Microsatellite Markers (microsatellite + marker)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Microsatellite Markers

  • chloroplast microsatellite marker
  • dna microsatellite marker
  • highly polymorphic microsatellite marker
  • new microsatellite marker
  • novel microsatellite marker
  • novel polymorphic microsatellite marker
  • nuclear microsatellite marker
  • polymorphic microsatellite marker
  • tetranucleotide microsatellite marker

  • Terms modified by Microsatellite Markers

  • microsatellite marker analysis

  • Selected Abstracts

    Cosegregation of a Factor VIII Microsatellite Marker with Mild Hemophilia A in Golden Retriever Dogs

    Marjory B. Brooks
    Mild hemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency) was diagnosed in Golden Retrievers and pedigree studies were undertaken to test the cosegregation of an intragenic factor VIII marker with the disease phenotype. The study population consisted of 30 client-owned dogs (22 males and 8 females). Hemophilic males (n = 12) typically demonstrated prolonged bleeding after trauma or surgery rather than spontaneous hemorrhagic events. The affected males had a proportionate reduction in factor VIII coagulant activity (mean FVIII:C = 4%) and factor VIII protein concentration (mean FVIII:Ag = 3%). Twenty-five dogs (10 affected males, 8 clear males, 2 obligate carrier dams, and 5 suspect carrier daughters) were genotyped for a factor VIII microsatellite marker, with allele size assigned by an automated capillary electrophoresis system. Five distinct marker alleles were present in the study pedigree and a 300-base pair allele was found to segregate with the hemophilia A phenotype. The inheritance of the hemophilia-associated allele defined carrier status for 5 suspect daughters of obligate carrier dams. The limitations inherent to linkage analyses (ie, lack of access to key family members and homozygosity at the marker locus) did not preclude carrier detection in this pedigree. We conclude that genotype analysis for the intragenic factor VIII marker can aid in control of canine hemophilia A through enhanced carrier detection. [source]

    Microsatellite marker for yellow rust resistance gene Yr5 in wheat introgressed from spelt wheat

    PLANT BREEDING, Issue 6 2002
    Q. Sun
    Abstract Yellow rust of wheat caused by Puccinia striiformis f sp. tritici has been periodically epidemic and severely damaged wheat production in China and throughout the world. Breeding for resistant cultivars has been proved to be an effective way to resolve the problem. A yellow rust resistance gene, Yr5, derived from Triticum spelta shows immunity or high resistance to the most popular isolates Tiaozhong 30 and 31 in China. Establishment of DNA markers for the Yr5 gene will facilitate marker-assisted selection and gene pyramiding in the breeding programme. Since the Yr5 gene was cytologically located on the long arm of chromosome 2B, By33, the donor of Yr5, was crossed and backcrossed with the susceptible line 441, and BC3F2 and BC3F3 segregating populations were screened for polymorphism by using 11 microsatellite primers mapped on chromosome 2B. A marker, Xgwm501-195 bp/160 bp, was found to be linked to Yr5, with a genetic distance of 10.5-13.3 cM. [source]

    A region on equine chromosome 13 is linked to recurrent airway obstruction in horses

    U. JOST
    Summary Reasons for study: Equine recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is probably dependent on a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors and shares many characteristic features with human asthma. Interleukin 4 receptor , chain (IL4RA) is a candidate gene because of its role in the development of human asthma, confirmation of this association is therefore required. Methods: The equine BAC clone containing the IL4RA gene was localised to ECA13q13 by the FISH method. Microsatellite markers in this region were investigated for possible association and linkage with RAO in 2 large Warmblood halfsib families. Based on a history of clinical signs (coughing, nasal discharge, abnormal breathing and poor performance), horses were classified in a horse owner assessed respiratory signs index (HOARSI 1,4: from healthy, mild, moderate to severe signs). Four microsatellite markers (AHT133, LEX041, VHL47, ASB037) were analysed in the offspring of Sire 1 (48 unaffected HOARSI 1 vs. 59 affected HOARSI 2,4) and Sire 2 (35 HOARSI 1 vs. 50 HOARSI 2,4), age ,7 years. Results: For both sires haplotypes could be established in the order AHT133-LEX047-VHL47-ASB37. The distances in this order were estimated to be 2.9, 0.9 and 2.3 centiMorgans, respectively. Haplotype association with mild to severe clinical signs of chronic lower airway disease (HOARSI 2,4) was significant in the offspring of Sire 1 (P = 0.026) but not significant for the offspring of Sire 2 (P = 0.32). Linkage analysis showed the ECA13q13 region containing IL4RA to be linked to equine chronic lower airway disease in one family (P<0.01), but not in the second family. Conclusions: This supports a genetic background for equine RAO and indicates that IL4RA is a candidate gene with possible locus heterogeneity for this disease. Potential relevance: Identification of major genes for RAO may provide a basis for breeding and individual prevention for this important disease. [source]

