0.872) and the lowest for identifying persons with a lifetime history of alcohol abuse or dependence (0.775). An AUDIT cutoff score of 6 or greater demonstrated a sensitivity of 91.0% and a specificity of 60.0% in the detection of high-risk drinkers. Conclusions: The AUDIT has reasonable psychometric properties in sample of college students using student health services. This study supports the use of the AUDIT in this population. [source]

    The visualization and modification of the body in art and medicine , how an innovative Special Study Module explored the humanity of medicine

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 11 2000
    Article first published online: 9 OCT 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Use of CoZmonitor® in youth with type 1 diabetes,

    PEDIATRIC DIABETES, Issue 2 2008
    Erin Cobry
    Background:, The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of directly integrating self-monitoring blood glucose (BG) information with insulin pump therapy on overall glycemic control. Methods:, In this randomized trial, 34 youth with type 1 diabetes using insulin pump therapy were trained on the use of the Deltec Cozmo® Insulin Pump. Seventeen were randomized to use the CoZmonitor® Blood Glucose Module, a device that attaches to the back of the pump using FreeStyle® technology to perform BG tests which read directly on the pump screen. The remaining 17 (control group) used a FreeStyle Flash meter, a stand-alone BG meter, for their BG testing. At baseline, 3 and 6 months, the subjects filled out a questionnaire, had a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test, and had pumps and meters downloaded. Results:, After 3 months of study, there were no changes in mean HbA1c (± SD) values for the experimental (8.7 ± 1.1 to 8.6 ± 1.1) or the control groups (9.1 ± 1.4 to 9.2 ± 1.5). There were also no significant differences in HbA1c values after 6 months. The average number of BG tests per day did not change significantly in either group during the study. After 3 and 6 months, the experimental group rated satisfaction with the use of the CoZmonitor at 4.4 and 3.8 (respectively) on a five-point Likert scale, with 5 being the most satisfied. Conclusions:, Although significant changes in HbA1c values or the number of BG tests were not found, use of the BG module had a positive level of satisfaction. [source]

    Short-term effect of physiotherapy on variability of the lung clearance index in children with cystic fibrosis

    Susanne I. Fuchs MD
    Abstract Multiple breath washout (MBW) for measuring the lung clearance index (LCI) has been proposed as a non-invasive tool for detecting early cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The LCI is highly repeatable and reproducible in healthy subjects. In patients with CF, within-test variability is low. However, application of physiotherapy (PT) immediately preceding MBW may affect LCI variability in CF patients and thus interpretation of repeat measurements and treatment effects. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to prospectively assess the short-term effect of PT on LCI in CF patients in order to address the question whether or not standardized timing of PT and MBW has to be considered when introducing MBW into clinical CF management. Twenty-seven out of 32 patients (5.7,15.9 years) with CF successfully performed two technically acceptable MBW tests with the EasyOne Pro, MBW Module (ndd, Switzerland) at intervals of 1½,hr. Sixteen out of 27 received 30,min PT in between, whereas 11/27 did not. Repeatability expressed as intraindividual coefficient of variation (CV) was 6.1% pre-PT and 6.5% post-PT. Mean difference (95% CI) of LCI between the two tests was ,0.20 (,0.51; 0.11). Reproducibility (SD) was 4.6% (3.1). Repeatability was 4.2% and 7.1% without intervention. Mean difference (95% CI) of LCI between 1st and 2nd test was 0.07 (,0.22; 0.35). Reproducibility (SD) was 2.6% (2.1). In conclusion, PT does not have a consistent effect on the LCI. Repeatability was slightly poorer than published for healthy subjects possibly reflecting variable mucus plugging, and, thus, variable trapped air in patients with CF. Reproducibility was good and independent on intervention. From our data, we conclude that timing of PT in relation to MBW can be ignored when designing study protocols or when interpreting longitudinal data and treatment effects. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2010; 45:301,306. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Relations among school assets, individual resilience, and student engagement for youth grouped by level of family functioning

    Jill D. Sharkey
    Given the importance of student engagement for healthy outcomes, research needs to investigate whether school-based assets promote student engagement beyond individual and family influences. Unfortunately, such research has been limited by a lack of valid instrumentation. After examining the psychometrics of the California Healthy Kids Survey Resilience Youth Development Module, we used this risk and resilience instrument with a randomly selected sample of 10,000 diverse 7th-, 9th-, and 11th-grade students to test a model of relations between school assets, individual resilience, and student engagement for students grouped by level of family assets. Although youth in the low family asset group reported lower student engagement, contrary to hypothesis, multigroup structural equation modeling revealed that school assets did not have a differential relation for low family asset youth compared to their high family asset peers. School assets were associated with student engagement for all groups, even accounting for individual resilience. Implications and future directions are provided. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Prostate cancer patients' support and psychological care needs: Survey from a non-surgical oncology clinic

    PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 8 2003
    Kathleen Lintz
    While there are numerous uncertainties surrounding prostate cancer's detection and treatment, more research focusing on the psychological needs of prostate patients is required. This study investigated the support and psychological care needs of men with prostate cancer. Patients were approached during urological oncology clinics and asked to complete the: Support Care Needs Survey (SCNS), Support Care Preferences Questionnaire, EORTC QLQ-C30 (Version 3) Measure plus Prostate Module, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Of the 249 patients meeting study entry criteria, there was an 89% response rate resulting in a cohort of 210 patients. The data showed that significant unmet need exists across a number of domains in the areas of psychological and health system/information. The more commonly reported needs were ,fears about cancer spreading (44%),' ,concerns about the worries of those close to you (43%),' and ,changes in sexual feelings (41%).' Half of all patients reported some need in the domain of sexuality, especially men younger than 65 years. Needs were being well met in the domain of patient care and support. A significant number of patients reported having used or desiring support services, such as information about their illness, brochures about services and benefits for patients with cancer (55%), a series of talks by staff members about aspects of prostate cancer (44%), and one-on-one counselling (48%). Quality of life (QoL) was most negatively impacted in those who: were ,65 years old, had been diagnosed within one year, or had metastatic disease. Men ,65 had decreased social functioning, greater pain, increased sleep disturbance, and were more likely to be uncomfortable about being sexually intimate. Patients recently diagnosed had increased fatigue, more frequent urination, greater disturbance of sleep, and were more likely to have hot flushes. Those with advanced disease scored lower on 12 out of 15 QoL categories. PSA level had no effect on QoL or anxiety/depression scores. Men with advanced disease had greater levels of depression and those ,65 years old were more likely to be anxious. Although most men with prostate cancer seem to function quite well, a substantial minority report areas of unmet need that may be targets for improving care. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A Short Note on Steady State Behaviour of a Petlyuk Distillation Column by Using a Non-Equilibrium Stage Model

    Erika Fabiola Abad-Zarate
    Abstract A Petlyuk distillation column, considering equilibrium and non-equilibrium stage models, was studied. Rigorous simulations were conducted using Aspen PlusÔ RATEFRAC Module for the separation of ternary mixtures. According to the equilibrium model, the energy-efficient design of the Petlyuk column requires that the intermediate component be extracted from the maximum point in the composition profile in the main column. It was found that, for the intermediate component, mass transfer occurs from the vapour to the liquid phase from the top of the column to the stage where the side stream is extracted, from this point mass transfer occurs in the opposite direction. This point, considering the non-equilibrium model, corresponds to the stage in which the net mass transfer rate is zero. For the case of two segments per stage, it was found that the heat duties predicted by the equilibrium model are significantly lower than those obtained by using the non-equilibrium model, which is consistent with previous reported results. However, it is important to say that despite the higher energy duty predicted by the non-equilibrium model; both models predict significant energy savings. On a étudié une colonne de distillation de Petlyuk en considérant des modèles d'étage en équilibre et hors équilibre. Des simulations rigoureuses ont été menées au moyen du module RATEFRAC d'Aspen PlusÔ pour la séparation de mélanges ternaires. Selon le modèle en équilibre, une conception énergétiquement efficace de la colonne Petlyuk nécessite que le composant intermédiaire soit extrait du point maximum du profil de composition dans la colonne principale. On a trouvé que, pour le composant intermédiaire, le transfert de masse se produisait de la vapeur vers le liquide de la tête de la colonne jusqu'à l'étage où le courant secondaire est extrait; à partir de ce point le transfert de masse se produit dans la direction opposée. Ce point, en considérant le modèle hors équilibre, correspond à l'étage où le taux de transfert de masse net est nul. Dans le cas où il y a deux segments par étage, on a trouvé que les rendements thermiques prédits par le modèle en équilibre étaient significativement plus faibles que ceux obtenus à l'aide du modèle hors équilibre, ce qui est cohérent avec les résultats existants. Cependant, il est important de préciser que malgré le rendement énergétique plus élevé prédit par le modèle hors équilibre, les deux modèles fournissent des économies d'énergie significatives. [source]

    Economic Voting and Multilevel Governance: A Comparative Individual-Level Analysis

