Min

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Min

  • beat min
  • cycle min
  • g min
  • kcal min
  • l min
  • m min
  • mol min
  • nmol min
  • pmol min
  • rev min

  • Terms modified by Min

  • min application
  • min crosshead speed
  • min daily
  • min decreased
  • min delay
  • min duration
  • min exposure
  • min exposure period
  • min flow rate
  • min incubation
  • min infusion
  • min interval
  • min ischemia
  • min kg
  • min longer
  • min mouse
  • min observation period
  • min occlusion
  • min period
  • min recovery
  • min reperfusion
  • min rest
  • min session
  • min treatment
  • min v

  • Selected Abstracts


    Metabolic effects of metformin in patients with impaired glucose tolerance

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2001
    M. Lehtovirta
    Abstract Aims To assess the effect of metformin on insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance and components of the metabolic syndrome in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Methods Forty first-degree relatives of patients with Type 2 diabetes fulfilling WHO criteria for IGT and participating in the Botnia study in Finland were randomized to treatment with either metformin 500 mg b.i.d. or placebo for 6 months. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp in combination with indirect calorimetry was performed at 0 and 6 months. The patients were followed after stopping treatment for another 6 months in an open trial and a repeat OGTT was performed at 12 months. Results Metformin treatment resulted in a 20% improvement in insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism (from 28.7 13 to 34.4 10.7 mol/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/min) compared with placebo (P = 0.01), which was primarily due to an increase in glucose oxidation (from 16.6 3.6 to 19.1 4.4 mol/kg FFM; P = 0.03) These changes were associated with a minimal improvement in glucose tolerance, which was maintained after 12 months. Conclusions Metformin improves insulin sensitivity in subjects with IGT primarily by reversal of the glucose fatty acid cycle. Obviously large multicentre studies are needed to establish whether these effects are sufficient to prevent progression to manifest Type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Diabet. Med. 18, 578,583 (2001) [source]


    Rate Responsive Pacing Using Transthoracic Impedance Minute Ventilation Sensors: A Multicenter Study on Calibration Stability

    PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 12 2002
    FIRAT DURU
    DURU, F., et al.: Rate Responsive Pacing Using Transthoracic Impedance Minute Ventilation Sensors: A Multicenter Study on Calibration Stability. Previous studies showed that transthoracic impedance. Previous studies showed that transthoracic impedance minute ventilation (IMV), as measured by a pacemaker sensor, is closely correlated to actual minute ventilation (VE) determined by standard methods. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in the calibration between IMV and VE at rest and during exercise over time. Fifteen patients (age 60 13 years) with Medtronic Kappa 400 pacemakers completed a baseline visit followed by two visits separated by 1 month and 1 week, respectively. In each patient, VE (L/min) was monitored at rest in the supine and sitting positions and during graded bicycle ergometer exercise using a standard cardiopulmonary metabolic gas analysis system with simultaneous recording of IMV (,/min) using DR-180 extended telemetry monitors. Calibration at rest was defined as the ratio of IMV to VE, calculated from 1-minute average values in the supine and sitting positions. Calibration during bicycle exercise was defined as intercept (IMV value at VE= 10 L/min-typical VE value at beginning of exercise), and slope of the IMV/VE regression line. The calibration of IMV showed individual variability over time. The magnitude (absolute value) of observed fractional changes in calibration at 1 month was 0.23 0.20 (rest-supine), 0.20 0.15 (rest-sitting), 0.18 0.19 (exercise-intercept), 0.28 0.35 (exercise-slope), and 0.18 0.15, 0.15 0.09, 0.28 0.39, and 0.27 0.15, respectively, at 1 week. The magnitude of change at 1 month was not statistically different from the magnitude of change at 1 week. In conclusion, the calibration of IMV, as measured by a pacemaker sensor, versus actual VE may demonstrate variability. However, this study also suggests that the observed changes are not cumulative over time. These results have implications for patient monitoring applications using these sensors and for development of future pacemaker rate response algorithms. [source]


    Improved sacral neuromodulation in the treatment of the hyperactive detrusor: signal modification in an animal model

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 7 2003
    C. Seif
    OBJECTIVE To investigate different stimulation signals for the peripheral nerve evaluation test (PNE, carried out before implanting a sacral neuromodulator for functional voiding dysfunction) in an animal model and to determine their efficacy, as up to 80% of patients do not respond to the PNE test. MATERIALS AND METHODS PNE foramen electrodes were placed in the S3 of 12 anaesthetized Gttingen minipigs. First, detrusor instabilities were induced by the intravesical instillation of formalin. A 10-min stimulation phase with both a quasi-trapezoidal (QT) signal and a rectangular signal followed. An interval of 30 min elapsed between the series of stimulations. The attained bladder pressure values were registered on a urodynamic unit and evaluated as contractions and amplitudes per minute. Six minipigs were treated in the same way but were not stimulated and served as a control group. RESULTS After formalin instillation, the mean (sd) number of involuntary detrusor contractions was 3.5 (0.8)/min and the sum of amplitudes 7.2 (1.1) cmH2O/min. Subsequent NaCl instillation and QT-stimulation reduced the contractions to 0.3 (0.3)/min and the sum of amplitudes to 0.8 (0.4) cmH2O/min. Stimulation with a rectangular signal, as used in the PNE test, followed after an interval of 10 min, giving 1.1 (0.1) contractions/min and a sum of amplitudes of 5.1 (2.4) cmH2O/min. Within the control group there was no significant reduction. CONCLUSIONS These results show that QT-stimulation suppresses uncontrollable detrusor contractions in the minipig more effectively than the conventional rectangular stimulation presently applied in sacral neuromodulation. [source]


    Modeling Thermal and Mechanical Effects on Retention of Thiamin in Extruded Foods

