Middle Childhood (middle + childhood)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Trajectories of Prosocial Behavior and Physical Aggression in Middle Childhood: Links to Adolescent School Dropout and Physical Violence

Katja Kokko
Trajectories of prosocial behavior and physical aggression between 6 and 12 years of age were identified for a sample (N=1,025) of males. The trajectories were then used to predict school dropout and physical violence at age 17. Using a group-based semi-parametric method, two trajectories of prosociality (low and moderate declining) and three trajectories of physical aggression (low, moderate, and high declining) were obtained. Only a small minority (3.4%) of the boys were characterized by both high aggression and moderate prosociality. Physical aggression predicted both school dropout and physical violence, but contrary to expectations, prosocial behavior did not have additive or protective effects. [source]

Enemies in the Gendered Societies of Middle Childhood: Prevalence, Stability, Associations With Social Status, and Aggression

Philip C. Rodkin
This analysis of third and fourth graders suggests that enemy relationships are common, often of short duration, and partially reflective of negative behavior patterns between boys and girls in elementary school. [source]

The Development of Gendered Interests and Personality Qualities From Middle Childhood Through Adolescence: A Biosocial Analysis

Susan M. McHale
This study charted the development of gendered personality qualities and activity interests from age 7 to age 19 in 364 first- and secondborn siblings from 185 White, middle/working-class families, assessed links between time in gendered social contexts (with mother, father, female peers, and male peers) and gender development, and tested whether changes in testosterone moderated links between time use and gender development. Multilevel models documented that patterns of change varied across dimensions of gender and by sex and birth order and that time in gendered social contexts was generally linked to development of more stereotypical qualities. Associations between time with mother and expressivity and time with father and instrumentality were stronger for youth with slower increases in testosterone. [source]

The Importance of Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood for Adulthood Socioeconomic Status, Mental Health, and Problem Behavior

Leon Feinstein
This study examined the extent to which continuities and discontinuities in cognitive performance between ages 5 and 10 predicted adult income, educational success, household worklessness, criminality, teen parenthood, smoking, and depression. Assessed were the degree of this change during middle childhood, the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on this change, and the extent to which this change influenced adult outcomes. The analyses were conducted on 11,200 individuals from the UK Birth Cohort Study who were born in 1970 and who were resurveyed at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, and 30. Substantial discontinuities emerged during middle childhood, with strong SES influences. Changes in middle childhood strongly affected adult outcomes, often outweighing the effects of cognitive development before age 5. [source]

Conflict resolution education and antisocial behavior in U.S. schools: A meta-analysis

Wendy M. Garrard
This meta-analysis examines more than twenty-five years of evidence to determine whether participation in school-based conflict resolution education (CRE) contributes to reduced antisocial behaviors among youth in kindergarten through twelfth grade in U.S. schools. Evidence from thirty-six studies, representing 4,971 students, shows improvements in antisocial behaviors in CRE participants compared to control groups (Effect Size = .26), with larger effects observed during midadolescence ( ES = .53) and early adolescence ( ES = .22) compared to middle childhood ( ES = .06). Improvements in antisocial behavior outcomes attributable to CRE are significant in both practical and statistical terms and are similar for different CRE program approaches. [source]

Findings from a multidisciplinary clinical case series of females with Rett syndrome

Hilary Cass BSc FRCPCH
Systematic data from a multidisciplinary clinical assessment of a large series of females with Rett syndrome (RS; n=87) is presented. Participants' ages ranged from 2 years 1 month to 44 years 10 months. Areas assessed included oromotor skills, feeding problems, growth, breathing abnormalities, mobility, postural abnormalities and joint deformities, epilepsy, hand use and stereotypies, self-care, and cognitive and communication skills. Many previously reported trends in the presentation of RS over time were confirmed, notably the increasingly poor growth and near pervasiveness of fixed joint deformities and scoliosis in adulthood. In contrast, there was a slight trend towards improved autonomic function in adulthood, whereas feeding difficulties increased into middle childhood and then reached a plateau. Improvements in mobility into adolescence were followed by a decline in those skills in adulthood. Levels of dependency were high, confirming findings from previous studies. Despite the presence of repetitive hand movements, a range of hand-use skills was seen in individuals of all ages. Cognitive and communication skills were limited, but there was little evidence of deterioration of these abilities with age. These findings confirm that RS is not a degenerative condition and indicate that intervention and support to maintain and increase motor skills, daily living skills, and cognitive and communicative functioning are appropriate targets for individuals with RS. [source]