    Cameron D. Anderson
    An important component of incumbent support is the reward/punishment calculus of economic voting. Previous work has shown that "clarity of responsibility" within the central state government conditions national economic effects on incumbent vote choice: where clarity is high (low), economic effects are greater (less). This article advances the "clarity of responsibility" argument by considering the effect of multilevel governance on economic voting. In institutional contexts of multilevel governance, the process of correctly assigning responsibility for economic outcomes can be difficult. This article tests the proposition that multilevel governance mutes effects of national economic conditions by undermining responsibility linkages to the national government. Individual-level data from the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems Module 1 are used to test this proposition. Results demonstrate that economic voting is weakest in countries where multilevel governance is most prominent. Findings are discussed in light of the contribution to the economic voting literature and the potential implications of multilevel governance. [source]

    Obesity and Physical Inactivity in Rural America

    Paul Daniel Patterson MPH
    ABSTRACT: Context and Purpose: Obesity and physical inactivity are common in the United States, but few studies examine this issue within rural populations. The present study uses nationally representative data to study obesity and physical inactivity in rural populations. Methods: Data came from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey Sample Adult and Adult Prevention Module. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index. Physical inactivity was defined using self-reported leisure-time physical activity. Analyses included descriptive statistics, x2 tests, and logistic regression. Findings: Obesity was more common among rural (20.4%, 95% CI 19.2%,21.6%) than urban adults (17.8%, 95% CI 17.2%,18.4%). Rural residents of every racial/ethnic group were at higher risk of obesity than urban whites, other factors held equal. Other predictors of obesity included being male, age 25,74, lacking a high school diploma, having physical limitations, fair to poor health, and a history of smoking. Proportionately more rural adults were physically inactive than their urban peers (62.8% versus 59.3%). Among rural residents, minorities were not significantly more likely to be inactive than whites. Males and younger adults were less likely to be inactive. Rural adults who were from the Midwest and South, had less than a high school education, had fair to poor health, and currently smoked were more likely to be inactive compared to their respective referent group. Conclusions: The high prevalence of obesity and inactive lifestyles among rural populations call for research into effective rural interventions. [source]

    Pediatric Health-Related Quality of Life: Feasibility, Reliability and Validity of the PedsQLÔ Transplant Module

    J. Weissberg-Benchell
    The measurement properties of the newly developed Pediatric Quality of Life InventoryÔ (PedsQLÔ) 3.0 Transplant Module in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients were evaluated. Participants included pediatric recipients of liver, kidney, heart and small bowel transplantation who were cared for at seven medical centers across the United States and their parents. Three hundred and thirty-eight parents of children ages 2,18 and 274 children ages 5,18 completed both the PedsQLÔ 4.0 Generic Core Scales and the Transplant Module. Findings suggest that child self-report and parent proxy-report scales on the Transplant Module demonstrated excellent reliability (total scale score for child self-report ,= 0.93; total scale score for parent proxy-report ,= 0.94). Transplant-specific symptoms or problems were significantly correlated with lower generic HRQOL, supporting construct validity. Children with solid organ transplants and their parents reported statistically significant lower generic HRQOL than healthy children. Parent and child reports showed moderate to good agreement across the scales. In conclusion, the PedsQLÔ Transplant Module demonstrated excellent initial feasibility, reliability and construct validity in pediatric patients with solid organ transplants. [source]

    Switching the Cubic Nonlinear Optical Properties of an Electro-, Halo-, and Photochromic Ruthenium Alkynyl Complex Across Six States,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 42 2009

    Drei Schalter in einem Molekül: Die Titelverbindung (siehe Schema) enthält addressierbare Module, die unabhängig voneinander auf Protonierung (Alkinylligand,Vinylidenligand), elektrochemische (Metallredoxzentrum: RuII,RuIII) und photochemische Reize (Dithienylperfluorcyclopenten: Ringöffnung,Ringschluss) ansprechen. Die sechs Zustände wandeln sich über sieben Pfade ineinander um, wobei sich jeweils die nichtlinearen optischen Eigenschaften in bestimmter Weise ändern. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 1-2 2008
    Justine Oates
    Background: Quality of life (QOL) and nutritional assessment of patients with head and neck cancer can provide additional information about the effects of treatment beyond the standard measures of disease control and survival. Integrating a prospective evaluation program into a multidisciplinary service may ensure that a more holistic model of care is developed. Methods: Prospective evaluation of QOL and nutrition before and after treatment for head and neck cancer was implemented in 2001. All patients enrolled in the program were treated with curative intent. Patients completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core QOL Questionnaire and Head and Neck Specific Module before treatment and at 3, 6 and 12 months after completion of therapy. In conjunction, patients underwent nutritional assessment by body mass index, biochemical parameters and the patient-generated subjective global assessment tool. Results: Among 288 patients who consented to participate in this study, 134 patients completed the QOL assessment criteria and were eligible for evaluation. Examples of QOL and nutritional data for patients with cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, nasopharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, parotid gland and paranasal sinus, and also unknown primary cancers are given. Implementation of this prospective assessment program required appropriate resources and was hampered by time constraints, logistics with blood tests and patient compliance. Conclusions: Despite difficulties with implementation, the information concerning QOL and nutritional status obtained in this study provided an appreciation of the long-term functional effects of treatment for head and neck cancer. Prospective QOL assessment and nutritional evaluation should become integral components of the care of patients with cancers of the head and neck. [source]

