Mineral Assemblages (mineral + assemblage)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Sulfur Isotope Study and Re-examination of Ore Mineral Assemblage of the Hol Kol and the Tul Mi Chung Skarn-type Copper,Gold Deposits of the Suan Mining District, Korean Peninsula

Akira Imai
Abstract: Ore specimens collected by the late Professor Takeo Watanabe from the Hol Kol and the Tul Mi Chung deposits, Suan mining district, Korean peninsula, were examined. In addition, measurements of sulfur isotopic ratio of ores and preliminary fluid inclusion microthermometry were carried out. Ores from the New orebody of the Hol Kol deposit consist mainly of bornite, wittichenite and chalcopyrite presently, which exhibit lamellae intergrowth texture, associated with native bismuth and electrum. Bismuthian bornite solid solution is considered to be a principal initial phases, while native bismuth was nucleated as molten bismuth melt initially. The occurrence of cubanite, miharaite, carrollite, siegenite, hessite and geikielite are recognized from the New orebody. Ores from the Eastern orebody of the Hol Kol deposit consist chiefly of chalcopyrite, occasionally associated with trace amounts of pyrrhotite, pyrite, bismuthinite and rare tellurobismuthite, while an ore specimen from the Western orebody consists mainly of sphalerite associated with chalcopyrite, pyrite and galena. Ores from the Tul Mi Chung deposit consist mainly of chalcopyrite and pyrite, occasionally associated with magnetite, sphalerite, galena and rare molybdenite. Some portions of magnetite are revealed to be silician magnetite. Sulfur fugacity is supposed to be below the stability field of bismuthinite in the New orebody. A reducing condition is suggested by the occurrence of geikielite without Fe3+ content. The sulfur and oxygen fugacities for the Eastern and Western orebodies of the Hol Kol deposit and for the Tul Mi Chung deposit were higher than the New orebody of the Hol Kol deposit. On the other hand, the Suan granite (porphyritic granodiorite) and the Chil Sing Dai granite (biotite granite porphyry) from the Hol Kol area can be classified as weakly magnetic magnetite-series. Polyphase fluid inclusions are observed in gangue diopside associated with Cu ore of two specimens. The dissolution temperatures of daughter crystals are 39426C and 44245C, while the disappearing temperatures of vapor bubble were 47525C and > 500C. Highly saline fluids were responsible for the mineralization at the Hol Kol deposit. The ,34S values of ore sulfides of the Hol Kol and the Tul Mi Chung deposit range from +11. 5% to +16. 1%, having anomalous lower values mainly from the Tul Mi Chung deposit. Such anomalous lower 634S values can be caused by isotopic fractionation against oxidized sulfur species. The ,34S value of bulk sulfur in the ore solutions responsible for the Hol Kol and the Tul Mi Chung deposit is estimated to be +13.52.5,. [source]

Deformation history of the eclogite- and jadeitite-bearing mlange from North Motagua Fault Zone, Guatemala: insights in the processes of a fossil subduction channel

Michele Marroni
Abstract In Guatemala, along the northern side of the Motagua Valley, a mlange consisting of blocks of eclogite and jadeitite set in a metaserpentinitic and metasedimentary matrix crops out. The metasedimentary rocks display a complex deformation history that includes four tectonic phases, from D1 to D4. The D1 phase occurs only as a relic and is characterized by a mineral assemblage developed under pressure temperature (P,T) conditions of 1.00,1.25,GPa and 206,263C. The D2 phase, characterized by isoclinal folds, schistosity and mineral/stretching lineation, developed at P,T conditions of 0.70,1.20,GPa and 279,409C. The following D3 and D4 phases show deformations developed at shallower structural levels. Whereas the D1 phase can be interpreted as the result of underplating of slices of oceanic lithosphere during an intraoceanic subduction, the following phases have been acquired by the mlange during its progressive exhumation through different mechanisms. The deformations related to the D2 and D3 phases can be regarded as acquired by extrusion of the mlange within a subduction channel during a stage of oblique subduction. In addition, the structural evidences indicate that the coupling and mixing of different blocks occurred during the D2 phase, as a result of flow reverse and upward trajectory in the subduction channel. By contrast, the D4 phase can be interpreted as related to extension at shallow structural levels. In this framework, the exhumation-related structures in the mlange indicate that this process, probably long-lived, developed through different mechanisms, active in the subduction channel through time. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

High-pressure mineral assemblage in granitic rocks from continental units, Alpine Corsica, France

Alessandro Malasoma
Abstract The Popolasca,Francardo area of northern Corsica contains an assemblage of continental tectonic units affected by an Alpine deformation. In one of these units, Unit II, previously regarded as weakly metamorphosed, a metamorphic mineral assemblage characterized by sodic amphibole, phengite, quartz, albite and epidote has been found in an aplite dyke that cuts the dominant granitoids. Peak-metamorphic temperature and pressure conditions of 300,370C and 0.50,0.80,GPa, respectively, have been determined. This finding indicates that a continuous belt of continental slices, characterized by high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphism of Tertiary age, extends from the Tenda Massif in the north to the Corte area in the south, thus placing additional constraints on the tectonic evolution of Alpine Corsica. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Origin of metamorphic soles and their post-kinematic mafic dyke swarms in the Antalya and Lycian ophiolites, SW Turkey

. Faruk eli
Abstract The Antalya and Lycian ophiolites are situated in the western part of the Tauride belt (SW Turkey). Ophiolite-related metamorphic sole rocks in the Tauride belt are observed either at the base of the tectonites or in mlange units. Geochemical observations from the metamorphic sole rocks of Kyce,iz ophiolite indicate three different geochemical affinities: mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), island-arc tholeiite (IAT) and within-plate basalt (WPB) or seamount are present at the base of the Lycian ophiolites. The sole rocks of the ophiolite are made up of amphibolite, comprising mainly amphibole, pyroxene and plagioclase. Below the amphibolites are epidote-bearing rocks and, at the base, micaschists. The metamorphic sole below ophiolites exhibits an inverted metamorphic zonation. Very strong deformation within kyanite-garnet-bearing micaschists located far from the peridotites was observed, whereas the upper part of the metamorphic sole (near the contact with the peridotites) present relatively less deformation than the lower part. The metamorphic sole rocks of the Lycian ophiolite are cross-cut by some doleritic dykes with a typical greenschist facies mineral assemblage. However, while the metamorphic sole rocks exhibit well-developed lineation and foliation; the dykes lack such structures. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Sandstone diagenesis of the Lower Cretaceous Sindong Group, Gyeongsang Basin, southeastern Korea: Implications for compositional and paleoenvironmental controls

ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2008
Yong Il Lee
Abstract The Gyeongsang Basin is a non-marine sedimentary basin formed by extensional tectonism during the Early Cretaceous in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. The sediment fill starts with the Sindong Group distributed along the western margin of the basin. It consists of three lithostratigraphic units: the Nakdong (alluvial fan), Hasandong (fluvial) and Jinju (lacustrine) formations with decreasing age. Sindong Group sandstones are classified into four petrofacies (PF) based on their detrital composition: PF-A consists of the lower Nakdong Formation with average Q73F12R15; PF-B the upper Nakdong and lower Hasandong formations with Q66F15R18; PF-C the middle Hasandong to middle Jinju formations with Q49F29R22; and PF-D the upper Jinju Formation with Q26F34R41. The variations of detrital composition influenced the diagenetic mineral assemblage in the Sindong Group sandstones. Illite and dolomite/ankerite are important diagenetic minerals in PF-A and PF-B, whereas calcite and chlorite are dominant diagenetic minerals in PF-C and PF-D. Most of the diagenetic minerals can be divided into early and late diagenetic stages of formation. Early diagenetic calcites occur mostly in PF-C, probably controlled by arid to semiarid climatic conditions during the sandstone deposition, no early calcite being found in PF-A and PF-B. Late-stage calcites are present in all Sindong Group sandstones. The calcium ions may have been derived from shale diagenesis and dissolution of early stage calcites in the Hasandong and Jinju sandstones. Illite, the only diagenetic clay mineral in PF-A and lower PF-B, is inferred to be a product of kaolinite transformation during deep burial, and the former presence of kaolinite is inferred from the humid paleoclimatic conditions during the deposition of the Nakdong Formation. Chlorites in PF-C and PF-D are interpreted to be the products of transformation of smectitic clay or of precipitation from alkaline pore water under arid to semiarid climatic conditions. The occurrence of late-stage diagenetic minerals largely depended on the distribution of early diagenetic minerals, which was controlled initially by the sediment composition and paleoclimate. [source]

Talc-phengite-albite assemblage in piemontite-quartz schist of the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt, central Shikoku, Japan

ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2000
J. Izadyar
Abstract The talc (Tlc) + phengite (Phn) + albite (Ab) assemblage is newly confirmed in MnOtotal -rich (1.65 wt% in average) piemontite-quartz schists from the intermediate- and high-grade part of the Sanbagawa belt, central Shikoku, Japan. Talc is in direct contact with Phn, Ab and chlorite (Chl) with sharp boundaries, suggesting that these four phases mutually coexist. Other primary constituents of the Tlc-bearing piemontite-quartz schist are spessartine, braunite, hematite (Ht), crossite/barroisite and dolomite. Phlogopite (Phl) rarely occurs as a later stage mineral developing along the rim of Phn. The studied piemontite-quartz schist has mg# (= Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)) ~ 1.0, because of its high oxidation state. Schreinemakers' analysis in the KNMASH system and the mineral assemblage in the Sanbagawa belt propose a possible petrogenetic grid, in which the Tlc,Phn assemblage is stable in a P-T field surrounded by the following reactions: lower-pressure limit by Chl + Phl + quartz (Qtz) = Phn + Tlc + H2O as proposed by previous workers; higher-pressure limit by glaucophane + Qtz = Tlc + Ab + H2O; and higher-temperature limit by Tlc + Phn + Ab = Phl + paragonite + Qtz + H2O. Thermodynamic calculation based on the database of Holland & Powell (1998), however, suggests that the Tlc,Phn stability field defined by these reactions is unrealistically limited around 580,600 C at 11.6,12.0 ( 0.7) kbar. Schreinemakers' analysis in the KNMA-Fe3+ -SH system and the observed mineral assemblage predict that Chl + crossite = Tlc + Ab + Ht + H2O is a preferable Tlc-forming reaction in the intermediate-grade part of the Sanbagawa belt and that excess Ab + hematite narrows the stability field of the Tlc,Phn assemblage. [source]

Ultrahigh-pressure eclogite transformed from mafic granulite in the Dabie orogen, east-central China

Abstract Although ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks are present in many collisional orogenic belts, almost all exposed UHP metamorphic rocks are subducted upper or felsic lower continental crust with minor mafic boudins. Eclogites formed by subduction of mafic lower continental crust have not been identified yet. Here an eclogite occurrence that formed during subduction of the mafic lower continental crust in the Dabie orogen, east-central China is reported. At least four generations of metamorphic mineral assemblages can be discerned: (i) hypersthene + plagioclase garnet; (ii) omphacite + garnet + rutile + quartz; (iii) symplectite stage of garnet + diopside + hypersthene + ilmenite + plagioclase; (iv) amphibole + plagioclase + magnetite, which correspond to four metamorphic stages: (a) an early granulite facies, (b) eclogite facies, (c) retrograde metamorphism of high-pressure granulite facies and (d) retrograde metamorphism of amphibolite facies. Mineral inclusion assemblages and cathodoluminescence images show that zircon is characterized by distinctive domains of core and a thin overgrowth rim. The zircon core domains are classified into two types: the first is igneous with clear oscillatory zonation apatite and quartz inclusions; and the second is metamorphic containing a granulite facies mineral assemblage of garnet, hypersthene and plagioclase (andesine). The zircon rims contain garnet, omphacite and rutile inclusions, indicating a metamorphic overgrowth at eclogite facies. The almost identical ages of the two types of core domains (magmatic = 791 9 Ma and granulite facies metamorphic zircon = 794 10 Ma), and the Triassic age (212 10 Ma) of eclogitic facies metamorphic overgrowth zircon rim are interpreted as indicating that the protolith of the eclogite is mafic granulite that originated from underplating of mantle-derived magma onto the base of continental crust during the Neoproterozoic (c. 800 Ma) and then subducted during the Triassic, experiencing UHP eclogite facies metamorphism at mantle depths. The new finding has two-fold significance: (i) voluminous mafic lower continental crust can increase the average density of subducted continental lithosphere, thus promoting its deep subduction; (ii) because of the current absence of mafic lower continental crust in the Dabie orogen, delamination or recycling of subducted mafic lower continental crust can be inferred as the geochemical cause for the mantle heterogeneity and the unusually evolved crustal composition. [source]

Deformation, mass transfer and mineral reactions in an eclogite facies shear zone in a polymetamorphic metapelite (Monte Rosa nappe, western Alps)