Cultures of Childhood and Psychosocial Characteristics: Self-Esteem and Social Comparison in Two Distinct Communities

ETHOS, Issue 1 2007
Andrew M. Guest
This mixed-methods study investigated self-esteem and social comparison during middle childhood in two distinct communities: a Chicago public-housing development and a group of refugee camps near Luanda, capital of the Republic of Angola. Building on separate bodies of existing research about childhood in marginalized communities, self-esteem, and social comparison, I present an interpretive account of how conceptions of childhood associate with psychosocial characteristics in these two communities. In the Chicago community, an intense emphasis on accelerating childhood toward adult characteristics corresponded with accentuating high self-esteem and extremely competitive social comparison. In contrast, the Angolan community conceptualized childhood as distinct from adulthood in ways that prioritized role achievement above self-esteem and encouraged integrative social comparison. The comparison of the cultures of childhood in these two communities, which shared relative poverty and were regularly targeted by external agencies for interventions, has implications for understanding child development and psychological adaptation in marginalized communities. [source]

Parents' optimism is related to their ratings of their children's behaviour

Kati Heinonen
Abstract Associations between parents' dispositional optimism-pessimism (LOT-R) and their ratings of their children's behaviour were studied prospectively from infancy (M,=,6.3, SD,=,1.3 months) to middle childhood (M,=,5.5, SD,=,0.23 years) (n,=,212). One parent's higher optimism (overall LOT-R and component score) and/or lower pessimism (component score) at infancy predicted the same parent's own but not the other parent's ratings of the child's behaviour as less internalising and less externalising, and socially more competent and greater in self-mastery in middle childhood, even when controlling for child's positive and negative affectivity 5 years earlier. Ratings of lower negative affectivity in their infant predicted the same parent's increasing optimism and decreasing pessimism over 5 years. The associations between parental optimism and the child's social competence and self-mastery survived after adjustments for parental neuroticism and depressive symptoms. Neither parent nor child gender systematically moderated the associations. The current findings shed light on the developmental paths of children's positive behavioural outcomes. (n,=,144). Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Facial identity and facial expression matching in 5,12-year-old children and adults

Frini Karayanidis
Abstract Facial identity and facial expression matching tasks were completed by 5,12-year-old children and adults using stimuli extracted from the same set of normalized faces. Configural and feature processing were examined using speed and accuracy of responding and facial feature selection, respectively. Facial identity matching was slower than face expression matching for all age groups. Large age effects were found on both speed and accuracy of responding and feature use in both identity and expression matching tasks. Eye region preference was found on the facial identity task and mouth region preference on the facial expression task. Use of mouth region information for facial expression matching increased with age, whereas use of eye region information for facial identity matching peaked early. The feature use information suggests that the specific use of primary facial features to arrive at identity and emotion matching judgments matures across middle childhood. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The behaviour style observation system for young children predicts teacher-reported externalizing behaviour in middle childhood

Alexa Martin-Storey
Abstract The Behaviour Style Observation System for Young Children (BSOS) was used to predict preschool-aged children's externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems in middle childhood, 3,5 years after the initial assessment. This observational measurement tool was designed to sample and assess young children's disruptive, non-compliant, and unresponsive behaviour, during a brief (11,min) observation in the child's home. In the current study, the BSOS was used to predict parent and teacher ratings of child behaviour problems after school entry in a longitudinal sample (N=81) of at-risk children at time 2. The BSOS predicted teacher-reported externalizing problems at time 2. In contrast, parent reports of behaviour problems, although correlated with repeated parent reports at time 2, were not significantly predictive of teacher-reported behaviour problems at school age. The BSOS was not associated with either parent or teacher reports of internalizing problems. These findings emphasize the importance and utility of using observational measures when examining the continuity of behaviour problems in young children over time. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Parenting and child behaviour problems: a longitudinal analysis of non-shared environment

Paula Y. Mullineaux
Abstract This study examined potential non-shared environmental processes in middle childhood by estimating statistical associations between monozygotic (MZ) twin differences in externalizing and internalizing problems and positive social engagement, and differential maternal positivity and negativity, over 1 year. Seventy-seven pairs of identical twins participated (M=6.08-years old, 65% male) in two annual home visits. Observers' ratings and maternal reports were gathered. At both assessments, the twin who showed more conduct problems (maternal report and observers' ratings) and less positive social engagement (positive affect, responsiveness) received more maternal negativity and less maternal warmth (self-reports and observers' ratings), relative to his or her genetically identical co-twin. The same patterns held over time, for the associations between change in differential MZ twin conduct problems and social engagement and change in differential maternal behaviour. Effects for child internalizing problems were not consistent within or across raters. Overall, these results indicated that differential maternal warmth and negativity,self-perceived and observed by others,are important aspects of sibling differentiation for both problematic and adaptive behaviours during middle childhood. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Genetic relations between effortful and attentional control and symptoms of psychopathology in middle childhood

Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant
Abstract Elucidating the genetic and environmental aetiology of effortful control (mother and father reports at two time points), attentional control (observer reports), and their associations with internalizing and externalizing symptoms (mother and father reports) is the central focus of this paper. With a sample of twins in middle childhood participating in the Wisconsin Twin Project, broad sense heritability for parental-report effortful control ranged from 68% to 79%, with a slightly higher heritability estimate of 83% for observer report attentional control, and no influence of the shared environment on either trait. Further, measures of control were negatively correlated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms longitudinally, concurrently, and across reporters. Importantly, shared additive genetic influence accounted for the covariation between the control variables and symptoms of psychopathology. These results encourage identification of common genes that affect both effortful control and symptoms, and environmental triggers that uniquely influence symptoms of psychopathology. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Predictors of middle childhood psychosomatic problems: An emotion regulation approach

Berit Hagekull
Abstract Development of the psychosomatic problems picky eating and headache and stomachache complaints in middle childhood was investigated from an emotion regulation perspective. The role of negative emotionality and family emotion regulatory factors (attachment to mother and parental perceived control) was studied. The sample (N=87) was a predominantly middleclass, community sample. The study was longitudinal, based on data from several data collections between child age 11 months and 9 years. The results showed that headache and stomachache complaints were mainly predicted by early negative emotionality, and picky eating by the family factors. More negative emotionality, insecure attachment and less perceived control were related to more psychosomatic problems in linear and interaction models. The findings were interpreted as showing that by considering emotion regulation, a fruitful perspective for understanding the development of psychosomatic problems could be elaborated. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Perceptions of parent-child attachment, social self-efficacy, and peer relationships in middle childhood

Priscilla K. Coleman
Abstract Relationships among attachment to each parent, children's social self-efficacy, and the quality of peer relations (attachment to peers and perceptions of victimization) were explored with 67 fifth and sixth graders (31 female) attending a rural elementary school. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed main effects for gender and attachment to mother relative to the attachment to peers variable, with girls and more securely attached children reporting higher quality attachment to peers. Main effects were also detected for gender and attachment to father relative to social self-efficacy, with girls and more securely attached children exhibiting higher self-efficacy. No main effects were observed relative to the peer victimization variable. None of the interaction effects involving gender and attachment to each parent relative to attachment to peers, peer victimization, and social self-efficacy were significant. Finally, evidence for mediation of attachment to father on attachment to peers by children's social self-efficacy was revealed. Implications of the results are discussed and ideas for future research are provided. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A longitudinal examination of patterns in girls' weight concerns and body dissatisfaction from ages 5 to 9 years

Kirsten Krahnstoever Davison
Abstract Objective To examine the development of girls' weight concerns and body dissatisfaction from ages 5 to 9 years and how change and continuity in these constructs from age 5 to 7 years is associated with girls' eating attitudes, dietary restraint, and dieting status at age 9. Methods Weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status were assessed for 182 girls when they were 5, 7, and 9 years old, and their eating attitudes, dietary restraint, and dieting status were assessed when they were 9. Results Girls tended to maintain their rank in weight concerns and body dissatisfaction across ages 5 to 9 years, and associations among girls' weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status increased with age. In addition, positive associations were found between changes in girls' weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status across ages 7 to 9. Finally, girls' who reported high weight concerns or high body dissatisfaction across ages 5 to 7 reported higher dietary restraint, more maladaptive eating attitudes, and a greater likelihood of dieting at age 9, independent of their weight status. Conclusion Girls' reported weight concerns and body dissatisfaction across middle childhood showed consistency over time, were systematically related to their weight status, and predicted their dietary restraint, eating attitudes, and the likelihood of dieting at age 9. These results reflect patterns identified among adolescent girls and women. 2003 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 33: 320,332, 2003. [source]

Continuity and change in social and physical aggression from middle childhood through early adolescence