    Molecular genetic characterization of Robertsonian translocations in cattle

    H. Joerg
    The chromosome fusion of acrocentric chromosomes, known as Robertsonian translocations, are the most common chromosome rearrangement in Bovidae. Cytogenetic studies revealed differences between the centromeres of Robertsonian translocations: the rob(1; 29) is called monocentric, whereas rob(14; 20) is a dicentric chromosome. To analyse the type of fusion, satellite sequences were hybridised to metaphase chromosomes of carriers of rob(1; 29) from different breeds and rob(14; 20) from the Simmental breed. A repeat element of the bovine 1.715 satellite was located in the centromeric regions of all 29 bovine acrocentric chromosomes. No signals were observed on either the X-,Y- or the rob(1; 29) chromosomes. In contrast, all rob(14; 20) chromosomes gave a distinct hybridisation signal. Microsatellite markers in the linkage group, originating from the fusion, revealed a characteristic allele combination for rob(1; 29) in all carriers and were able to confirm the screening of metaphases of 220 daughters of a heterozygote carrier of the rob(1; 29). The results indicate that rob(1; 29) lost parts of both centromeres and that the 1.715 satellite DNA is not necessary for the functioning of the centromere. Furthermore, rob(1; 29) appears to derive from the same mutation and is transmitted according to Mendelian law. Molekulargenetische Charakterisierung von Robertson'schen Translokationen beim Rind Die Fusion von akrozentrischen Chromosomen, bekannt als Robertson'sche Translokationen, sind die häufigsten Chromosomenveränderungen in der Rindergattung. Zytogenetische Studien zeigten Unterschiede in den Zentromeren von Robertson'schen Translokationen auf. Das Rob(1; 29) Chromosom wird als ein monozentrisches und das Rob(14/20) als ein dizentrisches Chromosom bezeichnet. Um die Fusionsarten zu analysieren, wurden Satellitensequenzen auf Metaphasenchromosomen von Trägern der Rob(1; 29) aus verschiedenen Rassen und von Trägern der Rob(14; 20) aus der Rasse der Simmentaler hybridisiert. Eine Sequenzwiederholung aus dem Rindersatelliten 1.715 wurde in den Zentromerregionen aller 29 akrozentrischer Rinderchromosomen nachgewiesen. Auf dem X, dem Y wie auch auf dem Rob(1; 29) Chromosom konnten jedoch keine Signale beobachtet werden, während alle Rob(14; 20) Chromosomen ein starkes Hybridisierungssignal aufwiesen. Die Mikrosatelliten in der Kopplungsgruppe, welche durch die Fusion entstanden ist, zeigten eine charakteristische Allelkombination für das Rob(1; 29) Chromsom und konnten Untersuchungen an den Metaphasen von 220 Töchtern eines heterozygoten Trägers bestätigen. Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass Rob(1; 29) Chromosomen einen Teil beider Zentromere verloren haben und dass die 1.715 Satelliten DNA für ein funktionierendes Chromosom nicht notwendig ist. Die Rob(1; 29) Chromosomen scheinen eine identische Abstammung aufzuweisen und werden nach den Mendel'schen Regeln vererbt. [source]