L. M. Keller
Abstract This study analyses the mineralogical and chemical transformations associated with an Alpine shear zone in polymetamorphic metapelites from the Monte Rosa nappe in the upper Val Loranco (N-Italy). In the shear zone, the pre-Alpine assemblage plagioclase + biotite + kyanite is replaced by the assemblage garnet + phengite + paragonite at eclogite facies conditions of about 650 C at 12.5 kbar. Outside the shear zone, only minute progress of the same metamorphic reaction was attained during the Alpine metamorphic overprint and the pre-Alpine mineral assemblage is largely preserved. Textures of incomplete reaction, such as garnet rims at former grain contacts between pre-existing plagioclase and biotite, are preserved in the country rocks of the shear zone. Reaction textures and phase relations indicate that the Alpine metamorphic overprint occurred under largely anhydrous conditions in low strain domains. In contrast, the mineralogical changes and phase equilibrium diagrams indicate water saturation within the Alpine shear zones. Shear zone formation occurred at approximately constant volume but was associated with substantial gains in silica and losses in aluminium and potassium. Changes in mineral modes associated with chemical alteration and progressive deformation indicate that plagioclase, biotite and kyanite were not only consumed in the course of the garnet-and phengite-producing reactions, but were also dissolved ,congruently' during shear zone formation. A large fraction of the silica liberated by plagioclase, biotite and kyanite dissolution was immediately re-precipitated to form quartz, but the dissolved aluminium- and potassium-bearing species appear to have been stable in solution and were removed via the pore fluid. The reaction causes the localization of deformation by producing fine-grained white mica, which forms a mechanically weak aggregate. [source]

,Forbidden zone' subduction of sediments to 150 km depth, the reaction of dolomite to magnesite + aragonite in the UHPM metapelites from western Tianshan, China

L. Zhang
Abstract The solid-state reaction magnesite (MgCO3) + calcite (aragonite) (CaCO3) = dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) has been identified in metapelites from western Tianshan, China. Petrological studies show that two metamorphic stages are recorded in the metapelites: (1) the peak mineral assemblage of magnesite and calcite pseudomorphs after aragonite which is only preserved as inclusions within dolomite; and (2) the retrograde glaucophane-chloritoid facies mineral assemblage of glaucophane, chloritoid, dolomite, garnet, paragonite, chlorite and quartz. The peak metamorphic temperatures and pressures are calculated to be 560,600 C, 4.95,5.07 GPa based on the calcite,dolomite geothermometer and the equilibrium calculation of the reaction dolomite = magnesite + aragonite, respectively. These give direct evidence in UHP metamorphic rocks from Tianshan, China, that carbonate sediments were subducted to greater than 150 km depth. This UHP metamorphism represents a geotherm lower than any previously estimated for subduction metamorphism (< 3.7 C km,1) and is within what was previously considered a ,forbidden' condition within Earth. In terms of the carbon cycle, this demonstrates that carbonate sediments can be subducted to at least 150 km depth without releasing significant CO2 to the overlying mantle wedge. [source]

The formation of eclogite facies metatroctolites and a general petrogenetic grid in Na2O,CaO,FeO,MgO,Al2O3,SiO2,H2O (NCFMASH)

G. Rebay
Abstract Eclogite facies metatroctolites from a variety of Western Alps localities (Voltri, Monviso, Lanzo, Allalin, Zermat,Saas, etc.) that preserve textural evidence of their original form as bimineralic olivine-plagioclase rocks are considered in terms of calculated mineral equilibria in the system Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3 -SiO2 -H2O (NCFMASH). Pseudosections, based on a new petrogenetic grid for NCFMASH presented here, are used to unravel the metamorphic history of the metatroctolites, considering the rocks to consist of different composition microdomains corresponding to the original olivine and plagioclase grains. On the basis that the preservation of the mineral assemblage in each microdomain will tend to be from where on a rock's P,T path the metamorphic fluid phase is used up via rehydration reactions, P,T pseudosections contoured for water content, and P,T path-MH2O (amount of water) pseudosections, are used to examine fluid behaviour in each microdomain. We show that the different microdomains are likely to preserve their mineral assemblages from different places on the P,T path. For the olivine microdomain, the diagnostic mineral assemblage is chloritoid + talc (+ garnet + omphacite). The preservation of this assemblage, in the light of the closed system P,T path-MH2O relationships, implies that the microdomain loses its metamorphic fluid as it starts to decompress, and, in the absence of subsequent hydration, the high pressure mineral assemblage is then preserved. In the plagioclase microdomain, the diagnostic assemblage is epidote (or zoisite) + kyanite + quartz suggesting a lower pressure (of about 2 GPa) than for the olivine microdomain. In the light of P,T path-MH2O relationships, development of this assemblage implies breakdown of lawsonite across the lawsonite breakdown reaction, regardless of the maximum pressure reached. It is likely that the plagioclase microdomain was mainly fluid-absent prior to lawsonite breakdown, only becoming fluid-present across the reaction, then immediately becoming fluid-absent again. [source]

Prograde pressure,temperature paths in the pelitic schists of the Sambagawa metamorphic belt, SW Japan

M. Inui
Abstract Prograde P,T paths recorded by the chemistry of minerals of subduction-related metamorphic rocks allow inference of tectonic processes at convergent margins. This paper elucidates the changing P,T conditions during garnet growth in pelitic schists of the Sambagawa metamorphic belt, which is a subduction related metamorphic belt in the south-western part of Japan. Three types of chemical zoning patterns were observed in garnet: Ca-rich normal zoning, Ca-poor normal zoning and intrasectoral zoning. Petrological studies indicate that normally-zoned garnet grains grew keeping surface chemical equilibrium with the matrix, in the stable mineral assemblage of garnet + muscovite + chlorite + plagioclase + paragonite + epidote + quartz biotite. Pressure and temperature histories were inversely calculated from the normally-zoned garnet in this assemblage, applying the differential thermodynamic method (Gibbs' method) with the latest available thermodynamic data set for minerals. The deduced P,T paths indicate slight increase of temperature with increasing pressure throughout garnet growth, having an average dP/dT of 0.4,0.5 GPa/100 C. Garnet started growing at around 470 C and 0.6 GPa to achieve the thermal and baric peak condition near the rim (520 C, 0.9 GPa). The high-temperature condition at relatively low pressure (for subduction related metamorphism) suggests that heating occurred before or simultaneously with subduction. [source]

Disequilibrium partial melting experiments on the Leedey L6 chondrite: Textural controls on melting processes