Marion K. Underwood
For a sample followed from age 9,13 (N=281), this investigation examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression as measured by teacher ratings. Trajectories for both forms of aggression were estimated first separately, then jointly. Mean levels of both social and physical aggression decreased over time for the overall sample, but with high variability of individual trajectories. Subgroups followed high trajectories for both social and physical aggression. Joint estimation yielded six trajectories: low stable, low increasers, medium increasers, medium desisters, high desisters, and high increasers. Membership in the high increaser group was predicted by male gender, unmarried parents, African American ethnicity, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting. Permissive parenting also predicted membership in the medium increaser group. This is one of the first studies to examine social aggression longitudinally across this developmental period. Though the results challenge the claim that social aggression is at its peak in early adolescence, the findings emphasize the importance of considering different developmental trajectories in trying to understand origins and outcomes of aggression. Aggr. Behav. 35:357,375, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Participation in extracurricular activities and emotional and behavioral adjustment in middle childhood in Spanish Boys and Girls,

Beatriz Molinuevo
This study examined the concurrent relationship between participation in extracurricular activities and externalizing and internalizing problems and social school behavior in a Spanish community sample, separately for boys (n=439) and girls (n=428), enrolled in 2nd, 4th, or 6th grades. Weekly participation in extracurricular activities was related to better emotional and behavioral adjustment and social competence. Overall, the relations were low and different according to gender, type of activity, and informant. Better adjustment was more related to participation in sports activities in boys and to participation in nonsports activities in girls. Size effect was higher for girls and decreased for both boys and girls when parental education and parenting practices were considered. Findings supported previous results obtained in American adolescents. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Links between social information processing in middle childhood and involvement in bullying

Marina Camodeca
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the way in which bullies, victims, bully/victims, and those not involved process social information. A peer nomination measure of bullying and victimization was administered twice over an interval of one year. The sample consisted of 236 (126 girls and 110 boys) children at the beginning of the study (T1) and 242 children one year later (T2) (mean age: 8 years). To test how children responded when provoked, both spontaneously and after prompting, we used provocation scenarios, and to test their attributional interpretations we used ambiguous scenarios. The results showed that children not involved in bullying responded in an assertive way to provocation more often than bullies and victims, but not more than bully/victims. In general, aggressive answers diminished after prompting and irrelevant answers increased. Appealing for the help of an adult or a peer was the strategy most often chosen. When the intent of the perpetrator was ambiguous, bully/victims attributed more blame, were angrier, and would retaliate more than those not involved. Partly similar results were obtained when stably involved children were compared with those unstably involved. Suggestions for intervention are presented. Aggr. Behav. 29:116,127, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Gender- and Age-Related Differences in the Association Between Social Relationship Quality and Trait Levels of Salivary Cortisol

Alan Booth
The majority of studies linking individual differences in the quality of social relationships and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have focused on the early development of attachment between infants and their caregivers. Later in development, during middle childhood and adolescence, the parallel HPA links to age-appropriate social relationships with peers, parents, and siblings remain largely unspecified. This study addressed this knowledge gap. Early morning saliva samples were obtained from 367 children in middle childhood (ages 6,10) and 357 adolescents (M age=11,16 years) on two successive days 1 year apart and assayed for cortisol. Latent state,trait modeling was employed to separate variance in cortisol levels attributable to "stable trait-like" versus "state or situational specific" sources to minimize the high moment-to-moment variation in basal adrenocortical activity. During adolescence but not middle childhood, and for girls but not boys, lower levels of "trait cortisol" were associated with poor quality social relationships. The pattern was robust, extending to the quality of relationships with parents, siblings, and peers. Importantly, the relationship was independent of the rates of internalizing or externalizing problem behavior. We found that isolating the variance in cortisol levels attributable to stable intrinsic sources revealed an interpretable pattern that linked individual differences in basal HPA activity to social relationships during adolescence. Studies are needed to reveal the biosocial mechanisms involved in the establishment of this gender- and age-specific phenomenon and to decipher whether or not individual differences in this hormone-behavior link are adaptive. [source]

Adolescent Transitions to Young Adulthood: Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences of Adolescent Employment

