Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Migrants

  • economic migrant
  • female migrant
  • illegal migrant
  • individual migrant
  • internal migrant
  • international migrant
  • irregular migrant
  • labor migrant
  • labour migrant
  • long-distance migrant
  • neotropical migrant
  • new migrant
  • return migrant
  • short-distance migrant
  • temporary migrant
  • trans-saharan migrant
  • transnational migrant

  • Terms modified by Migrants

  • migrant bird
  • migrant child
  • migrant community
  • migrant earning
  • migrant experience
  • migrant family
  • migrant groups
  • migrant household
  • migrant labour
  • migrant nurse
  • migrant population
  • migrant remittance
  • migrant right
  • migrant species
  • migrant status
  • migrant woman
  • migrant worker

  • Selected Abstracts


    Samuel Nii Ardey Codjoe
    ABSTRACT. The transitional agro-ecological zone of Ghana, located between the richly endowed south and the impoverished north, has attracted seasonal and permanent farm migrants, mainly from northern Ghana, who now live side by side with the indigenous people. While migrants have higher numbers of Muslims, indigenous people are mainly Christians. Although the majority of the migrants live in migrant quarters with less favourable socio-economic conditions, they are more successful farmers and therefore wealthier. The objectives are to examine the varying effect of fertility determinants among migrants and indigenous females. This paper uses data collected in 2002 among 194 females aged 15 to 49 years. Multiple regression models are used to assess fertility determinants. Results show that although migrant households were wealthier, migrant females were more traditional. They had more children living in foster care, and a lower proportion of them approved of men participating in household activities. In addition, they were less well educated, recorded higher infant mortality, gave birth earlier and used less contraception. Furthermore, while a female's migration status is statistically significant so far as non-proximate determinants of fertility are concerned, the same variable is not significant with respect to proximate determinants. In addition, a married female migrant would on average have almost one more child compared to her indigenous counterpart, and migrant females who had experienced the loss of a child would on average have 2.5 more children compared to their indigenous counterparts. Finally, more affluent migrant females have 0.08 fewer children compared to their indigenous counterpart. [source]


    With the use of data on migrants living in France, we study the pattern of transfers of time and money made to parents. Monetary transfers allocate predominantly towards the large number of elderly parents in the country of origin, while the smaller number of migrant parents in France are more likely to receive time transfers. Our econometric results suggest that monetary transfers are more consistent with the altruistic hypothesis. Furthermore, while the donor's labour participation increases the propensity to give money, there is no negative relationship between time transfers and the labour participation of the donor. [source]


    Sandy Smith-Nonini
    First page of article [source]

    Family Reunification Rights of (Migrant) Union Citizens: Towards a More Liberal Approach

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 5 2009
    Alina Tryfonidou
    Over the years, in the case-law of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) determining the availability of family reunification rights for migrant Member State nationals, the pendulum has swung back and forth, from a ,moderate approach' in cases such as Morson and Jhanjan (1982) and Akrich (2003), towards a more ,liberal approach' in cases such as Carpenter (2002) and Jia (2007). Under the Court's ,moderate approach', family reunification rights in the context of the Community's internal market policy are only granted in situations where this is necessary for enabling a Member State national to move between Member States in the process of exercising one of the economic fundamental freedoms; in other words, where there is a sufficient link between the exercise of one of those freedoms and the need to grant family reunification rights under EC law. Conversely, under the Court's ,liberal approach', in order for family reunification rights to be bestowed by EC law, it suffices that the situation involves the exercise of one of the market freedoms and that the claimants have a familial link which is covered by Community law; in other words, there is no need to illustrate that there is a link between the grant of such rights and the furtherance of the Community's aim of establishing an internal market. The recent judgments of the ECJ in Eind and Metock (and its order in Sahin) appear to have decidedly moved the pendulum towards the ,liberal approach' side. In this article, it will be explained that the fact that the EU is aspiring to be not only a supranational organisation with a successful and smoothly functioning market but also a polity, the citizens of which enjoy a number of basic rights which form the core of a meaningful status of Union citizenship, is the major driving force behind this move. In particular, the move towards a wholehearted adoption of the ,liberal approach' seems to have been fuelled by a desire, on the part of the Court, to respond to a number of problems arising from its ,moderate approach' and which appear to be an anomaly in a citizens' Europe. These are: a) the incongruity caused between the (new) aim of the Community of creating a meaningful status of Union citizenship and the treatment of Union citizens (under the Court's ,moderate approach') as mere factors of production; and b) the emergence of reverse discrimination. The article will conclude with an explanation of why the adoption of the Court's liberal approach does not appear to be a proper solution to these problems. [source]

    Pathways to prevention: A training and technical assistance initiative to increase program capacity to address infant mental health issues in Early Head Start

    Tammy L. Mann
    This article provides an overview of a training and consultation program aimed at enhancing the capacity of Early Head Start (EHS) and Migrant and Seasonal Head Start (MSHS) programs to address infant mental health issues from a promotion, prevention, and treatment perspective. This program was implemented by the Early Head Start National Resource Center (EHS NRC), operated by ZERO TO THREE. The EHS NRC is funded by the Head Start Bureau to provide a diverse array of training and technical assistance support services to Early Head Start programs throughout the country. In the fall of 2001, ZERO TO THREE was funded to design and implement the Pathways Initiative. While ZERO TO THREE was not funded to test the efficacy of the Pathways Initiative as a research intervention similar to other papers described in this special issue, we worked creatively to identify resources that allowed us to engage an external evaluator to look at both process and outcome measures. This paper describes the consultation program, evaluation activities, and key lessons learned. [source]