    FOAM, a new simple benthic degradative module for the LAMP3D model: an application to a Mediterranean fish farm

    Patrizia De Gaetano
    Abstract The modelling framework already introduced by Doglioli, Magaldi, Vezzulli and Tucci to predict the potential impact of a marine fish farm is improved following different directions, namely (1) real historic current-metre data are used to force the simulations, (2) settling velocity values specifically targeting Mediterranean fish species are used, and (3) a new benthic degradative module, the Finite Organic Accumulation Module, is added to the modelling framework. The Finite Organic Accumulation Module uses the output of the other functional units of the modelling framework to calculate the organic load on the seabed. The Finite Organic Accumulation Module considers the natural capability of the seafloor in absorbing part of the organic load. Different remineralization rates reflect the sediment stress level according to the work of Findlay and Watling. Organic degradation for both uneaten feed and faeces is evaluated by changing the release modality (continuous and periodical) and by varying the settling velocities. It is found that the maximum impact on the benthic community is observed either for quickly sinking uneaten feed released twice a day, or for less intense near-bottom current conditions. If both the above-mentioned scenarios coexist, a high stress level is established in the sediment. The model also suggests that the use of self-feeders in cages can reduce farm impacts significantly. These results show how the new and more complete modelling framework presented here is able to improve the objectivity in the decision-making processes and how it may be successfully used for planning and monitoring purposes. [source]

    Timberfabric: Applying Textile Principles on a Building Scale

    Yves Weinand
    Abstract Timber is coming to the fore as a contemporary construction material. Not only sustainable, its suppleness, adaptability and strength make it highly attractive for experimental designers. Yves Weinand founded the interdisciplinary timberfabric research project at IBOIS, the Laboratory for Timber Fabric, at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), in order to fully explore innovative timber construction techniques. Here Yves Weinand and Markus Hudert describe the Textile Module, which Hudert developed, in order to investigate timber's ability for ,social behaviour', or greater structural strength, once woven into a textile-like form. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Geriatric Emergency Medicine Educational Module: Abdominal Pain in the Older Adult

    Lowell Gerson
    The Society for Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Geriatrics Task Force has created an instructional tool to address the complaint of abdominal pain in older adults presenting to the emergency department (ED). This is the first module in a comprehensive, web-based geriatric emergency medicine curriculum that will address common syndromes in older adults presenting to the ED. There is no formal, residency-based curriculum in geriatric emergency medicine and there is a paucity of geriatric Continuing Medical Education (CME) opportunities for practicing emergency physicians. The amount, quality, and convenience of geriatrics training available to emergency physicians is insufficient. This educational gap is particularly concerning given the ever-growing volume of older adult emergency patients. The Task Force chose to focus first on geriatric abdominal pain because a survey of emergency physicians in the mid 1990s found that it is one of the most difficult complaints to evaluate and manage. The module comprises of six clinical cases with a pre- and post-test. Together, these cases encompass the broad differential diagnosis for geriatric abdominal pain and the core medical knowledge pertaining to the subject. The modules will expose the learner, through either content or modeling, to the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies and to the Principles of Geriatric Emergency Medicine including rapid evaluation of functional status, communication skills, and consideration of the effect of polypharmacy and co-morbidity on the presenting complaint. This module will be available to residency programs as an "asynchronous educational session" via the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) website as well as to practicing emergency physicians via the SAEM and American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) websites. [source]

    High-quality crystals of human haematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase with novel inhibitors

    Sachiko Takahashi
    Human haematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS; EC produces prostaglandin D2, an allergic and inflammatory mediator, in mast cells and Th2 cells. H-PGDS has been crystallized with novel inhibitors with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) in the low nanomolar range by the counter-diffusion method onboard the Russian Service Module on the International Space Station. The X-ray diffraction of a microgravity-grown crystal of H-PGDS complexed with an inhibitor with an IC50 value of 50,nM extended to 1.1,Å resolution at 100,K using SPring-8 synchrotron radiation, which is one of the highest resolutions obtained to date for this protein. [source]