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 8 2003
    J.Y. Cha
    ABSTRACT: A model was proposed to predict separate thermal and mechanical effects of extrusion cooking on thiamin retention. Thermal effects were determined by heating small samples of wheat flour mixed with 0.30% (wt/ wt) thiamin hydrochloride isothermally at 140 C, 151 C, and 161 C for different times. The calculated activation energy and rate constants at each temperature were 67.28 kJ/g mol and 0.00869/min, 0.0145/min, and 0.0224/min, respectively. The "extruder constant" was estimated as 27.7/rev, based on a matching-viscosity method. Wheat flour with 0.30% (wt/wt) thiamin was extruded at different screw speeds. Mechanical effects caused 89.7% to 94.4% of total thiamin loss. This research provides a generalized method to "fingerprint" the extrusion process. [source]


    Dynamics and Rate-Dependence of the Spatial Angle between Ventricular Depolarization and Repolarization Wave Fronts during Exercise ECG

    ANNALS OF NONINVASIVE ELECTROCARDIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Tuomas Kentt M.Sc.
    Background: QRS/T angle and the cosine of the angle between QRS and T-wave vectors (TCRT), measured from standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), have been used in risk stratification of patients. This study assessed the possible rate dependence of these variables during exercise ECG in healthy subjects. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers, 20 men and 20 women, aged 34.6 3.4, underwent an exercise ECG testing. Twelve-lead ECG was recorded from each test subject and the spatial QRS/T angle and TCRT were automatically analyzed in a beat-to-beat manner with custom-made software. The individual TCRT/RR and QRST/RR patterns were fitted with seven different regression models, including a linear model and six nonlinear models. Results: TCRT and QRS/T angle showed a significant rate dependence, with decreased values at higher heart rates (HR). In individual subjects, the second-degree polynomic model was the best regression model for TCRT/RR and QRST/RR slopes. It provided the best fit for both exercise and recovery. The overall TCRT/RR and QRST/RR slopes were similar between men and women during exercise and recovery. However, women had predominantly higher TCRT and QRS/T values. With respect to time, the dynamics of TCRT differed significantly between men and women; with a steeper exercise slope in women (women, ,0.04/min vs ,0.02/min in men, P < 0.0001). In addition, evident hysteresis was observed in the TCRT/RR slopes; with higher TCRT values during exercise. Conclusions: The individual patterns of TCRT and QRS/T angle are affected by HR and gender. Delayed rate adaptation creates hysteresis in the TCRT/RR slopes. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2010;15(3):264,275 [source]


    Modeling Thermal and Mechanical Effects on Retention of Thiamin in Extruded Foods

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 8 2003
    J.Y. Cha
    ABSTRACT: A model was proposed to predict separate thermal and mechanical effects of extrusion cooking on thiamin retention. Thermal effects were determined by heating small samples of wheat flour mixed with 0.30% (wt/ wt) thiamin hydrochloride isothermally at 140 C, 151 C, and 161 C for different times. The calculated activation energy and rate constants at each temperature were 67.28 kJ/g mol and 0.00869/min, 0.0145/min, and 0.0224/min, respectively. The "extruder constant" was estimated as 27.7/rev, based on a matching-viscosity method. Wheat flour with 0.30% (wt/wt) thiamin was extruded at different screw speeds. Mechanical effects caused 89.7% to 94.4% of total thiamin loss. This research provides a generalized method to "fingerprint" the extrusion process. [source]


    Effects of temperature and strain rate on the tensile behavior of short fiber reinforced polyamide-6

    POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 5 2002
    Zhen Wang
    Tensile behavior of extruded short E-glass fiber reinforced polyamide-6 composite sheet has been determined at different temperatures (21.5C, 50C, 75C, 100C) and different strain rates (0.05/min, 0.5/min, 5/min). Experimental results show that this composite is a strain rate and temperature dependent material. Both elastic modulus and tensile strength of the composite increased with strain rate and decreased with temperature. Experimental results also show that strain rate sensitivity and temperature sensitivity of this composite change at a temperature between 25C and 50C as a result of the glass transition of the polyamide-6 matrix. Based on the experimental stress-strain curves, a two-parameter strain rate and temperature dependent constitutive model has been established to describe the tensile behavior of short fiber reinforced polyamide-6 composite. The parameters in this model are a stress exponent n and a stress coefficient ,*. It is shown that the stress exponent n, which controls the strain rate strengthening effect and the strain hardening effect of the composite, is not only strain rate independent but also temperature independent. The stress exponent ,*, on the other hand, varies with both strain rate and temperature. [source]


    BUBBLESTREAM WHISTLES ARE NOT REPRESENTATIVE OF A BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN'S VOCAL REPERTOIRE

    MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, Issue 1 2005
    Deborah Fripp
    Abstract Whistling bottlenose dolphins sometimes identify themselves with a concurrent bubblestream, and some researchers use these bubblestream whistles as their sole whistle sample. However, bubblestream whistles are not known to be representative of the entire repertoire. Bubblestreams and whistles were recorded from three captive female dolphins and their newborn calves. Bubblestreams were rare (0.13/min), with calves producing ten times as many as adults. Overall, 79% of bubblestreams were associated with whistles, but only 1 % of whistles were associated with bubblestreams. Bubblestream whistles were not independent: 49% occurred within 1 sec of another bubblestream, and 72% of these had the same contour as other bubblestream whistles in the bout. Bubblestream use was context-dependent: adults were more likely to bubblestream when caring for a calf (P < 0.001), and calves were more likely to bubblestream when other calves were present (P < 0.001). Bubblestreams were not associated with all whistle types. Bubblestream whistles were not evenly distributed across the clusters of a hierarchical cluster analysis of contour parameters using 300 randomly selected non-bubblestream whistles and 92 independent bubblestream whistles (10 clusters, P= 0.003). In conclusion, bubblestreams are rare visual cues that dolphins produce in association with certain whistles in certain contexts and are not representative of the dolphin's repertoire. [source]


    Growth inhibition of dinoflagellate algae in shake flasks: Not due to shear this time!

    BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, Issue 1 2010
    Weiwei Hu
    Abstract Large scale algae cultures present interesting challenges in that they exhibit characteristics of typical bacterial and animal cell cultures. One current commercial food additive, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is produced using the dinoflagellate algae, Crypthecodiniumcohnii. Like animal cell culture, the perceived sensitivity of algae culture to hydrodynamic forces has potentially limited the agitation and aeration applied to these systems. However, the high density cultivation of C. cohnii required for an economically feasible process inevitably results in high oxygen demand. In this study, we demonstrated what first appeared to be a problem with shear sensitivity in shake flasks is most probably a mass transfer limitation. We subsequently demonstrated the limit of chronic and rapid energy dissipation rate, EDR, that C. cohnii cells can experience. This limit was determined using a microfluidic device connected in a recirculation loop to a stirred tank bioreactor, which has been previously used to repeatedly expose animal cells to high levels of EDR. Inhibition of cell growth was observed when C. cohnii cells were subjected to an EDR of 5.9 106 W/m3 with an average frequency of 0.2/min or more. This level of EDR is sufficiently high that C. cohnii can withstand typically encountered hydrodynamic forces in bioprocesses. This result suggests that at least one dinoflagellate algae, C. cohnii, is quite robust with respect to hydrodynamic forces and the scale-up of process using this type of algae should be more concerned with providing sufficient gas transfer given the relatively high oxygen demand. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2010 [source]


    Protocol Optimization for Long-Term Liquid Storage of Goat Semen in a Chemically Defined Extender

    REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 6 2009
    B-T Zhao
    Contents A specific problem in the preservation of goat semen has been the detrimental effect of seminal plasma on the viability of spermatozoa in extenders containing egg yolk or milk. The use of chemically defined extenders will have obvious advantages in liquid storage of buck semen. Our previous study showed that the self-made mZAP extender performed better than commercial extenders, and maintained a sperm motility of 34% for 9 days and a fertilizing potential for successful pregnancies for 7 days. The aim of this study was to extend the viability and fertilizing potential of liquid-stored goat spermatozoa by optimizing procedures for semen processing and storage in the mZAP extender. Semen samples collected from five goat bucks of the Lubei White and Boer breeds were diluted with the extender, cooled and stored at 5C. Stored semen was evaluated for sperm viability parameters, every 48 h of storage. Data from three ejaculates of different bucks were analysed for each treatment. The percentage data were arcsine-transformed before being analysed with anova and Duncan's multiple comparison test. While cooling at the rate of 0.1,0.25C/min did not affect sperm viability parameters, doing so at the rate of 0.6C/min from 30 to 15C reduced goat sperm motility and membrane integrity. Sperm motility and membrane integrity were significantly higher in semen coated with the extender containing 20% egg yolk than in non-coated semen. Sperm motility, membrane integrity and acrosomal intactness were significantly higher when coated semen was 21-fold diluted than when it was 11- or 51-fold diluted and when extender was renewed at 48-h intervals than when it was not renewed during storage. When goat semen coated with the egg yolk-containing extender was 21-fold diluted, cooled at the rate of 0.07,0.25C/min, stored at 5C and the extender renewed every 48 h, a sperm motility of 48% was maintained for 13 days, and an in vitro -fertilizing potential similar to that of fresh semen was maintained for 11 days. [source]


    The effect of heating rate on Escherichia coli metabolism, physiological stress, transcriptional response, and production of temperature-induced recombinant protein: A scale-down study

    BIOTECHNOLOGY & BIOENGINEERING, Issue 2 2009
    Luis Caspeta
    Abstract At the laboratory scale, sudden step increases from 30 to 42C can be readily accomplished when expressing heterologous proteins in heat-inducible systems. However, for large scale-cultures only slow ramp-type increases in temperature are possible due to heat transfer limitations, where the heating rate decreases as the scale increases. In this work, the transcriptional and metabolic responses of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain to temperature-induced synthesis of pre-proinsulin in high cell density cultures were examined at different heating rates. Heating rates of 6, 1.7, 0.8, and 0.4C/min were tested in a scale-down approach to mimic fermentors of 0.1, 5, 20, and 100 m3, respectively. The highest yield and concentration of recombinant protein was obtained for the slowest heating rate. As the heating rate increased, the yield and maximum recombinant protein concentration decreased, whereas a larger fraction of carbon skeletons was lost as acetate, lactate, and formate. Compared to 30C, the mRNA levels of selected heat-shock genes at 38 and 42C, as quantified by qRT-PCR, increased between 2- to over 42-fold when cultures were induced at 6, 1.7, and 0.8C/min, but no increase was observed at 0.4C/min. Only small increases (between 1.5- and 4-fold) in the expression of the stress genes spoT and relA were observed at 42C for cultures induced at 1.7 and 6C/min, suggesting that cells subjected to slow temperature increases can adapt to stress. mRNA levels of genes from the transcription,translation machinery (tufB, rpoA, and tig) decreased between 40% and 80% at 6, 1.7 and 0.8C/min, whereas a transient increase occurred for 0.4C/min at 42C. mRNA levels of the gene coding for pre-proinsulin showed a similar profile to transcripts of heat-shock genes, reflecting a probable analogous induction mechanism. Altogether, the results obtained indicate that slow heating rates, such as those likely to occur in conventional large-scale fermentors, favored heterologous protein synthesis by the thermo-inducible expression system used in this report. Knowledge of the effect of heating rate on bacterial physiology and product formation is useful for the rational design of scale-down and scale-up strategies and optimum recombinant protein induction schemes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009;102: 468,482. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Effects of temperature and strain rate on the tensile behavior of short fiber reinforced polyamide-6

    POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 5 2002
    Zhen Wang
    Tensile behavior of extruded short E-glass fiber reinforced polyamide-6 composite sheet has been determined at different temperatures (21.5C, 50C, 75C, 100C) and different strain rates (0.05/min, 0.5/min, 5/min). Experimental results show that this composite is a strain rate and temperature dependent material. Both elastic modulus and tensile strength of the composite increased with strain rate and decreased with temperature. Experimental results also show that strain rate sensitivity and temperature sensitivity of this composite change at a temperature between 25C and 50C as a result of the glass transition of the polyamide-6 matrix. Based on the experimental stress-strain curves, a two-parameter strain rate and temperature dependent constitutive model has been established to describe the tensile behavior of short fiber reinforced polyamide-6 composite. The parameters in this model are a stress exponent n and a stress coefficient ,*. It is shown that the stress exponent n, which controls the strain rate strengthening effect and the strain hardening effect of the composite, is not only strain rate independent but also temperature independent. The stress exponent ,*, on the other hand, varies with both strain rate and temperature. [source]


    Protocol Optimization for Long-Term Liquid Storage of Goat Semen in a Chemically Defined Extender

    REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 6 2009
    B-T Zhao
    Contents A specific problem in the preservation of goat semen has been the detrimental effect of seminal plasma on the viability of spermatozoa in extenders containing egg yolk or milk. The use of chemically defined extenders will have obvious advantages in liquid storage of buck semen. Our previous study showed that the self-made mZAP extender performed better than commercial extenders, and maintained a sperm motility of 34% for 9 days and a fertilizing potential for successful pregnancies for 7 days. The aim of this study was to extend the viability and fertilizing potential of liquid-stored goat spermatozoa by optimizing procedures for semen processing and storage in the mZAP extender. Semen samples collected from five goat bucks of the Lubei White and Boer breeds were diluted with the extender, cooled and stored at 5C. Stored semen was evaluated for sperm viability parameters, every 48 h of storage. Data from three ejaculates of different bucks were analysed for each treatment. The percentage data were arcsine-transformed before being analysed with anova and Duncan's multiple comparison test. While cooling at the rate of 0.1,0.25C/min did not affect sperm viability parameters, doing so at the rate of 0.6C/min from 30 to 15C reduced goat sperm motility and membrane integrity. Sperm motility and membrane integrity were significantly higher in semen coated with the extender containing 20% egg yolk than in non-coated semen. Sperm motility, membrane integrity and acrosomal intactness were significantly higher when coated semen was 21-fold diluted than when it was 11- or 51-fold diluted and when extender was renewed at 48-h intervals than when it was not renewed during storage. When goat semen coated with the egg yolk-containing extender was 21-fold diluted, cooled at the rate of 0.07,0.25C/min, stored at 5C and the extender renewed every 48 h, a sperm motility of 48% was maintained for 13 days, and an in vitro -fertilizing potential similar to that of fresh semen was maintained for 11 days. [source]


    The effect of heating rate on Escherichia coli metabolism, physiological stress, transcriptional response, and production of temperature-induced recombinant protein: A scale-down study

    BIOTECHNOLOGY & BIOENGINEERING, Issue 2 2009
    Luis Caspeta
    Abstract At the laboratory scale, sudden step increases from 30 to 42C can be readily accomplished when expressing heterologous proteins in heat-inducible systems. However, for large scale-cultures only slow ramp-type increases in temperature are possible due to heat transfer limitations, where the heating rate decreases as the scale increases. In this work, the transcriptional and metabolic responses of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain to temperature-induced synthesis of pre-proinsulin in high cell density cultures were examined at different heating rates. Heating rates of 6, 1.7, 0.8, and 0.4C/min were tested in a scale-down approach to mimic fermentors of 0.1, 5, 20, and 100 m3, respectively. The highest yield and concentration of recombinant protein was obtained for the slowest heating rate. As the heating rate increased, the yield and maximum recombinant protein concentration decreased, whereas a larger fraction of carbon skeletons was lost as acetate, lactate, and formate. Compared to 30C, the mRNA levels of selected heat-shock genes at 38 and 42C, as quantified by qRT-PCR, increased between 2- to over 42-fold when cultures were induced at 6, 1.7, and 0.8C/min, but no increase was observed at 0.4C/min. Only small increases (between 1.5- and 4-fold) in the expression of the stress genes spoT and relA were observed at 42C for cultures induced at 1.7 and 6C/min, suggesting that cells subjected to slow temperature increases can adapt to stress. mRNA levels of genes from the transcription,translation machinery (tufB, rpoA, and tig) decreased between 40% and 80% at 6, 1.7 and 0.8C/min, whereas a transient increase occurred for 0.4C/min at 42C. mRNA levels of the gene coding for pre-proinsulin showed a similar profile to transcripts of heat-shock genes, reflecting a probable analogous induction mechanism. Altogether, the results obtained indicate that slow heating rates, such as those likely to occur in conventional large-scale fermentors, favored heterologous protein synthesis by the thermo-inducible expression system used in this report. Knowledge of the effect of heating rate on bacterial physiology and product formation is useful for the rational design of scale-down and scale-up strategies and optimum recombinant protein induction schemes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009;102: 468,482. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    The impact of acute elevation of non-esterified fatty acids on insulin sensitivity and secretion in women with former gestational diabetes

    CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    K. A. McLachlan
    Summary Objectives, Elevations in non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) have been shown to decrease insulin action and secretion, and are a risk factor for the development of Type 2 diabetes. As women who have had gestational diabetes (GDM) are at increased risk of diabetes, we examined the effect of an acute elevation of NEFA on insulin secretion and action in these women. Patients and design, Nineteen women with recent former GDM and 19 age- and BMI-matched postpartum healthy control subjects underwent a 40-min intravenous glucose tolerance test, with and without a preceding 2-h infusion of 20% Intralipid. Insulin action was assessed by glucose disappearance (Kg) and insulin sensitivity (SI); insulin secretion by first phase insulin release (FPIR) and disposition index (DI). Results, NEFA levels were similarly elevated in both groups by the Intralipid infusion (up to 1140 003 mm). As expected, the lipid infusion significantly reduced Kg (215 013 vs. 169 009/min, P < 0001) and SI (314 028 vs. 213 017/min/mUl/min, P < 0001) in all subjects, and these were significant within the GDM and control subgroups. FPIR was elevated in the Intralipid study in the total group of women (450 050 vs. 502 053, P = 002), but DI was significantly reduced (1213 11 vs. 883 07, P < 0001). There was no significant difference, however, in the absolute or percentage change in Kg, SI or FPIR with lipid infusion between the GDM and control groups. GDM status was not a predictor of the response of Kg, SI or FPIR to lipid infusion, rather, adiposity (% fat), average fasting NEFA levels and basal disposition index were associated. Conclusion, These data suggest that women with former gestational diabetes, in contrast to other prediabetic states, are not more susceptible to the deleterious effects of an acute elevation in nonesterified fatty acids than matched control subjects. [source]


    Cortical auditory dysfunction in benign rolandic epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2008
    Dana F. Boatman
    Summary Purpose: To evaluate cortical auditory function, including speech recognition, in children with benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE). Methods: Fourteen children, seven patients with BRE and seven matched controls, underwent audiometric and behavioral testing, simultaneous EEG recordings, and auditory-evoked potential recordings with speech and tones. Speech recognition was tested under multiple listening conditions. Results: All participants demonstrated normal speech recognition abilities in quiet, as well as normal peripheral and subcortical auditory function. BRE patients performed significantly worse than controls when speech recognition was tested under adverse listening conditions, including background noise. Five BRE patients who were impaired on two or more tests had centrotemporal spiking on awake EEG. There were no significant group differences in the latency or amplitude of early N100 cortical responses to speech or tones. Conversely, the mismatch negativity, a preattentive index of cortical processing that is elicited passively, was absent or prolonged for speech, but not tones, in BRE patients as compared to controls. Discussion: Children with BRE demonstrated specific speech recognition impairments. Our evoked potential findings indicate that these behavioral impairments reflect dysfunction of nonprimary auditory cortex and cannot be attributed solely to attention difficulties. A possible association between auditory impairments and centrotemporal spiking (>1/min) on awake EEG was identified. The pattern of speech recognition impairments observed is a known risk factor for academic difficulties in school-age children. Our results underscore the importance of comprehensive auditory testing, using behavioral and electrophysiological measures, in children with BRE. [source]


    Predicting immunosuppressant dosing in the early postoperative period with noninvasive indocyanine green elimination following orthotopic liver transplantation

    LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 1 2008
    Brian M. Parker
    Twenty adult patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) were enrolled in this study, with the noninvasive indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate (ICG-PDR) measured both during and after OLT to assess the relationship between ICG-PDR and the ability of patients to achieve therapeutic postoperative tacrolimus immunosuppressant blood levels. Liver function was determined at both 2 and 18 hours post reperfusion with the ICG-PDR k value (1/min). Postoperative standard serum measures of liver function as well as liver biopsies were also collected and analyzed. The median ICG-PDR k value for the study group at 2 hours post reperfusion was 0.20 (0.16, 0.27), whereas at 18 hours post reperfusion, it was 0.22 (0.18, 0.35). The median change in the k value between the two ICG-PDR measurements was 0.05 (,0.02, 0.07) with P = 0.02. There was an interaction between the postoperative day 1 (18 hours post reperfusion) ICG-PDR k value and the linear increase in the tacrolimus blood level, such that the greater the k value was, the more gradual the observed rise was in tacrolimus over time [that is, the longer it took to achieve a therapeutic blood level (>12 ng/mL), P = 0.003]. Of the 16 patients that received tacrolimus, comparable dosing on a per kilogram body weight basis was observed. Also, no significant association between ICG-PDR k values and postoperative liver biopsy results was seen. This study demonstrates that the ICG-PDR measurement is a modality with the potential to assist in achieving adequate blood levels of tacrolimus following OLT. Liver Transpl 14:46,52, 2008. 2007 AASLD. [source]


    Outpatients undergoing therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: Six-hour versus overnight observation

    JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 10 2004
    CHEE-KIN HUI
    Abstract Background and Aim:, The purpose of the present retrospective study was to compare the proportion of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) complications detected with 6-h observation followed by same-day discharge (SDD) versus overnight observation (OO) after therapeutic ERCP. Methods:, There were 134 outpatients in the SDD group and 178 outpatients in the OO group. The SDD group was discharged after a 6-h observation while the OO group was discharged after overnight observation. Patients in the SDD group were admitted from the recovery room for evaluation if they had systolic blood pressure (BP) < 100 mmHg, pulse > 100/min, temperature > 37.5C, or post-procedure abdominal pain. The primary outcome of the present study was the proportion of post-ERCP complications detected within the observational period between the SDD group and the OO group. Results:, The post-ERCP complication rate of therapeutic ERCP in the SDD and OO groups were 9.7% and 9.6%, respectively (P = 0.964). Eleven patients (8.2%) in the SDD group and 13 patients (7.3%) in the OO group were found to have post-ERCP complications within the observation period. There was no significant difference in the proportion of post-ERCP complications detected within the observational period between the two groups (P = 0.672). Conclusion:, Outpatient therapeutic ERCP with observation of 6 h can detect the same proportion of patients with post-ERCP complications as overnight observation. 2004 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd [source]