    Wealth Distributions of Migrant and Australian-born Households,

    THE ECONOMIC RECORD, Issue 268 2009
    Wealth is an important measure of overall economic well-being and a crucial factor in migrants' ability to integrate into their new country. Using data from the 2002 HILDA survey, this study explores the disparity between the wealth distributions of native-born and foreign-born households in Australia. Using quantile regressions the results reveal that migrants have significantly less wealth than their Australian-born counterparts throughout the wealth distribution. This is despite the greater wealth-generating characteristics of the foreign-born. The wealth differentials are reduced but still negative for the migrant cohorts who have been in Australia for over 25 years. [source]

    Dental Services for Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in US Community/Migrant Health Centers

    Sherri M. Lukes RDH
    ABSTRACT:,Context: Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are recognized as a medically underserved population, yet little information on need, access, and services is available,particularly with regard to oral health care. Purpose: This study describes the facilities, services, staffing, and patient characteristics of US dental clinics serving migrant and seasonal farmworkers, and identifies trends and issues that may impede or improve dental care access and service. Methods: National databases were used to identify community and migrant health centers providing oral health care to migrant and seasonal farmworkers. Mailed surveys collected information on clinic history, operational details, services provided, patient demographics, employment and resource needs, and perceived barriers to care. Findings: Among the 81 respondents (response rate 41%), hours of operation varied from 1 evening a week to more than 40 hours a week; 52% had no evening hours. Almost all the clinics offered preventive, diagnostic, and basic restorative dental services, and roughly two thirds also offered complex restorative services. Patients most frequently sought emergency dental care (44%) followed by basic restorative services (32%) and preventive services (26%). The dentist position was the most difficult to fill, and new funding sources were cited as the most important resource need. Respondents perceived cost of services, lack of transportation, and limited clinic hours as primary barriers to care. Conclusions: While some barriers to care have been almost universally addressed (eg, language), there is evidence that some impediments remain and may present significant obstacles to a broad improvement in oral health care for migrant and seasonal farmworkers. [source]

    The Meaning of Parental Control in Migrant, Sending, and Host Communities: Adaptation or Persistence?

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Derya Güngör
    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether migrant adolescents tend to adopt the host culture's view of parental control or whether they are inclined to reaffirm their heritage culture with regard to the meaning assigned to parental control. The hypotheses regarding the level and meaning of parental control were tested on 296 Turkish-Belgian adolescents, 306 Turks in Turkey, and 304 Belgians in Belgium with median ages of 16, 17, and 16, respectively. Although migrants reported the highest level of parental control, their ratings of parental warmth, satisfaction with the relationships with their parents, and self-esteem did not correlate with parental control as was the case among Belgians. The findings suggest that traditional parenting is accentuated in migrant families, and that there is continuity in the traditional meaning of parental control in migration. Findings are discussed with reference to contextual factors that may reinforce culture maintenance in migration. Le but de cette recherche était d'étudier le sens que des adolescents immigrés assignaient au contrôle parental: adoptent-ils la culture d'accueil ou ont-ils plutôt tendance à réaffirmer leur héritage culturel? Des hypothèses tenant compte du niveau et de la signification du contrôle parental ont été testées auprès de 296 adolescents Turcs-Belges, 306 Turcs de Turquie et 304 Belges de Belgique dont les âges médians étaient respectivement de 16, 17 et 16 ans. Bien que les immigrés présentent un plus haut niveau de contrôle parental, leurs résultats concernant la chaleur parentale, la satisfaction de leurs relations avec leurs parents, et l'estime de soi n'étaient pas corrélés avec le contrôle parental contrairement aux adolescents Belges. Ces résultats montrent que l'éducation traditionnelle est accentuée dans les familles immigrées, et que la signification traditionnelle accordée au contrôle parental persiste dans l'immigration. Ces résultats sont discutés en référence à des facteurs contextuels pouvant renforcer le maintien de la culture d'origine dans l'immigration. [source]

    Distribution Patterns of Migrant and Resident Birds in Successional Forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico,