    Microsatellite markers for the European tree frog Hyla arborea

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 11 2000
    Paul Arens

    Microsatellite markers characterized in the barn owl (Tyto alba) and of high utility in other owls (Strigiformes: AVES)

    Abstract We have identified 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the barn owl (Tyto alba), five from testing published owl loci and 10 from testing non-owl loci, including loci known to be of high utility in passerines and shorebirds. All 15 loci were sequenced in barn owl, and new primer sets were designed for eight loci. The 15 polymorphic loci displayed two to 26 alleles in 56,58 barn owls. When tested in 10 other owl species (n = 1,6 individuals), between four and nine loci were polymorphic per species. These loci are suitable for studies of population structure and parentage in owls. [source]

    Microsatellite markers for the red band needle blight pathogen, Dothistroma septosporum

    Abstract Twelve microsatellite markers were developed for population analyses of the fungal pathogen, Dothistroma septosporum. Intersimple sequence repeat polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR) and an enrichment protocol (fast isolation by amplified fragment length polymorphism of sequences containing repeats [FIASCO]) were both used to identify 28 unique microsatellite regions in the genome. From 22 primer pairs designed, 12 were polymorphic. These markers, screened on two populations representing 42 isolates, produced 40 alleles across all loci with an allelic diversity of 0.09,0.76 per locus. Cross-species amplification showed variable success with Dothistroma rhabdoclinis and Mycosphaerella dearnessi and some sequence variation within isolates of Dothistroma pini. These markers will be used to further study the population structure and diversity of D. septosporum. [source]

    PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Microsatellite markers for the threatened Bliss Rapids snail (Taylorconcha serpenticola) and cross-amplification in its congener, T. insperata

    H. -P.
    Abstract We developed and tested microsatellite markers to investigate population structure of a threatened North American freshwater gastropod, Taylorconcha serpenticola. Of the 21 primer pairs that were evaluated, 11 were readily optimized and scored, providing amplification of 12 loci that were screened for 820 specimens from 29 populations. The number of alleles across 11 of these polymorphic loci ranged from three to 20 and the observed heterozygosity varied from 0.0061 to 0.7561. All loci yielded suitable amplification products in the second species of Taylorconcha (T. insperata) and three proved to be diagnostic for these congeners, demonstrating that these markers are also useful for species identification studies. [source]

    Microsatellite markers for Sclerotinia subarctica nom. prov., a new vegetable pathogen of the High North

    L. M. WINTON
    Abstract Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated from the ascomycete fungus Sclerotinia subarctica nom. prov. In Alaska, this pathogen causes white mold vegetable diseases sympatrically with the cosmopolitan and closely related Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Eighteen alleles were observed across the 41 isolates tested and ranged from two to three alleles per locus. Together, the alleles from the eight polymorphic loci yielded only four haploid multilocus genotypes and exhibited significant linkage disequilibrium, reflecting extreme selfing and clonal vegetative reproduction. [source]

    Microsatellite markers for the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and closely related mustelids

    M. T. CABRIA
    Abstract The European mink (Mustela lutreola L., 1761) is an endangered carnivore species whose populations suffered a severe decline during the last century. The genotyping of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci revealed a relatively low number of alleles per locus (two to eight), as well as low levels of polymorphism (observed and expected heterozygosity values per locus were 0.49 and 0.54, respectively). Cross-specific polymerase chain reaction amplifications were successful in seven closely related mustelid species suggesting that these loci may be useful not only for assessing genetic variability in European mink populations but also for determining potential hybridization events between M. lutreola and other mustelid species. [source]

    Microsatellite markers for the invasive plant species white sweetclover (Melilotus alba) and yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis)

    L. M. WINTON
    Abstract We describe specific primers that amplify nine microsatellite DNA loci from Melilotus alba and Melilotus officinalis, both invasive plant species (Fabaceae) throughout North America. Allelic diversity was slightly lower for M. alba than for M. officinalis, as was expected heterozygosity. For both species, heterozygote deficit was observed at several loci. Genotypic diversity was very high for both species; the 29 plant samples of each species all had different multilocus genotypes. These markers will be used to determine the origins of the sweetclover invasion in Alaska and to compare patterns of diversity between subarctic and lower latitude populations. [source]