    Role of ,atypical pathogens' among adult hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia

    RESPIROLOGY, Issue 8 2009
    Grace LUI
    ABSTRACT Background and objective: Agents such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila are recognized as important causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) worldwide. This study examined the role of these ,atypical pathogens' (AP) among adult hospitalized patients with CAP. Methods: A prospective, observational study of consecutive adult CAP (clinico-radiological diagnosis) patients hospitalized during 2004,2005 was conducted. Causal organisms were determined using cultures, antigen testing and paired serology. Clinical/laboratory/radiological variables and outcomes were compared between different aetiologies, and a clinical prediction rule for AP was constructed. Results: There were 1193 patients studied (mean age 70.8 18.0 years, men 59.3%). Causal organisms were identified in 468 (39.2%) patients: ,bacterial' (48.7%), ,viral' (26.9%), ,AP' (28.6%). The AP infections comprised Mycoplasma or Chlamydophila pneumoniae (97.8%) and co-infection with bacteria/virus (30.6%). The majority of AP infections involved elderly patients (63.4%) with comorbidities (41.8%), and more than one-third of patients were classified as ,intermediate' or ,high' risk CAP on presentation (pneumonia severity index IV,V (35.1%); CURB-65 2,5 (42.5%)). Patients with AP infections had disease severities and outcomes similar to patients with CAP due to other organisms (oxygen therapy 29.1% vs 29.8%; non-invasive ventilation 3.7% vs 3.3%; admission to the intensive care unit 4.5% vs 2.7%; length of hospitalization 6 day vs 7 day; 30-day mortality: 2.2% vs 6.0%; overall P > 0.05). Age <65 years, female gender, fever ,38.0C, respiratory rate <25/min, pulse rate <100/min, serum sodium >130 mmol/L, leucocyte count <11 109/L and Hb < 11 g/dL were features associated with AP infection, but the derived prediction rule failed to reliably discriminate CAP caused by AP from bacterial CAP (area under the curve 0.75). Conclusions: M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae as single/co-pathogens are important causes of severe pneumonia among older adults. No reliable clinical indicators exist, so empirical antibiotic coverage for hospitalized CAP patients may need to be considered. [source]


    AV Nodal Pathways in the R-R Interval Histogram of the 24-Hour Monitoring ECG in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    ANNALS OF NONINVASIVE ELECTROCARDIOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
    Peter Weismller M.D.
    Background: Patients with more than one AV nodal pathway show two and more peaks in the histogram of the R-R intervals of the Holter monitoring ECG during atrial fibrillation. It was the purpose of the present study to determine the number of patients showing more than one AV nodal pathway in a larger patient group with permanent atrial fibrillation by analyzing the Holter monitoring ECG. Methods: 250 patients with permanent atrial fibrillation during Holter monitoring ECG were studied; 203 patients had structural heart disease. The number of peaks in the R-R interval histogram of each patient was determined. The distribution of the number of peaks in the R-R interval histogram in different patient groups was analyzed. Results: 153 patients (61 %) had one peak, 80 patients (32%) two peaks, 13 patients (5%) three peaks, and four patients (2%) four peaks, reflecting the number of different AV nodal pathways. In the different patient groups, in the patients with or without structural heart disease, with coronary heart disease, with a history of syncope, and in patients with a mean heart rate of more than 100/min, there was no significant difference in the distribution of the number of peaks in the R-R interval histogram. Conclusions: In more than one third of all patients with permanent atrial fibrillation there are two, three, or four AV nodal pathways. It is suggested that this number of different AV nodal pathways found in the studied group can be applied to all humans. 38.8% of all patients with permanent atrial fibrillation have more than one AV nodal pathway; 6.4% of all patients with atrial fibrillation would benefit from an ablation of AV nodal pathways with shorter refractory periods for reduction of the heart rate. A.N.E. 2001;6(4):285,289 [source]


    Evaporation of pyrolysis oil: Product distribution and residue char analysis

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 8 2010
    Guus van Rossum
    Abstract The evaporation of pyrolysis oil was studied at varying heating rates (,1,106C/min) with surrounding temperatures up to 850C. A total product distribution (gas, vapor, and char) was measured using two atomizers with different droplet sizes. It was shown that with very high heating rates (,106C/min) the amount of char was significantly lowered (,8%, carbon basis) compared to the maximum amount, which was produced at low heating rates using a TGA (,30%, carbon basis; heating rate 1C/min). The char formation takes place in the 100,350C liquid temperature range due to polymerization reactions of compounds in the pyrolysis oil. All pyrolysis oil fractions (whole oil, pyrolytic lignin, glucose and aqueous rich/lean phase) showed charring behavior. The pyrolysis oil chars age when subjected to elevated temperatures (,700C), show similar reactivity toward combustion and steam gasification compared with chars produced during fast pyrolysis of solid biomass. However, the structure is totally different where the pyrolysis oil char is very light and fluffy. To use the produced char in conversion processes (energy or syngas production), it will have to be anchored to a carrier. 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2010 [source]