Tama Leventhal
The antecedents, correlates, and consequences of adolescent employment were investigated in a sample of 251 low-income, African American youth that were followed since birth. The youth (age: M at preschool = 4.89, SD= .70; M at adolescence = 16.44, SD= .66; M at transition to adulthood = 19.36, SD= .76; and M at early adulthood = 27.67, SD= .75) were the firstborn children of African American teenage mothers who gave birth in Baltimore in the 1960s. Analyses examined the antecedents and correlates of age of entry into employment and stability of employment during adolescence. The associations of adolescent work experiences with subsequent adult education and employment outcomes also were considered. Findings indicate that among this sample of low-income, African American youth, those who repeated a grade in school during middle childhood were more likely to enter the workforce at later ages than their peers who did not repeat a grade. The small subset of adolescents who never worked (n= 12) appear to be markedly more disadvantaged than their peers who worked. At the transition to adulthood, adolescents who entered the workforce earlier were more likely to complete high school than their peers. In addition, stable employment during the adolescent years had more beneficial effects on young men's chances of attending college than young women's postsecondary education. This pattern of findings is consistent with ethnographic accounts of adolescent employment among poor, minority, urban youth. [source]

Parent-child discussions of anger and sadness: The importance of parent and child gender during middle childhood

Janice Zeman
This chapter provides conceptual background and empirical evidence that parental emotion socialization continues well into middle childhood and is influenced by the social context. Data are presented to illustrate the influence of parent and child gender on parental socialization of emotion in 113 Caucasian, middle-class children. Mothers and fathers discussed historical sadness- and anger-eliciting events with their sons and daughters. Fathers appear to play a unique role in sadness socialization whereas mothers' influence seems distinctive for the socialization of anger. Socialization of emotion is a transactional process in which parents and children are both socializing agents and emotion regulators. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Self- and maternal representations, relatedness patterns, and problem behavior in middle childhood

The present study investigated the association between children's representations of their mothers' and teachers' reports of children's problem behavior. The research team conducted semistructured narrative interviews with a community sample of 203 Israeli 9- to 11-year-old children. Ten months later, researchers collected teachers' reports of children's internalizing and externalizing problems. This study investigated whether children's self-representation narratives and their maladaptive relatedness stances questionnaire scores mediated this association. Results indicated that children reporting benevolent representations of their mothers exhibited lower levels of problem behavior. More positive self-representations and lower levels of skewness in children's relatedness stances to their mothers both mediated this association. This article includes a discussion of these results in light of factors contributing to maladjustment in middle childhood. [source]

Age-related variations and sex differences in gender cleavage during middle childhood

Gender cleavage, the segregation of the sexes, is a powerful phenomenon affecting socialization during childhood, but its developmental trajectory is far from clear. Sociometric responses by 299 boys and girls in Grades 3 to 6 from a group preference record were used to investigate age-related variations and sex differences in gender cleavage. Moreno's (1953) developmental model of gender cleavage was examined in the light of sociocultural changes, as well as advances in the theory and measurement of gender cleavage. Sex differences were found in same-gender preference, with older elementary girls showing greater same-gender preference than boys of the same age. However, this finding, plus the absence of gender differences in cross-gender evaluations, did not support more recent developmental accounts of gender cleavage. Linear trend analyses contradicted Moreno's basic precept of increasing same-gender preference between Grades 3 and 6. While same-gender acceptance and rejection were relatively similar regardless of grade level, cross-gender acceptance was greater in higher than in lower grades and the reverse was true for rejection. Furthermore, weaker gender cleavage effects in rejection data than in acceptance data suggested that strong same-gender liking does not infer equally robust cross-gender dislike. Gender cleavage appears to be relative rather than absolute. A more complex model is proposed incorporating sex differences as well as rejection evaluations [source]

The significance of place in middle childhood: qualitative research from Wales

Jonathan Scourfield
Abstract The paper presents some key findings of qualitative research with older primary school children in Wales on their attachments to places and cultures. There is discussion of children's perspectives on the global, national and local arenas. We argue both that there are continuities with adult perspectives and that the children's views on place and identity need to be understood in the context of the social location of middle childhood. The study shows children making relatively little use of culturally-filled categories of local, national and global place-identifications. The differences they articulate are largely framed in terms of divisions between groups of people rather than in the characteristics of place, and generally related back to the self. [source]

Early developmental precursors of impulsive and inattentive behavior: from infancy to middle childhood

Sheryl L. Olson
Background: We examined infancy and toddler-age precursors of impulsivity and inattention in school-age children. Children (50 boys, 39 girls) had been participants since infancy in the Bloomington Longitudinal Study. Method: Individual differences in children's self-regulatory competence were assessed at 8 years of age, using laboratory tests and observations of three central constructs: Inhibitory Control, Behavioral Control, and Attentional Disengagement. Results: We found that measures of caregiver,child interaction, child temperament, and child cognitive competence during the toddler period significantly predicted variations in children's later impulsive functioning. However, the strength of these relationships, and the type and combination of significant risk factors, were differentially patterned in relation to specific subtypes of later child impulsivity. Conclusions: These data provide further evidence for the multidimensional nature of child impulsivity, and they highlight the importance of examining toddler-age precursors of children's later self-regulatory competence. [source]