    PRIMER NOTE: Microsatellite markers for the June sucker (Chasmistes liorus mictus), Utah sucker (Catostomus ardens), and five other catostomid fishes of western North America

    Abstract We developed and optimized five new microsatellite markers for the genetic management of the endangered June sucker. We report the cross-amplification of these markers, and seven microsatellites previously developed for Klamath Basin suckers, in seven catostomid species of western North America. No linkage disequilibrium was detected between pairs of loci. Since most of these loci exhibited conserved priming sites, they may be useful for landscape-scale studies of speciation and patterns of gene flow among multiple sucker lineages. [source]

    Microsatellite-enriched genomic libraries as a source of polymorphic loci for Schistosoma mansoni

    Abstract Microsatellite markers for Schistosoma mansoni were developed using four genomic microsatellite-enriched libraries. Microsatellites were observed in 65.4% of all sequences. Primer pairs were designed and tested for 23 loci. Eighteen loci produced amplification products, out of which 11 were polymorphic and were further characterized on 100 individuals of S. mansoni. Two to 19 alleles per locus were detected. The average values of expected and observed heterozygosities among the 11 loci were 0.79 and 0.59, respectively. [source]

    Microsatellite markers for the polygamous termite Nasutitermes corniger (Isoptera: Termitidae)

    Abstract We developed eight highly variable microsatellite markers for the termite Nasutitermes corniger. Allele number per locus ranged from nine to 34, and expected heterozygosity from 0.45 to 0.94, in samples from seven sites in the former canal zone of Panama. The utility of these markers was assessed for five congeners varying in phylogenetic distance to N. corniger. The markers will be useful for fine-scale examination of population and colony genetic structure in N. corniger and other closely related species. [source]

    TETRASAT: a program for the population analysis of allotetraploid microsatellite data

    Abstract Microsatellite markers are quite popular due to their degree of polymorphism and efficiency; however, the utility of such markers for analysing allotetraploid species is often hampered by an inability to determine allele copy number for partial heterozygotes. tetrasat is a program that uses an iterative substitution process to account for all probable combinations of allele copy numbers in populations with partial heterozygote samples. The program subsequently calculates allele frequencies, and mean Hardy,Weinberg expected heterozygosity (HE), Shannon,Weiner Diversity Index (H,) and Nei's measure of population differentiation (GST) are reported for each locus and population. Of equal importance is the calculation of statistical variability generated by the missing data and allele substitution process, which allows for assessment of the strength of conclusions drawn from the statistics. [source]

    Microsatellite markers for the pest fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and other Bactrocera species

    Abstract The dorsalis complex contains some of the most economically important fruit fly pests of the Asia,Pacific regions, including Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera carambolae. These species are morphologically indistinct and genetically very similar. We describe the development of 12 microsatellite markers isolated from a representative of the dorsalis complex, B. papayae. We show the potential utility of the B. papayae microsatellites and a set of microsatellites isolated from Bactrocera tryoni as population and species markers for the dorsalis complex. [source]

    Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for two dioecious Ficus species

    Abstract Microsatellite markers for Ficus montana and Ficus septica were developed using genomic libraries enriched for di-, tri- and tetranucleotide repeats. The subsets of five and three best scorable primer pairs were characterized on 24 F. montana and 36 F. septica individuals, respectively. For F. montana, loci showed five to 14 alleles per locus and expected heterozygosities ranged between 0.23 and 0.87. For F. septica, loci showed three to five alleles per locus and expected heterozygosities ranged between 0.36 and 0.49. Four primer pairs (two from each subset) cross-amplified in the other species, indicating transportability of the markers within the genus Ficus. [source]

    Microsatellite markers for the large blue butterflies Maculinea nausithous and Maculinea alcon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and their amplification in other Maculinea species