    No cerebrocervical venous congestion in patients with multiple sclerosis,

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Florian Doepp MD
    Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by demyelination centered around cerebral veins. Recent studies suggested this topographic pattern may be caused by venous congestion, a condition termed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). Published sonographic criteria of CCSVI include reflux in the deep cerebral veins and/or the internal jugular and vertebral veins (IJVs and VVs), stenosis of the IJVs, missing flow in IJVs and VVs, and inverse postural response of the cerebral venous drainage. Methods: We performed an extended extra- and transcranial color-coded sonography study including analysis of extracranial venous blood volume flow (BVF), cross-sectional areas, IJV flow analysis during Valsalva maneuver (VM), and CCSVI criteria. Fifty-six MS patients and 20 controls were studied. Results: Except for 1 patient, blood flow direction in the IJVs and VVs was normal in all subjects. In none of the subjects was IJV stenosis detected. IJV and VV BVF in both groups was equal in the supine body position. The decrease of total jugular BVF on turning into the upright position was less pronounced in patients (173 235 vs 362 150ml/min, p < 0.001), leading to higher BVF in the latter position (318ml/min 242 vs 123 109ml/min; p < 0.001). No differences between groups were seen in intracranial veins and during VM. None of the subjects investigated in this study fulfilled >1 criterion for CCSVI. Interpretation: Our results challenge the hypothesis that cerebral venous congestion plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of MS. Future studies should elucidate the difference between patients and healthy subjects in BVF regulation. ANN NEUROL 2010;68:173,183 [source]


    ANALYSIS AND FORMATION OF ACRYLAMIDE IN FRENCH FRIES AND CHICKEN LEGS DURING FRYING

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2006
    W.H. CHUANG
    ABSTRACT The analysis and formation of acrylamide in French fries and chicken legs during frying were studied. Results showed that the most appropriate extraction solvent was ethyl acetate, with C-18 cartridge for purification and 5-mL deionized water as elution solvent. Dibromination of acrylamide followed by dehydrobromination to 2-bromopropionamide in the presence of triethylamine was necessary for subsequent analysis by gas chromatography,mass spectrometry. The most appropriate temperature programming condition was as follows: 70C in the beginning, raised to 150C at a rate of 10C/min, maintained for 1 min and to 240C at a rate of 30C/min, maintained for 5 min. Detection was carried out using selected-ion monitoring mode, and N,N -dimethylacrylamide was used as internal standard for quantification. French fries and the outer flour portion of chicken legs fried at 180C generated a higher level of acrylamide than at 160C. Compared to soybean oil and palm oil, a lower amount of acrylamide was produced in French fries and the outer flour portion of chicken legs fried in lard. However, no acrylamide was detected in the inner meat portion of fried chicken legs. [source]


    Mechanical and thermal properties of poly(butylene succinate)/plant fiber biodegradable composite

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2010
    Zhichao Liang
    Abstract Biodegradable polymeric composites were fabricated from poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and kenaf fiber (KF) by melt mixing technique. The mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties, morphology and crystallization behavior were investigated for PBS/KF composites with different KF contents (0, 10, 20, and 30 wt %). The tensile modulus, storage modulus and the crystallization rate of PBS in the composites were all efficiently enhanced. With the incorporation of 30% KF, the tensile modulus and storage modulus (at 40C) of the PBS/KF composite were increased by 53 and 154%, respectively, the crystallization temperature in cooling process at 10C/min from the melt was increased from 76.3 to 87.7C, and the half-time of PBS/KF composite in isothermal crystallization at 96 and 100C were reduced to 10.8% and 14.3% of that of the neat PBS, respectively. SEM analysis indicates that the adhesion between PBS and KF needs further improvement. These results signify that KF is efficient in improving the tensile modulus, storage modulus and the crystallization rate of PBS. Hence, this study provides a good option for preparing economical biodegradable composite. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


    Thermal properties of extruded/injection-molded poly(lactic acid) and biobased composites,,

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2008
    Abdellatif A. Mohamed
    Abstract To determine the degree of compatibility between poly(lactic acid) and different biomaterials (fibers), poly(lactic acid) was compounded with sugar beet pulp and apple fibers. The fibers were added in 85 : 15 and 70 : 30 poly(lactic acid)/fiber ratios. The composites were blended by extrusion followed by injection molding. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis were used to analyze the extruded and extruded/injection-molded composites. After melting in sealed differential scanning calorimetry pans, the composites were cooled through immersion in liquid nitrogen and aged (stored) at room temperature for 0, 7, 15, and 30 days. After storage, the samples were heated from 25 to 180C at 10C/min. The neat poly(lactic acid) showed a glass-transition transition at 59C with a change in heat capacity (,Cp) value of 0.464. The glass transition was followed by crystallization and melting transitions. The enthalpic relaxation of the poly(lactic acid) and composites steadily increased as a function of the storage time. Although the presence of fibers had little effect on the enthalpic relaxation, injection molding reduced the enthalpic relaxation. The crystallinity percentage of the unprocessed neat poly(lactic acid) dropped by 95% after extrusion and by 80% for the extruded/injection-molded composites. The degradation was performed in air and nitrogen environments. The degradation activation energy of neat poly(lactic acid) exhibited a significant drop in the nitrogen environment, although it increased in air. This meant that the poly(lactic acid) was more resistant to degradation in the presence of oxygen. Overall, injection molding appeared to reduce the activation energy for all the composites. Sugar beet pulp significantly reduced the activation energy in a nitrogen environment. In an air environment, both sugar beet pulp and apple fibers increased the activation energy. The enzymatic degradation of the composites showed a higher degradation rate for the extruded samples versus the extruded/injection-molded composites, whereas the apple composites exhibited higher weight loss. The thermogravimetric analysis data showed that the degradation of unprocessed and extruded neat poly(lactic acid) followed a one-step mechanism, whereas extruded/injection-molded composites showed two-step degradation. A higher fiber content resulted in up to three-step degradation mechanisms. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 2008 [source]


    Crystallization pathways and kinetics of carbamazepine,nicotinamide cocrystals from the amorphous state by in situ thermomicroscopy, spectroscopy, and calorimetry studies