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 1 2001
    Andrea L. Smith
    ABSTRACT Increasing human activity in the Yucatan peninsula has led to declines in older stages of successional forest, threatening regional habitat diversity. To determine potential effects of this habitat loss on the region's avifauna, we examined the relative use of different forest stages by resident and migrant birds during the nonbreeding season. We used the fixed-width transect method to compare the distribution, abundance, and diversity of forest birds in early (five to ten years old), mid (15,25 years), and late (<50 years) successional forests in the state of Campeche, Mexico, in the south-central part of the peninsula. All stages of successional forest had highly similar bird assemblages and did not differ in bird abundance or diversity. Both migrant and resident birds occurred across the successional gradient. The majority of habitat specialists, however, were resident birds restricted to late-successional forest, indicating that early secondary growth may not be suitable for all species. Furthermore, resident birds that typically participate in mixed-species flocks attained their greatest densities in the oldest forest habitat. Rapid recovery of pre-disturbance physiognomic features, in addition to high levels of habitat connectivity in the region, may contribute to similar bird communities across a range of successional stages. The high degree of edge characterizing much of the forest mosaic also may allow birds access to different serai stages. Loss of late-successional forest, however, is likely to adversely affect the subset of resident avifauna that depends on unique features of mature habitat such as snags, large trees, and climatic buffering. Conservation efforts in Campeche should focus on the specialized requirements of the most habitat-restricted species while preserving the current landscape mosaic characteristic of the small-scale shifting cultivation system. RESUMES El aumento de la actividad humana en el uso del suelo en la Peninsula de Yucatán, ha resultado en la disminución de la regeneración de la selva a etapas más maduras de sucesión, amenazando la diversidad regional de habitats. Para determinar los efectos de esta pérdida sobre la avifauna de la región, estudiamos el uso de diferentes etapas de sucesión de la selva por aves residentes y migratorias durante la temporada no reproductiva. Usamos el método de transecto linear de anchura fija para comparar la distributión, abundancia y diversidad de aves en vegetaclón sucesional (acahuales) de diferentes edades, incluyendo acahual joven (cinco a diez años de edad), acahual de edad media (15-25 afios) y selva (>50 afios) en el sur del estado de Campeche, Mexico. Diferentes etapas de sucesión de la selva tuvieron composition de aves muy similares y no variaron en la abundancia y la diversidad. Tanto las especies migrantes como residentes, estuvieron presentes a travél del gradiente sucesional. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los especialistas fueron aves residentes restingidas a etapas más viejas de sucesión de selva, indicando que la vegetatión sucesional temprana no es favorable para todas las especies. En adicion, las aves residentes que tipicamente participan en bandadas mixtas tuvieron sus densidades más altas en la selva de mayor edad de sucesión. La rápida recuperatión de la selva a sus caracteristicas de estado primario, en adición al alto grado de conectividad de habitat en la región, puede permitir a muchas especies nativas encontrarse en diferentes etapas de vegetatión sucesional. El alto grado de efecto de borde que caracteriza la mayor pane del mosaico de bosque tambíen puede permitir a las aves el acceso a los diferentes tipos de vegetación sucesional. Sin embargo, la pérdida de selva en etapa más madura de sucesión, probablemente rendrá un efecto más adverso sobre el grupo de aves residentes que depende de características únicas de selva madura, tales como árboles secos, árboles grandes y amortiguamiento climático. Los esfuerzos de conservatión deberían enfocarse sobre las especies sensibles con requerimientos especializados de hábitat, preservando selva nativa a la vez que las características actuates de mosaico del paisaje, manteniendo las actividades de roza-tumba y quema a pequena escala. [source]

    SITEs revisited: Socioeconomic and demographic contours of small island tourist economies

    Jerome L. McElroy
    Abstract This study attempts to do three things: (i) provide a review of recent advances in the small island economy literature using the tourism penetration index, (ii) update the impact of tourism across the same global sample of 36 small islands (less than 1 million in population and 5000 km2 in area) introduced in APV 47 (1) 2006, and (iii) employing an abbreviated version of the destination life cycle as a development paradigm, construct three different socioeconomic and demographic profiles based on low, intermediate and high tourism impact. Results using cross-sectional data of 27 indicators reveal three statistically distinct profiles that demonstrate three stages of economic development. Specifically, the findings contrast the low-income, labour-exporting, least tourism-penetrated MIRAB-type (Migrant/Remittances and Aid/Bureaucracy) emerging islands with their more advanced intermediate impact neighbours. In turn, the latter fall at a significant distance from the most successful small island tourist economy (SITE) destinations. Thus, this study further refines the characteristics of SITE islands and confirms the viability of tourism in general and the destination life cycle in particular as an effective engine and model, respectively, of island development. [source]

    Population genetics of the European trout (Salmo trutta L.) migration system in the river Rhine: recolonisation by sea trout

    A. Schreiber
    Abstract , Allozyme genetics (34 loci) is studied in up to 1010 European trout (Salmo trutta) from the Rhine, Meuse, Weser, Elbe and Danube river systems in Central Europe. Population samples from single collection sites, chiefly small streams (GCG = 0.2126), rather than the divergence of the trout from Atlantic and Danubian drainages (GSG = 0.0711), contributed to the overall gene diversity of GST = 0.2824. Sea trout (n = 164) and brown trout (n = 767) in Atlantic rivers adhere to the same biogeographical stock, but anadromous trout from the Rhine and the Elbe display more genetic cohesion than resident brown trout from the Rhine system alone. Strayers from the Elbe could have founded the recently re-established sea trout population of the Rhine, after a few decades of absence or precarious rarity. Migrants may even connect the Rhine and Elbe stocks by ongoing gene flow. A release,recapture study confirms that all trout in the Rhine belong to one partly migratory population network: Six of 2400 juvenile sea trout released into a tributary of the Rhine were later recorded as emigrants to the Rhine delta, against three of 1600 released brown trout. One migrant had entered the open North Sea, but the other dispersers were recorded in fresh waters of the Rhine delta (Ijsselmeer, Amstelmeer). Stocking presumably elevated both heterozygosity and fixation indices of brown trout, but this effect is subtle within the range of the Atlantic population group. Improved sea trout management in the Rhine, and modifications to brown trout stocking in the upper Danubian area are recommended. [source]