S. N. Feldstein
Chips of the L6 chondrite, Leedey, were heated at 1200 C and log ,O2 = IW-1 for durations of 1 h to 21 days. We observed a progression of kinetically-controlled textural changes in melt and restite minerals and changes in the liquidus mineralogy in response to factors such as volatile loss. During the course of the experiments, both olivine and orthopyroxene recrystallized at different times. Rare relic chondrules could still be identified after 21 days. The silicate melts that form are very heterogeneous, in terms of both major and trace element chemistry, reflecting heterogeneity of the localized mineral assemblage, particularly with respect to phosphates and clinopyroxene. Metal-sulfide melts formed in short-duration runs are also heterogeneous. The experimental data are relevant to aspects of the genesis of primitive achondrites such as the acapulcoites. The observed textures are consistent with a model for acapulcoite petrogenesis in which silicate melting was limited to only a few volume percent of the chondritic source rock. The experiments are also relevant to the behavior of chondritic material that has been partially melted in an impact environment. [source]

Ag-Cu-Pb-Bi-S Minerals Newly Discovered from the Ohori Base Metal Deposit, Yamagata Prefecture, NE Japan: Implications for Bi-metallogenesis in the Green-Tuff Region

Yu Yokoro
Abstract The Ohori deposit, one of the base metal deposits in the Green-Tuff region, NE Japan, is composed of two types of mineralization; a skarn-type (Kaninomata orebody) made by the replacement of the Miocene calcareous layer, and a vein-type (Nakanomata orebody). While the ore mineral assemblage of the deposit (chalcopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite and galena) has been known for being rather simple, some Pb-Bi-S minerals have been discovered for the first time in the present study. The minerals mainly occur in the chalcopyrite-rich ores of both orebodies. They essentially belong to the Pb-Bi-S system and contain Cu and Ag in minor amounts, which correspond to the lillianite,gustavite solid solution series (phases Z and X), cosalite, neyite, felbertalite, krupkaite and Bi-bearing galena. The chalcopyrite-rich (Bi-bearing) ores from both orebodies are richer in chalcopyrite, pyrite and chlorite, and have higher homogenization temperatures (>300C) of fluid inclusions, and higher FeS contents in sphalerite compared to the Bi-free ores. In the Green-Tuff region, Bi-minerals have been reported from many base metal deposits. Most of these Bi-bearing ore deposits are referred to as xenothermal-type deposits, and are characterized by the following common features; composite mineralization of high- and low-temperatures in the shallower environments, and close relationships with the Tertiary granitic rocks. The whole mineralization at the Ohori deposit also has a similar xenothermal character because of the coexistence of high-temperature chalcopyrite-rich ores with Pb-Bi-S minerals, which were formed by the influence of the Tertiary granitic rocks at a shallow depth. [source]

Variations in Chemical Composition of Clay Minerals and Magnetic Susceptibility of Hydrothermally Altered Rocks in the Hishikari Epithermal Gold Deposit, SW Kyushu, Japan

Hiroyasu Murakami
Abstract Hydrothermal alteration, involving chiefly chlorite and illite, is extensively distributed within host rocks of the Pleistocene Hishikari Lower Andesites (HLA) and the Cretaceous Shimanto Supergroup (SSG) in the underground mining area of the Hishikari epithermal gold deposit, Kagoshima, Japan. Approximately 60% of the mineable auriferous quartz-adularia veins in the Honko vein system occur in sedimentary rocks of the SSG, whereas all the veins of the Yamada vein system occur in volcanic rocks of the HLA. Variations in the abundance and chemical composition of hydrothermal minerals and magnetic susceptibility of the hydrothermally altered rocks of the HLA and SSG were analyzed. In volcanic rocks of the HLA, hydrothermal minerals such as quartz, chlorite, adularia, illite, and pyrite replaced primary minerals. The amount of hydrothermal minerals in the volcanic rocks including chlorite, adularia, illite, and pyrite as well as the altered and/or replaced pyroxenes and plagioclase phenocrysts increases toward the veins in the Honko vein system. The vein-centered variation in mineral assemblage is pronounced within up to 25 m from the veins in the peripheral area of the Honko vein system, whereas it is not as apparent in the Yamada vein system. The hydrothermal minerals in sandstone of the SSG occur mainly as seams less than a few millimeters thick and are sporadically observed in halos along the veins and/or the seams. The alteration halos in sandstone of the SSG are restricted to within 1 m of the veins. In the peripheral area of the Honko vein system, chlorite in volcanic rocks is characterized by increasing in Al in its tetrahedral layer and the Fe/Fe + Mg ratio toward the veins, while illite in volcanic rocks has relatively low K and a restricted range of Fe/Fe + Mg ratios. Temperature estimates derived from chlorite geothermometry rise toward the veins within the volcanic rocks. The magnetic susceptibility of tuff breccia of the HLA varies from 21 to less than 0.01 10,3 SI within a span of 40 m from the veins and has significant variation relative to that of andesite (27,0.06 10,3 SI). The variation peripheral to the Honko vein system correlates with an increase in the abundance of hematite pseudomorphs after magnetite, the percentage of adularia and chlorite with high Fe/Fe + Mg ratios, and the degree of plagioclase alteration with decreasing distance to the veins. In contrast, sedimentary rocks of the SSG maintain a consistent magnetic susceptibility across the alteration zone, within a narrow range from 0.3 to 0.2 10,3 SI. Magnetic susceptibility of volcanic rocks of the HLA, especially tuff breccia, could serve as an effective exploration tool for identifying altered volcanic rocks. [source]

Epithermal Gold-Silver Mineralization of the Asachinskoe Deposit in South Kamchatka, Russia