Predictors of outcome for unrelated adoptive placements made during middle childhood

Cherilyn Dance
ABSTRACT This paper reports on a follow-up to adolescence of two longitudinal prospective studies of children placed from public care with non-related adoptive families in the UK. Factors associated with outcome are presented for 99 children (one index child per adoptive family) who were between 5 and 11 years of age at placement. Information concerning the children's backgrounds and care histories was obtained shortly after placement (T1), from social workers. Adopters were interviewed at T1 and again at the end of the first year (T2). A further follow-up was conducted an average of six years after placement (T3). Outcomes at T3 were classified as either disrupted, which was true for 23%, continuing and ,positive' (49%) or continuing but ,difficult' (28%). Bivariate analyses revealed a number of attributes, related to both the child and the adoptive parents, which were associated with differential outcomes. Logistic regression produced five predictors of placement disruption: age at placement, behavioural problems, preferential rejection, time in care and the child's degree of attachment to the new mother. Differences were found between ,positive' and ,difficult' outcomes in continuing placements as well as between continuing and disrupted placements. The analysis suggests that adoption should certainly be considered as an option for children over 5 years of age while recognizing the need for both preparation and post-placement support. Evidence of differential outcome in continuing placements provides support for efforts to reduce the number of placements and returns home that a child at risk experiences. [source]

Preferentially rejected children and their development in permanent family placements

Alan Rushton
ABSTRACT Several studies of family placements have indicated poorer outcomes for children who are placed singly in new families. In an effort to understand why this may be so, this paper explores differential outcome among a group of children who were placed singly with adoptive or long-term foster families during middle childhood. A small number of these children were ,only children' at the time of placement but most had siblings living elsewhere. Particular attention is paid to preferential rejection by birth parents in the children's backgrounds. Preferential rejection indicates that one child has been rejected while siblings are accepted. This was found to be associated with poorer progress in placement. The methodological and statistical detail of the analyses are to be found in another paper. We focus here on describing the patterns which emerged and the ways in which the findings may assist practitioners in making and supporting permanent placements. [source]

Children's Judgments of Disloyal and Immoral Peer Behavior: Subjective Group Dynamics in Minimal Intergroup Contexts

Dominic Abrams
The developmental model of subjective group dynamics hypothesizes that peer exclusion during middle childhood involves inferences about group dynamics. To test the generality of this prediction, children judged, within minimal groups, peers whose behavior was loyal versus disloyal (Study 1: n = 46, mean age = 113 months) or morally acceptable versus unacceptable (Study 2: n = 121, mean age = 90 months). As hypothesized, in Study 1, children used their understanding of loyalty norms as a basis for evaluating peers. In both studies, higher commitment to the in-group increased use of group-based criteria for judging peers. In Study 2, children employed moral- and group-based criteria independently for judging peers. Multiple classification skill was associated with lower intergroup bias and greater use of morality-based judgment. [source]

The Importance of Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood for Adulthood Socioeconomic Status, Mental Health, and Problem Behavior

Leon Feinstein
This study examined the extent to which continuities and discontinuities in cognitive performance between ages 5 and 10 predicted adult income, educational success, household worklessness, criminality, teen parenthood, smoking, and depression. Assessed were the degree of this change during middle childhood, the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on this change, and the extent to which this change influenced adult outcomes. The analyses were conducted on 11,200 individuals from the UK Birth Cohort Study who were born in 1970 and who were resurveyed at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, and 30. Substantial discontinuities emerged during middle childhood, with strong SES influences. Changes in middle childhood strongly affected adult outcomes, often outweighing the effects of cognitive development before age 5. [source]

Understanding Gender Differences in Context: Implications for Young Children's Everyday Lives

CHILDREN & SOCIETY, Issue 2 2006
Virginia Morrow
This article reviews recent UK-based research that has prioritised children's accounts of their experiences of their daily lives, and focuses on gender differences in these accounts of family life, friendships, use of public space, use of out-of-school care, popular culture and consumption, and children's views of gender differences,drawing mainly from research with children in middle childhood. It then discusses some of the implications for practice and training for a range of professionals working with children. The article suggests that a re-evaluation of theories of gender differences in practitioner textbooks could usefully be undertaken to integrate more sophisticated, contextual notions of gender identities based on children's experiences. Copyright 2006 The Author(s). [source]