    Migrants and urban change , By Anne Winter

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Where Mourning Takes Them: Migrants, Borders, and an Alternative Reality

    ETHOS, Issue 2 2010
    David P. Sandell
    Mourning, family members and acquaintances indicate, is an indefinite process revealed through figurative representations: metaphor and metonym. Mourning as metaphor associates an actual death with instances of loss that occur in other semantic domains,the household, motherhood, and gender constructions. As a metonym, mourning stands for these instances, which, collectively, account for a substratum of social life that is not amenable to logical criticism but persists in the formation of perception and judgment. This dialectic highlights epistemological and ontological borders that provide insight into people's dispositions within the conditions of poverty and wage labor. The borders also provide a vantage point for novel identification, ethical orientation, and behavior that come to shape an alternative reality. [mourning, migration, identity, poetics, Mexico] [source]

    Gains and losses, outcomes of interregional migration in the five Nordic countries

    Emma Lundholm
    Abstract This paper examines the outcome of interregional migration in various aspects from the migrants' perspective. It is based on a survey, including 6 000 interregional migrants in the five Nordic countries. The results indicate that interregional migration leads to a positive outcome for most migrants and few people seem to be forced to make decisions including painful tradeoffs. Motives have an effect on what aspects of outcome migrants are satisfied with. The influence of individual migrants' characteristics on migration outcome revealed few significant effects. Migrants claimed to be most satisfied with living conditions and less satisfied with the livelihood after moving. To be satisfied with social conditions turned out to be crucially important for the general outcome of migration. [source]

    Caribbean Transnational Return Migrants as Agents of Change

    Dennis Conway
    This article challenges several of the firmly held convictions drawn from extant research on return migration to the Caribbean. For many contemporary small island societies undergoing rapid change and transformation, modernization and integration into the wider global economy, today's younger and more youthful return migrants are no longer an ineffective demographic cohort. Despite their numerically small size, many are demonstrating they can be influential "agents of change." No longer merely returning retirees, they are more diverse, in terms of age, life-course transitions, class and gendered social positions, family networks, and migration histories. Multiple identities are the rule, rather than the exception, as returnees of different ages choose to live, work (and play) in island society, to give something back to the island home of their parents or of their youth. Many embrace transnational strategies to live in and between two worlds, or more if their family network's reach is multilocal. [source]

    Dispersal and the interspecific abundance-occupancy relationship in British birds

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2003
    Kevin J. Gaston
    ABSTRACT Aim To test the prediction that deviations of species from the positive interspecific relationship between abundance and occupancy (a measure of geographical range size) are related to differences in dispersal. Location Great Britain. Methods Quantitative data on the abundances, occupancy and dispersal distances of British birds are compared using phylogenetic comparative methods. Results Measures of natal and adult dispersal distance, and the intraspecific variance in these parameters, explain little variation in occupancy in addition to that accounted for by population size. Individual dispersal variables failed to explain significant variance when added individually to a model with population size as a predictor. Migrants and species using wet habitats tend to disperse further than residents and dry habitat species. Analysing these four groups separately revealed effects of dispersal only on the occupancy attained by dry habitat species. Conclusions The only consistent predictor of occupancy in these analyses was population size. [source]

    The Immigrant Threat: The Integration of Old and New Migrants in Western Europe since 1850 By Leo Lucassen

    HISTORY, Issue 305 2007
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Diverse Housing Needs of Rural to Urban Migrants and Policy Responses in China: Insights from a Survey in Fuzhou

    IDS BULLETIN, Issue 4 2010
    Liyue Lin
    Based on a survey of rural-urban migrants and subsequent in-depth interviews in Fuzhou, the capital city of Fujian Province in China, this article first provides a brief review of migrants' housing conditions, and assesses the current approaches in meeting their housing needs and security. We then examine migrants' housing needs in the context of their mobility and their diversified migration flows, demonstrating that migrants have different housing needs from local urban residents, and among themselves. The article also explores the policy implications of this analysis, and makes policy recommendations, focusing mainly on redefining the roles of the state and the necessity of making policies to meet the diversified needs of rural,urban migrants in the provision of housing and housing security. [source]