    Abstract We developed microsatellite markers for Maculinea nausithous and Maculinea alcon, two of five species of endangered large blue butterflies found in Europe. Two separate microsatellite libraries were constructed. Eleven markers were developed for M. nausithous and one for M. alcon. The primers were tested on both species as well as on the three other European Maculinea species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 14. These markers will be useful tools for population genetic studies of Maculinea species. [source]

    Microsatellite markers for woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) and their amplification in other New World primates (Primates: Platyrrhini)

    Anthony Di Fiore
    Abstract Seven polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified for woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) from an ,enriched' genomic library. For a wild population of 66 animals, these markers averaged over 10 alleles per locus and provided a combined probability for excluding a random individual from parentage of over 98%. These loci were screened in up to 13 other genera of New World monkeys, and many were variable in multiple taxa. Few other platyrrhine-specific microsatellite markers have been identified; thus, these loci should prove valuable for studying the population genetic structure and mating system not just of Lagothrix but also of other neotropical primates. [source]

    Microsatellite markers for Ceiba pentandra (Bombacaceae), an endangered tree species of the Amazon forest

    R. P. V. Brondani
    Abstract From a genomic library enriched for AG/TC repeats, eight polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for Ceiba pentandra, a pan-tropical forest tree. Polymorphism was evaluated using a panel of 74 adult trees. Using automated fluorescence detection, a total of 112 alleles was detected with an average of 14 alleles per locus. All microsatellite loci showed very high levels of genetic information content, with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.814 to 0.895. These microsatellite markers represent a powerful tool to investigate refined questions of mating systems, gene flow, family structure and population dynamics in natural populations of C. pentandra. [source]

    Microsatellites for the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus laniarius)

    Menna E. Jones
    Abstract The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus laniarius), a medium-sized predator/scavenger, is the largest member of the short-lived carnivorous marsupial Family Dasyuridae. Now restricted to Tasmania, populations are impacted by habitat clearance and anthropogenic mortality and genetic studies could be of value in informing levels of genetic diversity, mating system, dispersal and the effects of natural and anthropogenic landscape features on gene flow. Microsatellite markers were isolated from a partial, size-selected genomic library that was enriched for microsatellite sequences. Primer pairs were developed for 11 polymorphic dinucleotide microsatellite loci that conform with Hardy,Weinberg equilibrium and reveal moderate genetic variability across the species range. [source]

    Microsatellite markers for diverse Salix species

    J. H. A. Barker
    Abstract Forty-six microsatellites were isolated from an enriched library of Salix burjatica and tested on 20 individuals (of nine species/hybrids) from the National Willows Collection (IACR-Long Ashton Research Station, UK). Twenty-nine were monomorphic, gave multilocus or unscorable patterns, or were duplicates. The remaining 17 microsatellites gave 2,22 alleles/locus. Three microsatellites successfully cross-amplified in 31 additional Salix species. A further six were tested on panels comprising 6,25 individuals from the 31 species. Cross-amplification was successful in all cases. These results suggest that the microsatellites isolated here should prove useful for population studies in a wide range of Salix species. [source]

    Microsatellite markers in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] derived from an enriched genomic and cDNA libraries

    T. Yamamoto
    Abstract Twenty-four and 12 microsatellite loci were developed in peach [Prunus persica (L) Batsch cv. Akatsuki] by using an enriched genomic and fruit cDNA libraries, respectively. The microsatellite loci obtained from an enriched library produced 1,9 alleles per locus, 24 in total, of which 22 showed polymorphisms. The average values of observed and expected heterozygosities among the 24 loci were 0.15 and 0.68, respectively. The microsatellite loci derived from cDNA showed 1,7 alleles per locus. Eight sequences showed significant homology to the registered genes in a database. [source]

    Microsatellite markers in soil-feeding termites (Cubitermes subarquatus, Isoptera, Termitidae, Termitinae)

    M. Harry
    Abstract Seven microsatellite markers were isolated from Cubitermes subarquatus belonging to the soil-feeding termite trophic group that plays a key role in tropical rain forests. A variability study performed by using a population of C. subarquatus (n = 73) sampled in the La Lopé forest reserve (Gabon) from 42 nests revealed from 4 to 12 alleles per locus and an heterozygosity from 0.28 to 0.84. Tests for cross-species amplification realized in the sympatric C. intercalatus and in eight other sympatric termite genera indicated a wider application of the primers isolated from Cubitermes in soil-feeding termites. [source]