Ryohei Takahashi
Abstract The Asachinskoe epithermal Au-Ag deposit is a representative low-sulfidation type of deposit in Kamchatka, Russia. In the Asachinskoe deposit there are approximately 40 mineralized veins mainly hosted by dacite,andesite stock intrusions of Miocene,Pliocene age. The veins are emplaced in tensional cracks with a north orientation. Wall-rock alteration at the bonanza level (170,200 m a.s.l.) consists of the mineral assemblage of quartz, pyrite, albite, illite and trace amounts of smectite. Mineralized veins are well banded with quartz, adularia and minor illite. Mineralization stages in the main zone are divided into stages I,IV. Stage I is relatively barren quartz,adularia association formed at 4.7 0.2 Ma (K-Ar age). Stage II consists of abundant illite, Cu-bearing cryptomelane and other manganese oxides and hydroxides, electrum, argentite, quartz, adularia and minor rhodochrosite and calcite. Stage III, the main stage of gold mineralization (4.5,4.4 0.1,3.1 0.1 Ma, K-Ar age), consists of a large amount of electrum, naumannite and Se-bearing polybasite with quartz,adularia association. Stage IV is characterized by hydrothermal breccia, where electrum, tetrahedrite and secondary covellite occur with quartz, adularia and illite. The concentration of Au+Ag in ores has a positive correlation with the content of K2O + Al2O3, which is controlled by the presence of adularia and minor illite, and both Hg and Au also have positive correlations with the light rare-earth elements. Fluid inclusion studies indicate a salinity of 1.0,2.6 wt% NaCl equivalent for the whole deposit, and ore-forming temperatures are estimated as approximately 160,190C in stage III of the present 218 m a.s.l. and 170,180C in stage IV of 200 m a.s.l. The depth of ore formation is estimated to be 90,400 m from the paleo-water table for stage IV of 200 m a.s.l., if a hydrostatic condition is assumed. An increase of salinity (>CNaCl, 0.2 wt%) and decrease of temperature (>T , 30C) within a 115-m vertical interval for the ascending hydrothermal solution is calculated, which is interpreted as due to steam loss during fluid boiling. Ranges of selenium and sulfur fugacities are estimated to be logfSe2 = ,17 to ,14.5 and logfS2 = ,15 to ,12 for the ore-forming solution that was responsible for Au-Ag-Se precipitation in stage III of 200 m a.s.l. Separation of Se from S-Se complex in the solution and its partition into selenides could be due to a relatively oxidizing condition. The precipitation of Au-Ag-Se was caused by boiling in stage III, and the precipitation of Au-Ag-Cu was caused by sudden decompression and boiling in stage IV. [source]

Mid,Cretaceous Episodic Magmatism and Tin Mineralization in Khingan-Okhotsk Volcano,Plutonic Belt, Far East Russia

Kohei SATO
Abstract: Age of magmatism and tin mineralization in the Khingan-Okhotsk volcano,plutonic belt, including the Khingan, Badzhal and Komsomolsk tin fields, were reviewed in terms of tectonic history of the continental margin of East Asia. This belt consists mainly of felsic volcanic rocks and granitoids of the reduced type, being free of remarkable geomagnetic anomaly, in contrast with the northern Sikhote-Alin volcano,plutonic belt dominated by oxidized-type rocks and gold mineralization. The northern end of the Khingan-Okhotsk belt near the Sea of Okhotsk, accompanied by positive geomagnetic anomalies, may have been overprinted by magmatism of the Sikhote-Alin belt. Tin,associated magmatism in the Khingan-Okhotsk belt extending over 400 km occurred episodically in a short period (9510 Ma) in the middle Cretaceous time, which is coeval with the accretion of the Kiselevka-Manoma complex, the youngest accretionary wedge in the eastern margin of the Khingan-Okhotsk accretionary terranes. The episodic magmatism is in contrast with the Cretaceous-Paleogene long,lasted magmatism in Sikhote,Alin, indicating the two belts are essentially different arcs, rather than juxtaposed arcs derived from a single arc. The tin-associated magmatism may have been caused by the subduction of a young and hot back-arc basin, which is inferred from oceanic plate stratigraphy of the coeval accre-tionary complex and its heavy mineral assemblage of immature volcanic arc provenance. The subduction of the young basin may have resulted in dominance of the reduced-type felsic magmas due to incorporation of carbonaceous sediments within the accretionary complex near the trench. Subsequently, the back-arc basin may have been closed by the oblique collision of the accretionary terranes in Sikhote,Alin, which was subjected to the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene magmatism related to another younger subduction system. These processes could have proceeded under transpressional tectonic regime due to oblique subduction of the paleo-Pacific plates under Eurasian continent. [source]

Phase Equilibria of Hornblende-Bearing Eclogite in the Western Dabie Mountain, Central China

Jingsen ZHANG
Abstract: The high-pressure (HP) eclogite in the western Dabie Mountain encloses numerous hornblendes, mostly barroisite. Opinions on the peak metamorphic P-T condition, PT path and mineral paragenesis of it are still in dispute. Generally, HP eclogite involves garnet, omphacite, hornblendes and quartz, with or without glaucophane, zoisite and phengite. The garnet has compositional zoning with XMg increase, XCa and XMn decrease from core to rim, which indicates a progressive metamorphism. The phase equilibria of the HP eclogite modeled by the P-T pseudosection method developed recently showed the following: (1) the growth zonation of garnet records a progressive metamorphic PT path from pre-peak condition of 1.9,2.1 GPa at 508C-514C to a peak one of 2.3,2.5 GPa at 528C-531C for the HP eclogite; (2) the peak mineral assemblage is garnet+omphacite+glaucophane+quartzphengite, likely paragenetic with lawsonite; (3) the extensive hornblendes derive mainly from glaucophane, partial omphacite and even a little garnet due to the decompression with some heating during the post-peak stage, mostly representing the conditions of about 1.4,1.6 GPa and 580C-640C, and their growth is favored by the dehydration of lawsonite into zoisite or epidote, but most of the garnet, omphacite or phengite in the HP eclogite still preserve their compositions at peak condition, and they are not obviously equilibrious with the hornblendes. [source]

Colonization of nascent, deep-sea hydrothermal vents by a novel Archaeal and Nanoarchaeal assemblage

Elizabeth A. McCliment
Summary Active deep-sea hydrothermal vents are areas of intense mixing and severe thermal and chemical gradients, fostering a biotope rich in novel hyperthermophilic microorganisms and metabolic pathways. The goal of this study was to identify the earliest archaeal colonizers of nascent hydrothermal chimneys, organisms that may be previously uncharacterized as they are quickly replaced by a more stable climax community. During expeditions in 2001 and 2002 to the hydrothermal vents of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) (950,N, 10417,W), we removed actively venting chimneys and in their place deployed mineral chambers and sampling units that promoted the growth of new, natural hydrothermal chimneys and allowed their collection within hours of formation. These samples were compared with those collected from established hydrothermal chimneys from EPR and Guaymas Basin vent sites. Using molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA, we show here that at high temperatures, early colonization of a natural chimney is dominated by members of the archaeal genus Ignicoccus and its symbiont, Nanoarchaeum. We have identified 19 unique sequences closely related to the nanoarchaeal group, and five archaeal sequences that group closely with Ignicoccus. These organisms were found to colonize a natural, high temperature protochimney and vent-like mineral assemblages deployed over high temperature outflows within 92 h. When compared phylogenetically, several of these colonizing organisms form a unique clade independent of those found in mature chimneys and low-temperature mineral chamber samples. As a model ecosystem, the identification of pioneering consortia in deep-sea hydrothermal vents may help advance the understanding of how early microbial life forms gained a foothold in hydrothermal systems on early Earth and potentially on other planetary bodies. [source]