    Migrants, Settlers and Colonists: The Biopolitics of Displaced Bodies

    Cristiana Bastos
    All through the nineteenth century, Madeirans migrated from their Atlantic island to places as remote as Hawaii, California, Guyana and, later, South Africa. Scarcity of land, a rigid social structure, periodic famines and rampant poverty made many embark to uncertain destinies and endure the harsh labour conditions of sugarcane plantations. In the 1880s, a few hundred Madeirans engaged in a different venture: an experience of "engineered migration" sponsored by the Portuguese government to colonize the southern Angola plateau. White settlements, together with military control, scientific surveys and expeditions, contributed to strengthen the claims of European nations over specific territories in Africa. At that time, the long lasting claims of Portugal over African territories were not matched by sponsored colonial settlements or precise geographic knowledge about the claimed lands. There was little else representing Portugal than the leftover structures of the slave trade, the penal colonies and the free-lance merchants that ventured inland. In fear of losing land to the neighbouring German, Boer and British groups in south-western Africa, the Portuguese government tried then to promote white settlements by attracting farmers from the mainland into the southern plateau of Angola. As very few responded to the call, the settlement consisted mostly of Madeiran islanders, who were eager to migrate anywhere and took the adventure of Angola as just another destiny out of the island where they could not make a living. Their bodies and actions in the new place became highly surveilled by the medical delegates in charge of assessing their adaptation. The reports document what were then the idealized biopolitics of migration and colonization, interweaving biomedical knowledge and political power over displaced bodies and colonized land. At the same time, those records document the frustrations of the administration about the difficulties of the settlement experience and the ways in which colonial delegates blamed their failure on the very subjects who enacted and suffered through it. The eugenicism and racialism that pervade those writings, a currency during the age of empire, may now be out of taste both in science and in politics; however, they are not fully out of sight, and the subtle entrance of social prejudice into the hard concepts of biomedical science is still with us. Learning from this example may help analysing contemporary processes of medicalizing diversity or pathologizing the mobile populations, or, in other words, the biopolitics of migration in the 21st century. [source]

    Migrants and Changing Urban Periphery: Social Relations, Cultural Diversity and the Public Space in Istanbul's New Neighbourhoods

    Sencer Ayata
    This study examines the dynamics of socio-cultural change in a peripheral neighbourhood in Istanbul, an "edge city" that is ethnically mixed, culturally heterogeneous, socially differentiated and spatially multi-functional. One major focus in the study is the changing nature of social relations in traditional groups. Though kinship, hem,eri (place of origin) and neighbourhood solidarity is still crucial in the lives of the migrants, participation in these groups becomes more voluntary and the ties among members less obligatory. Secondly, the ethnic and religious groupings in the neighbourhood are not always exclusive, authoritarian and patriarchal communities. What generally appears as rigid communitarian fragmentation is often one of cultural diversity for the residents of the locality. The associational pluralism that exists in the neighbourhood enables people to claim multiple ethnic, religious, political and cultural identities. Thirdly, though they compare unfavourably with their middle class counterparts in the city, the new neighbourhoods provide greater opportunities and more public space for interaction among the members of the locality than for instance, the rural communities. The study also questions the often taken-for-granted image of a rigidly polarized city in view of empirical evidence that indicates the multiple and complex economic and political links between the new neighbourhoods and the broader urban society. Finally, isolation from middle class areas in the city does not necessarily lead to the exclusion of the whole peripheral urban population from urban life, urban institutions and urban culture. These become increasingly present in the new neighbourhoods and available for the majority of the residents. The main conclusion is that Istanbul contains a number of such edge cities, which have powerful integrating and urbanizing influences on individuals. Les migrants et l'évolution de la périphérie urbaine: relations sociales, diversité culturelle et espace public dans les nouveaux quartiers d'Istanbul La présente étude examine la dynamique des changements socioculturels dans un quartier de la périphérie d'Istanbul, une « ville-lisière » (edge city) caractérisée par sa mixité ethnique, son hétérogénéité culturelle, sa différenciation sociale et son espace multifonctionnel. L'un des principaux axes de la présente étude est la nature changeante des relations sociales au sein des groupes traditionnels. Premièrement, bien que la parenté, hem,eri (le lieu d'origine), et la solidarité des résidants des quartiers restent essentiels dans la vie des migrants, la participation à ces groupes devient plus volontaire et les liens entre ses membres sont moins contraints. Deuxièmement, les regroupements ethniques et religieux au sein des quartiers ne constituent pas toujours des communautés privées, autoritaires et patriarcales. Ce qui semble généralement être une fragmentation rigide en communautés est souvent une marque de la diversité culturelle pour les résidants de la localité. Le pluralisme des associations permet aux personnes de revendiquer différentes identités ethniques, religieuses, politiques et culturelles. Troisièmement, même s'ils ne peuvent soutenir la comparaison avec leurs équivalents urbains habités par la classe moyenne, ces nouveaux quartiers offrent davantage de possibilités et d'espace public pour les rencontres entre membres de la localité que les communautés rurales par exemple. L'étude remet aussi en question l'image que l'on a souvent d'une ville rigide et polarisée en faisant état des témoignages empiriques qui attestent de la complexité et de la multitude des liens économiques et politiques entre les nouveaux quartiers et la société urbaine au sens large. Enfin, être isolé des zones urbaines où habitent les classes moyennes n'entraîne pas nécessairement l'exclusion de l'ensemble de la population urbaine vivant en périphérie de la vie, des institutions et de la culture urbaines qui sont de plus en plus présentes dans les nouveaux quartiers et accessibles à la majorité des résidants. La conclusion principale est qu'Istanbul comporte un certain nombre de villes-lisières de ce genre, dont l'influence sur les habitants en matière d'intégration et d'urbanisation est très forte. Relaciones sociales, diversidad cultural y espacio público en los nuevos vecindarios de Estambul En este estudio se examina la dinámica del cambio sociocultural en los vecindarios periféricos de Estambul, una "ciudad suburbana"étnicamente mixta, culturalmente heterogénea, socialmente diferenciada y espacialmente multifuncional. Uno de los principales centros de atención de este estudio es la naturaleza cambiante de las relaciones sociales en los grupos tradicionales. Si bien la buena voluntad, el hem,eri (lugar de origen) y la solidaridad de los vecinos siguen siendo fundamentales en la vida de los migrantes, la participación en estos grupos se convierte en una cuestión de carácter voluntario y los vínculos entre los mismos no son obligatorios. En segundo lugar, las agrupaciones étnicas y religiosas en el vecindario no siempre son comunidades exclusivas, autoritarias o patriarcales. Lo que, generalmente, parece ser una fragmentación comunitaria rígida es más bien una diversidad cultural de los residentes de la localidad. El pluralismo asociativo que existe en el vecindario permite a las personas preservar diversas identidades étnicas, religiosas, políticas y culturales. En tercer lugar, si bien salen desfavorecidos en la comparación con sus equivalentes de la clase media en la ciudad, los nuevos vecindarios proveen mayores oportunidades y espacio público para la interacción de sus miembros de la localidad que, por ejemplo, las comunidades rurales. Este estudio también cuestiona la imagen a priori de una ciudad rígidamente polarizada ya que hay pruebas que indican los múltiples y complexos vínculos económicos y políticos existentes entre los nuevos vecindarios y la sociedad urbana amplia. Finalmente, el aislamiento de zonas de la clase media en la ciudad no conduce necesariamente a su exclusión de la vida, instituciones y cultura urbanas. Estas están omnipresentes en los nuevos vecindarios y disponibles para la mayoría de sus residentes. La principal conclusión de este artículo es que Estambul contiene una serie de estas ciudades periféricas, que tienen poderosas influencias integradoras y urbanizadoras en las personas. [source]

