Middle Adulthood (middle + adulthood)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cognitive, Linguistic and Adaptive Functioning in Williams Syndrome: Trajectories from Early to Middle Adulthood

Patricia Howlin
Background, Little is known about trajectories of cognitive functioning as individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) move though adulthood. Method, The present study investigated cognitive, linguistic and adaptive functioning in adults with WS aged 19,55 years, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches. Results, Data from the cross-sectional study (n = 92; mean age = 32 years) indicated that IQ was comparable across age groups (Full-Scale IQ mean = 56,57) with Verbal IQ being slightly higher than Performance IQ. Daily Living Skills (as measured by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales) were significantly higher in older individuals. Language abilities showed no consistent age-related differences. On formal tests of language, comprehension scores were higher than expressive language scores for almost all individuals, although this pattern was not replicated on the Vineland. In the longitudinal study, a follow-up of 47 individuals (mean age = 37 years) first assessed 12 years previously, similar trajectories were found. IQ remained very stable (FSIQ = 61,62 at both time points); there were significant improvements on the Social and Daily Living domains of the Vineland and significant decreases in Maladaptive scores. There were no improvements in language over time. Conclusions, The data indicate that adults with WS (at least up to the age of 50 years) show no evidence of deterioration in cognitive skills. Adaptive abilities continue to develop although language shows relatively little improvement with time. [source]

Age-related changes in transient and oscillatory brain responses to auditory stimulation during early adolescence

Catherine Poulsen
Maturational changes in the capacity to process quickly the temporal envelope of sound have been linked to language abilities in typically developing individuals. As part of a longitudinal study of brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence, we employed dense-array EEG and spatiotemporal source analysis to characterize maturational changes in the timing of brain responses to temporal variations in sound. We found significant changes in the brain responses compared longitudinally at two time points in early adolescence, namely 10 years (65 subjects) and 11.5 years (60 of the 65 subjects), as well as large differences between adults, studied with the same protocol (Poulsen, Picton & Paus, 2007), and the children at 10 and 11.5 years of age. The transient auditory evoked potential to tone onset showed decreases in the latency of vertex and T-complex components, and a highly significant increase in the amplitude of the N1 wave with increasing age. The auditory steady state response to a 40-Hz frequency-modulated tone increased in amplitude with increasing age. The peak frequency of the envelope-following response to sweeps of amplitude-modulated white noise also increased significantly with increasing age. These results indicate persistent maturation of the cortical mechanisms for auditory processing from childhood into middle adulthood. [source]

Big Five personality development in adolescence and adulthood

Susan J. T. Branje
Abstract The present article examines Big Five personality development across adolescence and middle adulthood. Two adolescents and their fathers and mothers from 285 Dutch families rated their own and their family members' personality. Using accelerated longitudinal growth curve analyses, mean level change in Big Five factors was estimated. For boys, Extraversion and Openness decreased and for girls, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness increased. Whereas mothers' Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness increased, fathers' Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Emotional Stability decreased. Differences in self- and other-reported personality change were found, as well as interindividual differences in personality change. Results confirm that personality change is possible across the life course but these changes are not similar for all individuals and depend on the type of observer. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Personality disorder traits evident by early adulthood and risk for eating and weight problems during middle adulthood

Jeffrey G. Johnson PhD
Abstract Objective: The current article investigates the association of personality disorder (PD) with the subsequent development of eating and weight problems. Method: Psychiatric interviews were administered to a community-based sample of 658 individuals at mean ages 14, 16, 22, and 33 years. Results: Individuals with PD by age 22 were at an elevated risk for eating disorders at mean age 33 years. PDs were associated with risk for onset of binge eating, purging, daily dietary restriction, and obesity among individuals without a history of these problems. Borderline and histrionic PD symptoms were associated with recurrent binging and purging at mean age 33 years. Antisocial and schizotypal symptoms were associated with recurrent binging and obesity at mean age 33 years. Depressive PD symptoms were associated with recurrent binging and dietary restriction at mean age 33 years. Conclusion: PD symptoms, evident by early adulthood, may be associated with the risk for the development of eating and weight problems by middle adulthood. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Int J Eat Disord, 2006 [source]