Petrography and provenance of Laecanius Amphorae from Istria, northern Adriatic region, Croatia

Maria A. Mange
Amphorae sherds from the Laecanius workshop of Roman Istria (10,5 B.C. and 78 A.D.), Croatia, were studied by integrating archaeological and geological techniques including fabric analysis, thin-section petrography, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and heavy mineral analysis. The fabric of the sherds showed distinctive characteristics, permitting their classification and allocation into nine fabric groupss. Petrography revealed that quartz is the dominant clastic component, whereas carbonate is common as temper; XRD provided information on firing temperatures that ranged between 750 and 900C. The sherds contain diverse heavy mineral suites with generally high epidote and garnet proportions; zircon is occasionally important. Garnet/epidote ratios and the presence of diagnostic species (pyroxene, hornblende) showed systematic variations that coincided with similar variations in fabric characteristics. Heavy mineral signatures of amphorae produced in other workshops proved essential in differentiating them from Laecanius sherds. A comparative heavy mineral analysis of terra rossa samples from the vicinity of the workshop indicated that terra rossa was the major source for the paste. Differences observed in the heavy mineral composition of the sherds and terra rossa were interpreted by the spatial heterogeneity of the latter and the mixing of the paste with sandy temper. Fresh Adriatic sponge spicules in the majority of Laecanius sherds and the temper-derived, generally immature heavy mineral assemblages suggest that sandy deposits from the Adriatic were used for the clastic temper. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Principal features of impact-generated hydrothermal circulation systems: mineralogical and geochemical evidence

MIKHAIL V. NAUMOVArticle first published online: 14 JUL 200
Abstract Any hypervelocity impact generates a hydrothermal circulation system in resulting craters. Common characteristics of hydrothermal fluids mobilized within impact structures are considered, based on mineralogical and geochemical investigations, to date. There is similarity between the hydrothermal mineral associations in the majority of terrestrial craters; an assemblage of clay minerals,zeolites,calcite,pyrite is predominant. Combining mineralogical, geochemical, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope data, the distinctive characteristics of impact-generated hydrothermal fluids can be distinguished as follows: (i) superficial, meteoric and ground water and, possibly, products of dehydration and degassing of minerals under shock are the sources of hot water solutions; (ii) shocked target rocks are sources of the mineral components of the solutions; (iii) flow of fluids occurs mainly in the liquid state; (iv) high rates of flow are likely (10,4 to 10,3 m s,1); (v) fluids are predominantly aqueous and of low salinity; (vi) fluids are weakly alkaline to near-neutral (pH 6,8) and are supersaturated in silica during the entire hydrothermal process because of the strong predominance of shock-disordered aluminosilicates and fusion glasses in the host rocks; and (vii) variations in the properties of the circulating solutions, as well as the spatial distribution of secondary mineral assemblages are controlled by tempera ure gradients within the circulation cell and by a progressive cooling of the impact crater. Products of impact-generated hydrothermal processes are similar to the hydrothermal mineralization in volcanic areas, as well as in modern geothermal systems, but impacts are always characterized by a retrograde sequence of alteration minerals. [source]

Buried oblique-slip faults in the Irish Caledonides

D. Michael Williams
Abstract Despite over a century of geological investigation, the Ordovician evolution of South Mayo, western Ireland, is still imperfectly understood. An example of this is the supposed lateral equivalence of two formations within the succession, the Rosroe and Derrylea Formations of Arenig age, exposed on opposite limbs of a major east,west syncline. These formations exhibit characteristics which suggest that they were not deposited in the same basin. Both formations contain tuff horizons. Geochemical analysis of these tuffs shows that each formation contains chemically distinct volcanic signatures suggesting deposition in separate sub-basins. Previously the Rosroe Formation on the south limb of the syncline was considered the coarse-grained proximal equivalent of the finer-grained Derrylea Formation, both being deposited in a deep-water fan environment. Previously published palaeocurrent data together with new data show the Rosroe Formation to have been derived from the northeast and therefore it cannot be the proximal equivalent of the Derrylea Formation. Additionally, the two formations show different and distinct associations of heavy mineral assemblages. It is suggested that one explanation for these data is that both formations were deposited in separate sub-basins controlled by oblique slip sinistral faults, similar in some respects to the Cenozoic basins of the Gulf of California. In the Irish case these faults would have been largely buried by later Ordovician sedimentation. Some models for the Ordovician evolution of this area postulate the presence of an initial oceanic arc situated above a southward directed subduction zone. The presence of thick proximal submarine tuffs derived from an arc environment in the Rosroe Formation suggest that at least by this time the subduction zone was in fact northward directed and outboard of the arc. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

High-Si phengite, mineral chemistry and P,T evolution of ultra-high-pressure eclogites and calc-silicates from the Dabie Shan, eastern China

Robert Schmid
Abstract A suite of coesite,eclogites and associated calc-silicate rocks from the ultra-high-pressure (UHP) belt in the Dabie Shan (eastern China) was investigated petrologically. Field relations and the presence of UHP minerals such as coesite, omphacite and high-Si phengite in the eclogites and the enclosing calc-silicates testify to a common metamorphic evolution for these two lithologies. Except for one sample, all bear phengite with unusually high silica contents (Si up to 3.7 per formula unit). Phengite occupies various textural positions indicating that different metamorphic stages are reflected by these white micas, which correlate with distinct mineral zonation patterns. Using the latest thermobarometric calibrations for eclogite-facies rocks, maximum pressure,temperature (P,T) conditions of 40,48 kbar at <,750C were estimated for the peak-metamorphic mineral assemblages. These P,T conditions were calculated for both eclogitic garnet porphyroblasts with diffusion-controlled zoning as well as garnet porphyroblasts with prograde growth zonation patterns. Most samples were affected by a strong retrograde overprint mainly under eclogite- and amphibolite-facies conditions. Thermobarometry using mineral sets from different textural positions reveals cooling and decompression of the UHP rocks down to <,20 kbar at <,600C for the bulk of the samples. Decompression and heating indicated by a few samples is interpreted to result from mineral chemical disequilibrium or late thermal influence. These new data show that subduction of continental crust in the Dabie Shan was deeper than previously thought, and also that some cooling and decompression took place at upper-mantle depths. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

SHRIMP U,Pb zircon chronology of ultrahigh-temperature spinel,orthopyroxene,garnet granulite from South Altay orogenic belt, northwestern China

ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2010
Zilong Li
Abstract Diagnostic mineral assemblages, mineral compositions and zircon SHRIMP U,Pb ages are reported from an ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) spinel,orthopyroxene,garnet granulite (UHT rock) from the South Altay orogenic belt of northwestern China. This Altay orogenic belt defines an accretionary belt between the Siberian and Kazakhstan,Junggar Plates that formed during the Paleozoic. The UHT rock examined in this study preserves both peak and retrograde metamorphic assemblages and microstructures including equilibrium spinel + quartz, and intergrowth of orthopyroxene, spinel, sillimanite, and cordierite formed during decompression. Mineral chemistry shows that the spinel coexisting with quartz has low ZnO contents, and the orthopyroxene is of high alumina type with Al2O3 contents up to 9.3 wt%. The peak temperatures of metamorphism were >950C, consistent with UHT conditions, and the rocks were exhumed along a clockwise P,T path. The zircons in this UHT rock display a zonal structure with a relict core and metamorphic rim. The cores yield bimodal ages of 499 8 Ma (7 spots), and 855 Ma (2 spots), with the rounded clastic zircons having ages with 490,500 Ma. Since the granulite was metamorphosed at temperatures >900C, exceeding the closure temperature of U,Pb system in zircon, a possible interpretation is that the 499 8 Ma age obtained from the largest population of zircons in the rock marks the timing of formation of the protolith of the rock, with the zircons sourced from a ,500 Ma magmatic provenance, in a continental margin setting. We correlate the UHT metamorphism with the northward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and associated accretion-collision tectonics of the Siberian and Kazakhstan,Junggar Plates followed by rapid exhumation leading to decompression. [source]

Ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic records hidden in zircons from amphibolites in Sulu Terrane, eastern China

ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2003
Fulai Liu
Abstract The amphibolites occur sporadically as thin layers and blocks throughout the Sulu Terrane, eastern China. All analyzed amphibolite from outcrop and drill cores from prepilot drill hole CCSD-PP1 and CCSD-PP2, Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in the Sulu Terrane, are retrograded eclogites overprinted by amphibolite-facies retrograde metamorphism, with characteristic mineral assemblages of amphibole + plagioclase + epidote quartz biotite ilmenite titanite. However, coesite and coesite-bearing ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) mineral assemblages are identified by Raman spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis as inclusions in zircons separated from these amphibolites. In general, coesite and other UHP mineral inclusions are preserved in the cores and mantles of zircons, whereas quartz inclusions occur in the rims of the same zircons. The UHP mineral assemblages consist mainly of coesite + garnet + omphacite + rutile, coesite + garnet + omphacite, coesite + garnet + omphacite + phengite + rutile + apatite, coesite + omphacite + rutile and coesite + magnesite. Compositions of analyzed mineral inclusions are very similar to those of matrix minerals from Sulu eclogites. These UHP mineral inclusion assemblages yield temperatures of 631,780C and pressures of ,2.8 103 MPa, representing the P,T conditions of peak metamorphism of these rocks, which are consistent with those (T = 642,726C; P , 2.8 103 MPa) deduced from adjacent eclogites. These data indicate that the amphibolites are the retrogressive products of UHP eclogites. [source]

Influence of ferric iron on the stability of mineral assemblages

Abstract Ferric iron is present in all metamorphic rocks and has the ability to significantly affect their phase relations. However, the influence of ferric iron has commonly been ignored, or at least not been considered quantitatively, mainly because its abundance in rocks and minerals is not determined by routine analytical techniques. Mineral equilibria calculations that explicitly account for ferric iron can be used to examine its effect on the phase relations in rocks and, in principle, allow the estimation of the oxidation state of rocks. This is illustrated with calculated pseudosections in NCKFMASHTO for mafic and pelitic rock compositions. In addition, it is shown that ferric iron has the capacity to significantly increase the stability of the corundum + quartz assemblage, making it possible for this assemblage to exist at crustal P,T conditions in oxidized rocks of appropriate composition. [source]

P,T,X controls on phase stability and composition in LTMP metabasite rocks , a thermodynamic evaluation

Abstract The stability of pumpellyite + actinolite or riebeckite + epidote + hematite (with chlorite, albite, titanite, quartz and H2O in excess) mineral assemblages in LTMP metabasite rocks is strongly dependent on bulk composition. By using a thermodynamic approach (THERMOCALC), the importance of CaO and Fe2O3 bulk contents on the stability of these phases is illustrated using P,T and P,X phase diagrams. This approach allowed P,T conditions of ,4.0 kbar and ,260 C to be calculated for the growth of pumpellyite + actinolite or riebeckite + epidote + hematite assemblages in rocks containing variable bulk CaO and Fe2O3 contents. These rocks form part of an accretionary wedge that developed along the east Australian margin during the Carboniferous,Triassic New England Orogen. P,T and P,X diagrams show that sodic amphibole, epidote and hematite will grow at these conditions in Fe2O3 -saturated (6.16 wt%) metabasic rocks, whereas actinolite and pumpellyite will be stable in CaO-rich (10.30 wt%) rocks. With intermediate Fe2O3 (,3.50 wt%) and CaO (,8.30 wt%) contents, sodic amphibole, actinolite and epidote can coexist at these P,T conditions. For Fe2O3 -saturated rocks, compositional isopleths for sodic amphibole (Al3+ and Fe3+ on the M2 site), epidote (Fe3+/Fe3+ + Al3+) and chlorite (Fe2+/Fe2+ + Mg) were calculated to evaluate the efficiency of these cation exchanges as thermobarometers in LTMP metabasic rocks. Based on these calculations, it is shown that Al3+ in sodic amphibole and epidote is an excellent barometer in chlorite, albite, hematite, quartz and titanite buffered assemblages. The effectiveness of these barometers decreases with the breakdown of albite. In higher- P stability fields where albite is absent, Fe2+ -Mg ratios in chlorite may be dependent on pressure. The Fe3+/Al and Fe2+/Mg ratios in epidote and chlorite are reliable thermometers in actinolite, epidote, chlorite, albite, quartz, hematite and titanite buffered assemblages. [source]

Amphibolite facies retrograde metamorphism of the Zhujiachong eclogite, SE Dabieshan: 40Ar/39Ar age constraints from argon extraction using UV-laser microprobe, in vacuo crushing and stepwise heating