    Health Status of Temporary Migrants in Urban Areas in Vietnam1

    Liem T. Nguyen
    ABSTRACT The rapid economic growth after economic reform, known in Viet Nam as "Doi Moi", and the growing scope of urban migration raise specific questions for social policy, including migration and health policies. This paper compares issues of health status and its determinants as they affect temporary urban migrants versus permanent urban migrants and non-migrants. The analyses utilize multivariate logistic regression and data from the 1997 Vietnam Migration and Health Survey. The results show that temporary migrants staying in guest houses are most vulnerable to health problems. Though most of them are initially healthier, their reported health deteriorates faster than other groups of urban residents. The findings also present important implications for the current migration and health policies in Vietnam: 1) A special attention should be given to temporary migrants in guest houses; 2) Different priorities in health policy should be applied to different groups of migrants and non-migrants; 3) The current population management policy by registration system needs to be reviewed; 4) Providing clean water is one of the most important ways to improve health of temporary migrants; 5) Targeting educational investments and reducing unemployment would likely to improve overall health; 6) A higher priority on health policies targeting women would likely pay dividends, and; 7) Improving management and collaboration between government offices and interested partners is important to improving health status and reducing inequity. [source]

    Path-dependency and Path-creation Perspectives on Migration Trajectories: The Economic Experiences of Vietnamese Migrants in Slovakia,

    Vladimir Balá
    ABSTRACT There has been only limited research on the Vietnamese diaspora, and that has mostly focussed on Western market economies. This paper explores the distinctive migration, dictated by Cold War geopolitics, from Viet Nam to the Eastern bloc countries. It examines how the intersection of migration policies and politico-economic conditions, before and after the end of state socialism in 1989, produced two distinctive migration phases. Faced with economic constraints, and mediated by their relationships with the Slovak population, most Vietnamese who stayed in, or migrated to, Slovakia after 1989 survived economically by finding a niche in market trading. This paper adopts a path-creating path-dependent perspective to examine these migration trajectories through an analysis based on in-depth interviews with Vietnamese migrants. La diaspora vietnamienne n'a pas suscité une abondante recherche, et les enquêtes dont elle a fait l'objet ont surtout été réalisées au sein du monde occidental. La présente étude explore le caractère distinctif, dicté par lagéopolitique de la guerre froide, ayant caractérisé les flux de migration entre le Vietnam et les pays du bloc de l'Est. Elle examine comment le recoupement des politiques migratoires et des conditions politico-économiques, avant et après la fin du socialisme d'Etat en 1989, ont produit deux phases migratoires distinctes. Confrontés aux contraintes économiques, et guidés par les relations entretenues par leur pays d'origine avec la population slovaque, la plupart des Vietnamiens ayant séjourné ou immigré en Slovaquie après 1989 ont survécu, économiquement parlant, en se créant une niche commerciale. Cette étude examine ces trajectoires migratoires sous l'angle de la démarche d'autonomie créative et du choix de la dépendance en procédant à une analyse réalisée à partir d'entretiens approfondis avec des migrants vietnamiens. Poco se sabe sobre la diáspora vietnamita puesto que los estudios realizados se han centrado mayormente en las economías de mercado occidentales. En este artículo se examina la migración diferenciada, proveniente de Viet Nam hacia los países del bloque del Este, dictaminada por la geopolítica de la Guerra Fría. Además, se analiza cómo la intersección de las políticas y de las condiciones político-económicas, durante el régimen socialista y después de 1989, dieron lugar a dos etapas migratorias bien diferenciadas. Habida cuenta de las restricciones económicas y de sus relaciones con la población eslovaca, la mayoría de los vietnamitas que permanecieron o emigraron a Eslovaquia después de 1989 tuvieron que hacerse un hueco en el mercado comercial para poder sobrevivir. Por tanto, en este artículo se adopta una perspectiva de cara a la creatividad o a la dependencia a fin de examinar las trayectorias migratorias, efectuando un análisis basado en extensas entrevistas con los inmigrantes vietnamitas. [source]