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Issue 5 2007
    K. Seefeldt
    Abstract The work presented here was motivated by the premise that the amorphous state serves as a medium to study cocrystal formation. The molecular mobility inherent to amorphous phases can lead to molecular associations between different components such that a single crystalline phase of multiple components or cocrystal is formed. Cocrystallization pathways and kinetics were investigated from amorphous equimolar phases of carbamazepine and nicotinamide using hot-stage polarized microscopy (HSPM), hot-stage Raman microscopy (HSRM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Nonisothermal studies revealed that amorphous phases generate cocrystals and that thermal history affects crystallization pathways in significant ways. Two different pathways to cocrystal formation from the amorphous phase were identified: (1) at low heating rates (3C/min) a metastable cocrystalline phase initially nucleates and transforms to the more stable cocrystalline phase of CBZ,NCT, and (2) at higher heating rates (10C/min) individual components crystallize, then melt and the stable cocrystalline phase nucleates and grows from the melt. Isothermal studies above the Tg of the amorphous equimolar phase also confirm the nucleation of a metastable cocrystalline phase from the amorphous state followed by a solid phase mediated transformation to the stable cocrystalline phase. Cocrystallization kinetics were measured by image analysis and by thermal analysis from small samples and are described by the Avrami,Erofeev model. These findings have important implications for the use of amorphous phases in the discovery of cocrystals and to determine the propensity of cocrystallization from process-induced amorphization. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 96: 1147,1158, 2007 [source]


    Solid state characterization of mometasone furoate anhydrous and monohydrate forms

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Issue 11 2005
    Xiaoming (Sean) Chen
    Abstract Mometasone furoate is a potent glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory agent. Its anhydrous Form 1 and monohydrate form were characterized by X-ray crystallography, X-ray powder diffraction at ambient and elevated temperature, thermal analysis, FT-IR, and dynamic moisture adsorption. In Form 1, mometasone furoate molecules pack tightly with molecules interlocked in a space group of P212121. The monohydrate form crystallizes in space group P1. The unit cell of the monohydrate contains one water molecule and one mometasone furoate molecule. The water molecules form channels along the a axis and mometasone furoate molecules pack in layers in the same direction. Dehydration was observed between 60 and 100C by thermogravimetric analysis with a heating rate of 10C/min. It corresponds to a broad endotherm over the same temperature range in the differential scanning calorimetry with the same heating rate. Variable temperature X-ray powder diffraction reveals that a new anhydrous form (Form 2) was fully produced above 90C. This crystalline form was converted to Form 1 after being heated above 150C; and was totally converted to the monohydrate after 1 day at 23C, 45% RH. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 94:2496-2509, 2005 [source]


    An acoustic emission study on the fracture behavior of continuous glass fiber/polypropylene composites based on commingled yarn

    POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 7 2008
    Yantao Wang
    The fracture behavior of continuous glass fiber reinforced polypropylene composites made of commingled yarn in the form of biaxial (45) noncrimp warp-knitted fabric, twill woven fabric, and swirl mat, respectively, was investigated by virtue of single edge notched tensile (SEN-T) specimens. These composite laminates were manufactured by compression molding and cooled at two different rates (1C/min and 10C/min) during the last processing phase of the laminates. The failure mechanisms were studied by acoustic emission (AE) analysis. AE amplitude ranges corresponding to the individual failure modes have been identified. For biaxial noncrimp fabric reinforced materials, the failure mechanisms involved in the fracture procedure are governed by the interface related failure events. Higher cooling rate, which is accompanied by better fiber/matrix adhesion, results in not only the increase in the relative proportion of high-amplitude failure events, but also the occurrence of a large quantity of fiber fracture events. For woven fabric and mat reinforced composites, fiber-dominated failure mechanisms result in the higher fracture toughness when compared with biaxial noncrimp fabric composites. Under this circumstance, the change in cooling rate only results in the difference in the relative frequency of the individual failure modes. In addition, it is found out that the initiation fracture toughness of SEN-T specimens can be easily assessed by marking the load value which corresponds to the first point of AE signals emitted stably in AE events-displacement curves. POLYM. COMPOS., 2008. 2008 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


    Effect of cooling rate and crack propagation direction on the mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of biaxial noncrimp warp-knitted fabric composites made of glass/PP commingled yarn

    POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 3 2008
    Yantao Wang
    The mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of biaxial (45) noncrimp warp-knitted fabric composites made of glass/PP commingled yarn was investigated. The crack propagation along the warp and weft directions, respectively, was considered for the composites cooled at two different rates during laminate molding. The interlaminar fracture toughness was characterized by determining the critical strain energy release rate (GIC) of initiation and propagation measured from the double cantilever beam tests. In the case of a slow cooling rate (1C/min), most specimens possess pure interlaminar crack propagation and direction-independence characteristics. Nevertheless, the high-cooled (10C/min) specimens fractured in both directions suffer extensive intraply damage (crack branching, debonding, and bridging of 45-oriented interfacial yarns) and knit thread breakage, leading to GIC of propagation two times higher than that of the slow-cooled specimens, and the clear difference in the GIC values of initiation between the two directions may be due to the contribution of the knit thread breakage to the fracture energy. POLYM. COMPOS., 2008 2007 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


    Crystallization and melting behavior of zenite thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers,

    POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 2 2002
    K. P. Pramoda
    The crystallization and melting behavior of a DuPont ZeniteTM series, namely, Z 6000 and Z 8000B, thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (TLCP) have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both, non-isothermal and isothermal crystallizations were carried out. From the non-isothermal experiments, the crystallization temperature was found to be 234C for a cooling rate of 10C/min whereas it was only 228C for 40C/min for Z 8000B, and was found to be 296C and 290C, respectively, for Z 6000. In the isothermal experiment both the thermal and crystallization behaviors were studied as a function of the annealing temperature and annealing time. Two types of transition processes were evidence in the low temperature region of the isothermal crystallization. One is fast transition, which may be regarded as liquid crystal transition, and is characterized by the enthalpy, which is independent of annealing time. The other is slow process, related to crystal perfection, and it shows increases in the transition temperature and enthalpy, which is dependent on annealing time. [source]