Cognitive leisure activities and their role in preventing dementia: a systematic review

Cindy Stern BHSc(Hons)
Abstract Background, Dementia inflicts a tremendous burden on the healthcare system. Identifying protective factors or effective prevention strategies may lead to considerable benefits. One possible strategy mentioned in the literature relates to participation in cognitive leisure activities. Aim, To determine the effectiveness of cognitive leisure activities in preventing Alzheimer's and other dementias among older adults. Inclusion criteria Types of participants.,Adults aged at least 60 years of age with or without a clinical diagnosis of dementia that resided in the community or care setting. Types of interventions.,Cognitive leisure activities, defined as activities that required a mental response from the individual taking part in the activity (e.g. reading). Types of outcomes.,The presence or absence of dementia was the outcome of interest. Types of studies.,Any randomised controlled trials, other experimental studies, as well as cohort, case,control and cross-sectional studies were considered for inclusion. Search strategy.,A search for published and unpublished studies in the English language was undertaken with no publication date restriction. Methodological quality, Each study was appraised independently by two reviewers using the standard Joanna Briggs Institute instruments. Data collection and analysis, Information was extracted from studies meeting quality criteria using the standard Joanna Briggs Institute tools. Because of the heterogeneity of populations and interventions, meta-analyses were not possible and results are presented in narrative form. Results, There were no randomised controlled trials located that met inclusion criteria. Thirteen observational studies were included in the review; the majority were cohort design. Because of the heterogeneity of interventions, the study design, the way in which they were grouped and the different stages of life they were measured at, statistical pooling was not appropriate. Studies were grouped by stage of adult life participation when interventions were undertaken, that is, early adulthood, middle adulthood and late life. Five out of six studies showed a positive association between participating in activities and a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and other dementias when interventions were undertaken in middle adulthood and six out of seven studies produced a positive association for late life participation. Results indicated that some activities might be more beneficial than others; however, results should be interpreted with caution because of the subjective nature of activity inclusion. Conclusion ,,Actively participating in cognitive leisure activities during mid- or late life may be beneficial in preventing the risk of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias in the elderly; however, the evidence is currently not strong enough to infer a direct causal relationship. ,,Participating in selected cognitive leisure activities may be more favourable than others but currently there is no strong evidence to recommend one over the other. [source]

Temperament and character associated with depressive symptoms in women: analysis of two genetically informative samples,

Jongil Yuh
Abstract Although previous research has explored associations between personality and depressive symptoms, a limited number of studies have assessed the extent to which genetic and environmental influences explain the association. This study investigated how temperament and character were associated with depressive symptoms in 131 pairs of twin and sibling women in early adulthood, as well as 326 pairs of twin women in middle adulthood. Results indicated that genetic influences accounted for a moderate to substantial percentage of the association between these personality features and depressive symptoms, emphasizing the role of genetic influences. Nonshared environmental influences made important contributions to the association between character and depressive symptoms, particularly in the sample of middle-aged twin women. These findings suggest that unique social experiences and relationships with a partner in adulthood may play an important role in these associations between character and depressive symptoms. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 65: 1,19, 2009. [source]

Intergenerational Transmission of Constructive Parenting

Zeng-yin Chen
Past research on the intergenerational transmission of parenting concentrates on the continuity of harsh or abusive parenting, for the most part relying on retrospective reports of early upbringing. This study investigates the intergenerational transmission of constructive parenting using a 3-wave longitudinal data set that has spanned 2 decades, obtaining the respondents' contemporaneous reports in early adolescence, early adulthood, and middle adulthood respectively (N= 2,338). The results support the hypotheses that interpersonal relations, social participation, and role-specific modeling explain the intergenerational continuity of constructive parenting. [source]