    The AIDS Epidemic and Migrants in South Asia and South-East Asia

    Daniel Simonet
    Migrant vulnerability to AIDS is an important public health care issue. After having listed some characteristics of the epidemic in Asia and their link with migration, the article describes some of the disease's consequences on economic sectors that employ migrants and lists preventive measures (regulatory, sectoral, microeconomic) that have been taken to counter the spread. [source]

    Highly Skilled and Business Migrants: Information Processes and Settlement Outcomes

    Maureen Benson-Rea
    Summary This paper reports on a research programme that has investigated the migration experiences of highly skilled professional and business migrants to New Zealand. Over a four-year period, five separate studies have been conducted on the stages in the process of migration. The paper sets out a model of the stages of the migration process and the data and analysis which it has guided. Of particular interest are the information sources available to potential migrants and employers, the cultural sensitivity of settlement processes and the migrants' subsequent ease of access to the labour market. The paper analyses information flows available to migrants at crucial phases in the migration process based on a stages model of the migration process. The model indicates some of the critical steps, interactions, and decisions in the migration process from the individual's point of view. Crucial information gaps are identified and implications are drawn for actors involved at the different stages. [source]

    Qualifications Recognition Reform for Skilled Migrants in Australia: Applying Competency-based Assessment to Overseas-qualified Nurses

    Lesleyanne Hawthorne
    The past two decades have coincided with unprecedented Australian selection of skilled migrants, in particular professionals from non-English speaking background (NESB) source countries. By 1991, the overseas-born constituted 43 to 49 per cent of Australia's engineers, 43 per cent of computer professionals, 40 per cent of doctors, 26 per cent of nurses, and rising proportions in other key professions. Within one to five years of arrival, just 30 per cent of degree-qualified migrants were employed. However, few diploma holders had found work in any profession, and select NESB groups were characterized by acute labour market disadvantage. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, barriers to credential recognition were identified as a major contributing factor to these inferior employment outcomes. This paper describes the evolution of Australia's qualifications recognition reform agenda for NESB migrants, including progressive growth in support of a shift from paper to competency-based assessment (CBA). Within this context, the paper examines the degree to which improvements were achieved in the 1990s in the field of nursing , the first major Australian profession to embrace CBA, and one promoted by the National Office of Overseas Skills Recognition as an exemplar of the reform process. Assessment protocols and outcomes are analysed within two contrasting contexts: pre-migration at Australian overseas posts, and within Australia following overseas-qualified nurses' (OQNs) arrival. Based on empirical data from a wide range of sources, the paper identifies the development of a major paradox. Substantial improvements in qualifications recognition were indeed achieved for NESB nurses through CBA in Australia, in particular in the dominant immigrant-receiving states of Victoria and New South Wales. At the same time, it is argued, a significant tightening of recognition procedures was occurring at Australian overseas posts where CBA was unavailable. The Immigration Department placed pre-migration assessment more, rather than less, exclusively in the hands of the professional nursing bodies, in a period coinciding with their harsher, rather than more lenient, treatment of NESB migrants' qualifications. Minimal improvement in recognition of overseas qualifications was achieved in other professions. [source]

    The Medical Assessment of Migrants: Current Limitations and Future Potential

    V.P. Keane
    Attempts to control the importation of infectious diseases through the medical screening and evaluation of immigrants and refugees represent the modern application of some of the earliest recorded public health interventions. States with long-standing immigration programmes continue to require the medical examination and screening of migrants for certain diseases. In some instances, the public health effectiveness of these immigration medical assessments is of questionable value when considered from a population health basis. This article reviews current practices and describes recent studies where more modern and epidemiologically based immigration medical interventions have been undertaken. A more effective immigration medical assessment process is proposed through the use of results of this more empirical approach to immigration medical screening. [source]