    Microsatellite variability and its use in the characterization of cultivated clones of Hevea brasiliensis

    PLANT BREEDING, Issue 1 2005
    T. Saha
    Abstract Microsatellite markers were developed and evaluated in Hevea brasiliensis, an important crop species producing natural rubber of commercial utility. Of eight microsatellite markers, four were found to be highly informative, amplifying a total of 19 alleles when evaluated against 27 cultivated Hevea clones/genotypes. Power of discrimination of the microsatellite loci was in the range of 0.62-0.89, with a mean of 0.76 indicating these microsatellites could be valuable genetic markers for diversity characterization. A combination of four microsatellite markers was successfully used to discriminate uniquely all the 27 Hevea clones and some clone-specific allelic profiles were generated. Cross-species amplification of the markers developed in H. brasiliensis had also been demonstrated with two other Hevea species, H. benthamiana and H. spruceana, indicating a high degree of sequence homology at the flanking regions. Sequence analysis of the repeat region at the 3,-UTR of the hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase gene, containing clusters of AG repeats in 15 clones, revealed the existence of two alleles based on the repeat length polymorphisms. Homozygosity as well as heterozygosity for both the alleles had also been detected among the clones. Frequency of homozygotes for the smaller allele (allele-1) was found to be lower than the larger allele (allele-2) among the primary clones of H. brasiliensis. [source]

    Genetic variation in populations of the cacao wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis cacaofunesta

    PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
    C. J. B. Engelbrecht
    Ceratocystis cacaofunesta (= Ceratocystis fimbriata) causes a lethal wilt disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Latin America. Polymorphic microsatellite markers, (CAT)5 nuclear DNA fingerprints and Hae III mitochondrial DNA fingerprints were used to compare genetic diversity among isolates of C. cacaofunesta collected from populations in western Ecuador, Costa Rica, Colombia, and Rondônia and Bahia in Brazil. Microsatellite markers and nuclear DNA fingerprints separated Ecuadorian isolates from isolates of the other four populations, and these two major groups correspond to genetic lineages already identified from ITS-rDNA sequences and intersterility groupings. Mitochondrial DNA fingerprints also demonstrated substantial diversity and split the Ecuadorian isolates into two groups. All marker types showed limited variation in the Colombian, Costa Rican and Bahian populations, as might be expected for introduced populations that have gone through recent genetic bottlenecks. In contrast, the Rondonian and western Ecuadorian populations showed gene diversity values similar to natural populations of other Ceratocystis species. The Rondonian population was the only sampled population in the native range of T. cacao (the Upper Amazon), and the putatively introduced populations were more closely related to the Rondonian population than to the western Ecuadorian population. The Ecuadorian population is in an area with other native Theobroma species, which may serve as natural hosts. [source]

    Construction of integrated genetic linkage maps of the tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) using microsatellite and AFLP markers

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 4 2010
    E.-M. You
    Summary The linkage maps of male and female tiger shrimp (P. monodon) were constructed based on 256 microsatellite and 85 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Microsatellite markers obtained from clone sequences of partial genomic libraries, tandem repeat sequences from databases and previous publications and fosmid end sequences were employed. Of 670 microsatellite and 158 AFLP markers tested for polymorphism, 341 (256 microsatellite and 85 AFLP markers) were used for genotyping with three F1 mapping panels, each comprising two parents and more than 100 progeny. Chi-square goodness-of-fit test (,2) revealed that only 19 microsatellite and 28 AFLP markers showed a highly significant segregation distortion (P < 0.005). Linkage analysis with a LOD score of 4.5 revealed 43 and 46 linkage groups in male and female linkage maps respectively. The male map consisted of 176 microsatellite and 49 AFLP markers spaced every ,11.2 cM, with an observed genome length of 2033.4 cM. The female map consisted of 171 microsatellite and 36 AFLP markers spaced every ,13.8 cM, with an observed genome length of 2182 cM. Both maps shared 136 microsatellite markers, and the alignment between them indicated 38 homologous pairs of linkage groups including the linkage group representing the sex chromosome. The karyotype of P. monodon is also presented. The tentative assignment of the 44 pairs of P. monodon haploid chromosomes showed the composition of forty metacentric, one submetacentric and three acrocentric chromosomes. Our maps provided a solid foundation for gene and QTL mapping in the tiger shrimp. [source]