Abstract The Zhujiachong eclogite in the south-eastern Dabieshan ultra-high- P terrane has been overprinted during retrograde metamorphism, with the development of garnet-amphibolite mineral assemblages in most rocks in the outcrop. This study is focused on providing age constraints for the retrograde amphibolite facies and greenschist facies mineralogy by 40Ar/39Ar dating. By applying a novel approach of combining three different techniques for extracting argon: laser stepwise heating of single grains and small separates, a spot fusion technique by UV-laser ablation microprobe on polished sections and an in vacuo crushing technique for liberating radiogenic argon from fluid inclusions, it is demonstrated that an internally consistent thermal history can be derived. The 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate that phengite formed before 265 Ma, probably during the ultra-high- P event. Ages associated with amphibolite facies retrograde metamorphism range from 242 to 217 Ma by the analyses of amphibole. Ages of c. 230 Ma were found for the symplectite matrix that formed during retrogression from eclogite pyroxene. Late stage hydrothermal activity leading to the formation of coarse-grained paragonite and fluid inclusions in vein amphibole was dated at c. 200 Ma. These age results agree well with the mineral crystallization sequence observed from thin-sections of the retrograded eclogite: phengite , paragonite and amphibole in matrix , amphibole in the corona. [source]

The tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Balcooma Metamorphic Group, north-eastern Australia: a multidisciplinary approach

Abstract The sequential growth of biotite, garnet, staurolite, kyanite, andalusite, cordierite and fibrolitic sillimanite, their microstructural relationships, foliation intersection axes preserved in porphyroblasts (FIAs), geochronology, P,T pseudosection (MnNCKFMASH system) modelling and geothermobarometry provide evidence for a P,T,t,D path that changes from clockwise to anticlockwise with time for the Balcooma Metamorphic Group. Growth of garnet at ,530 C and 4.6 kbar during the N,S-shortening event that formed FIA 1 was followed by staurolite, plagioclase and kyanite growth. The inclusions of garnet in staurolite porphyroblasts that formed during the development of FIAs 2 and 3 plus kyanite growth during FIA 3 reflect continuous crustal thickening from c. 443 to 425 Ma during an Early Silurian Benambran Orogenic event. The temperature and pressure increased during this time from ,530 C and 4.6 kbar to ,630 C and 6.2 kbar. The overprinting of garnet-, staurolite- and kyanite-bearing mineral assemblages by low-pressure andalusite and cordierite assemblages implies ,4-kbar decompression during Early Devonian exhumation of the Greenvale Province. [source]

Fluid flow and Al transport during quartz-kyanite vein formation, Unst, Shetland Islands, Scotland

Abstract Quartz-kyanite veins, adjacent alteration selvages and surrounding ,precursor' wall rocks in the Dalradian Saxa Vord Pelite of Unst in the Shetland Islands (Scotland) were investigated to constrain the geochemical alteration and mobility of Al associated with channelized metamorphic fluid infiltration during the Caledonian Orogeny. Thirty-eight samples of veins, selvages and precursors were collected, examined using the petrographic microscope and electron microprobe, and geochemically analysed. With increasing grade, typical precursor mineral assemblages include, but are not limited to, chlorite+chloritoid, chlorite+chloritoid+kyanite, chlorite+chloritoid+staurolite and garnet+staurolite+kyanite+chloritoid. These assemblages coexist with quartz, white mica (muscovite, paragonite, margarite), and Fe-Ti oxides. The mineral assemblage of the selvages does not change noticeably with metamorphic grade, and consists of chloritoid, kyanite, chlorite, quartz, white mica and Fe-Ti oxides. Pseudosections for selvage and precursor bulk compositions indicate that the observed mineral assemblages were stable at regional metamorphic conditions of 550,600 C and 0.8,1.1 GPa. A mass balance analysis was performed to assess the nature and magnitude of geochemical alteration that produced the selvages adjacent to the veins. On average, selvages lost about ,26% mass relative to precursors. Mass losses of Na, K, Ca, Rb, Sr, Cs, Ba and volatiles were ,30 to ,60% and resulted from the destruction of white mica. Si was depleted from most selvages and transported locally to adjacent veins; average selvage Si losses were about ,50%. Y and rare earth elements were added due to the growth of monazite in cracks cutting apatite. The mass balance analysis also suggests some addition of Ti occurred, consistent with the presence of rutile and hematite-ilmenite solid solutions in veins. No major losses of Al from selvages were observed, but Al was added in some cases. Consequently, the Al needed to precipitate vein kyanite was not derived locally from the selvages. Veins more than an order of magnitude thicker than those typically observed in the field would be necessary to accommodate the Na and K lost from the selvages during alteration. Therefore, regional transport of Na and K out of the local rock system is inferred. In addition, to account for the observed abundances of kyanite in the veins, large fluid-rock ratios (102,103 m3fluid m,3rock) and time-integrated fluid fluxes in excess of ,104 m3fluid m,2rock are required owing to the small concentrations of Al in aqueous fluids. It is concluded that the quartz-kyanite veins and their selvages were produced by regional-scale advective mass transfer by means of focused fluid flow along a thrust fault zone. The results of this study provide field evidence for considerable Al mass transport at greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions, possibly as a result of elevated concentrations of Al in metamorphic fluids due to alkali-Al silicate complexing at high pressures. [source]

Metamorphic phase relations in orthopyroxene-bearing granitoids: implication for high-pressure metamorphism and prograde melting in the continental crust

Abstract In this work, the factors controlling the formation and preservation of high-pressure mineral assemblages in the metamorphosed orthopyroxene-bearing metagranitoids of the Sandmata Complex, Aravalli-Delhi Mobile Belt (ADMB), northwestern India have been modelled. The rocks range in composition from farsundite through quartz mangerite to opdalite, and with varying K2O, Ca/(Ca + Na)rock and FeOtot + MgO contents. A two stage metamorphic evolution has been recorded in these rocks. An early hydration event stabilized biotite with or without epidote at the expense of magmatic orthopyroxene and plagioclase. Subsequent high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism (,15 kbar, ,800 C) of these hydrated rocks produced two rock types with contrasting mineralogy and textures. In the non-migmatitic metagranitoids, spectacular garnet K-feldspar quartz corona was formed around reacting biotite, plagioclase, quartz and/or pyroxene. In contrast, biotite epidote melting produced migmatites, containing porphyroblastic garnet incongruent solids and leucosomes. Applying NCKFMASHTO T,M(H2O) and P,T pseudosection modelling techniques, it is demonstrated that the differential response of these magmatic rocks to high-pressure metamorphism is primarily controlled by the scale of initial hydration. Rocks, which were pervasively hydrated, produced garnetiferous migmatites, while for limited hydration, the same metamorphism formed sub-solidus garnet-bearing coronae. Based on the sequence of mineral assemblage evolution and the mineral compositional zoning features in the two metagranitoids, a clockwise metamorphic P,T path is constrained for the high-pressure metamorphic event. The finding has major implications in formulating geodynamic model of crustal amalgamation in the ADMB. [source]