    Human Rights of Migrants: Challenges of the New Decade

    Patrick A. Taran
    This review summarizes main trends, issues, debates, actors and initiatives regarding recognition and extension of protection of the human rights of migrants. Its premise is that the rule of law and universal notions of human rights are essential foundations for democratic society and social peace. Evidence demonstrates that violations of migrants' human rights are so widespread and commonplace that they are a defining feature of international migration today. About 150 million persons live outside their countries; in many States, legal application of human rights norms to non-citizens is inadequate or seriously deficient, especially regarding irregular migrants. Extensive hostility against, abuse of and violence towards migrants and other non-nationals has become much more visible worldwide in recent years. Research, documentation and analysis of the character and extent of problems and of effective remedies remain minimal. Resistance to recognition of migrants' rights is bound up in exploitation of migrants in marginal, low status, inadequately regulated or illegal sectors of economic activity. Unauthorized migrants are often treated as a reserve of flexible labour, outside the protection of labour safety, health, minimum wage and other standards, and easily deportable. Evidence on globalization points to worsening migration pressures in many parts of the world. Processes integral to globalization have intensified disruptive effects of modernization and capitalist development, contributing to economic insecurity and displacement for many. Extension of principles in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights culminated in the 1990 International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. With little attention, progress in ratifications was very slow until two years ago. A global campaign revived attention; entry into force is likely in 2001. Comparative analysis notes that ILO migrant worker Conventions have generally achieved objectives but States have resisted adoption of any standards on treatment of non-nationals. A counter-offensive against human rights as universal, indivisible and inalienable underlies resistance to extension of human rights protection to migrants. A parallel trend is deliberate association of migration and migrants with criminality. Trafficking has emerged as a global theme contextualizing migration in a framework of combatting organized crime and criminality, subordinating human rights protections to control and anti-crime measures. Intergovernmental cooperation on migration "management" is expanding rapidly, with functioning regional intergovernmental consultative processes in all regions, generally focused on strengthening inter-state cooperation in controlling and preventing irregular migration through improved border controls, information sharing, return agreements and other measures. Efforts to defend human rights of migrants and combat xenophobia remain fragmented, limited in impact and starved of resources. Nonetheless, NGOs in all regions provide orientation, services and assistance to migrants, public education and advocating respect for migrants rights and dignity. Several international initiatives now highlight migrant protection concerns, notably the UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights of Migrants, the Global Campaign promoting the 1990 UN Convention, UN General Assembly proclamation of International Migrants Day, the 2001 World Conference Against Racism and Xenophobia, anti-discrimination activity by ILO, and training by IOM. Suggestions to governments emphasize the need to define comprehensive, coordinated migration policy and practice based on economic, social and development concerns rather than reactive control measures to ensure beneficial migration, social harmony, and dignified treatment of nationals and non-nationals. NGOs, businesses, trade unions, and religious groups are urged to advocate respect for international standards, professionalize services and capacities, take leadership in opposing xenophobic behaviour, and join international initiatives. Need for increased attention to migrants rights initiatives and inter-agency cooperation by international organizations is also noted. [source]

    Protection of Migrants' Human Rights: Principles and Practice

    Heikki S. Mattila
    In principle, migrants enjoy the protection of international law. Key human rights instruments oblige the States Parties to extend their protection to all human beings. Such important treaties as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights have been ratified by more than 140 states, but many political, social or economic obstacles seem to stand in the way of offering those rights to migrants. In an attempt to bridge this protection gap, the more specifically targeted International Convention on the Protection of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families was created and adopted by the United Nations in 1990. This treaty is not yet in force, but the number of States Parties is increasing towards the required 20. In the past few years the human rights machinery of the United Nations has increased its attention towards migrants' human rights, appointing in 1999 the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants. Governments, as the acceding parties to international human rights instruments, remain the principal actors as guardians of the human rights of all individuals residing in their territories. Receiving countries are in a key position in the protection of the migrants that they host. However, active defence of migrants' rights is politically difficult in many countries where anti-immigrant factions are influential. Trafficking in migrants is one example of the complexity faced by states in formulating their migration policies. On the one hand, trafficking has made governments increasingly act together and combine both enforcement and protection. On the other, trafficking, with its easily acceptable human rights concerns, is often separated from the more migration-related human smuggling. The latter is a more contentious issue, related also to unofficial interests in utilizing cheap undocumented immigrant labour. [source]

    Migrants, Refugees and Insecurity.

    Current Threats to Peace?
    Since the early 1980s, international migration has moved beyond humanitarian, economic development, labour market and societal integration concerns, raising complex interactive security implications for governments of migrant sending, receiving and transit countries, as well as for multilateral bodies. This article examines the effects of international migration on varied understandings and perceptions of international security. It discusses why international migration has come to be perceived as a security issue, both in industrialized and developing countries. Questions are raised on the migration-security nexus and the way in which the concepts ,security' and ,migration' are used. The real and perceived impacts of international migration upon national and regional security, both in industrialized and developing countries, are analysed. The policies developed by governments and multilateral agencies since the mid-1980s to mitigate the destabilizing effects of certain kinds of international population movement and human displacement are examined. The conclusions stress the need for the establishment of a comprehensive framework of international cooperation among origin and receiving countries and international organizations to address the destabilizing implications of international migration. [source]

    International Mobility of New Migrants to Australia,

    Lynda Sanderson
    Statistical models for residential spells and mobility data are used to examine the probability of repeat and return migration and ongoing mobility among New Zealand and British citizens who migrated to Australia between August 1999 and July 2002. The paper focuses on identifying the relationship between ongoing mobility patterns and personal and environmental circumstances, including institutional barriers to immigration and a discrete change in the social welfare eligibility of New Zealanders in Australia. The results confirm that ongoing migration patterns are far more complex than traditional migration paradigms suggest, with repeat and return migration and ongoing mobility being an important part of actual migration experiences. [source]