    Microsatellite markers associated with quantitative trait loci controlling antibody response to Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis in young broilers

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 6 2002
    R. Yunis
    A unique resource population was produced to facilitate detection of microsatellite markers associated with quantitative trait loci controlling antibody (Ab) response in broiler chickens. Three F1 males were produced by mating two lines divergently selected on Ab response to Escherichia coli vaccination. Each F1 male was mated with females from four genetic backgrounds: F1, high-Ab line (HH), low-Ab line and commercial line, producing three resource families, each with four progeny types. About 1700 chicks were immunized with E. coli and Salmonella enteritidis vaccines. Selective genotyping was conducted on the individuals with highest or lowest average Ab to E. coli and S. enteritidis within each progeny type in each sire family. Twelve markers were significantly associated with Ab to E. coli and six of them were also associated with Ab to S. enteritidis, mostly exhibiting a similar low effect (, 0.35 phenotypic SD) in all progeny types. Four markers exhibited a highly significant and much larger effect (,1.7 SD), but only in progeny of females from the HH, suggesting that a backcross to the high parental line should be preferred over the commonly used F2 population. Results from two markers suggested a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 2 around 400 cM. The marker MCW0083, significant in two sire families, is closely linked to the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) gene, known to be associated with the control of T-cell transformation in humans. [source]

    Multiple genotyping in bovine pre-implantation embryos with whole genome amplification

    Hiroki HIRAYAMA
    ABSTRACT This study examined genetic diagnosis using whole genome amplification (WGA) in bovine embryos. The first experiment was conducted to compare the WGA efficiency of primer extension preamplification-PCR (PEP-PCR) and multiple displacement amplification (MDA), and to optimize the DNA extraction method. The sensitivity of SRY -specific PCR from MDA products increased when DNA of fibroblasts was extracted by a NaOH treatment instead of the conventional method (heat treatment). The detectability of SRY from PEP-PCR products was lower than that in MDA regardless of the DNA extraction method (proteinase K or NaOH treatment). Sexing and genotyping were performed using MDA products from embryo biopsy. The accuracy of PCR-based and LAMP-based sexing was 100% regardless of the amounts of biopsy. Genotyping of CL16, BND3, SCD and F11 in MDA products from 10 to 20% of trophectoderm was successful 97, 97, 95 and 95% of the time, respectively, but reduced biopsy amount (<10% of trophectoderm) decreased the accuracies (33,83%). Microsatellite markers were analyzed using MDA products from 10 to 20% of trophectoderm. In eight out of 16 microsatellites, genotypes were not contradictory among the dam, sire and embryos. In the other eight microsatellites, the inconsistency rates were 17,83%. These results indicate that MDA is useful for multiple genetic diagnoses in bovine embryos. [source]

    Functional consequences of a germline mutation in the leucine-rich repeat domain of NLRP3 identified in an atypical autoinflammatory disorder

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 4 2010
    Isabelle Jéru
    Objective To gain insight into the pathophysiology of an atypical familial form of an autoinflammatory disorder, characterized by autosomal-dominant sensorineural hearing loss, systemic inflammation, increased secretion of interleukin-1, (IL-1,), and the absence of any cutaneous manifestations, and to assess the functional consequences of a missense mutation identified in the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain of NLRP3. Methods Microsatellite markers were used to test the familial segregation of the NLRP3 locus with the disease phenotype. All NLRP3 exons were screened for mutations by sequencing. Functional assays were performed in HEK 293T cells to determine the effects of mutated (versus normal) NLRP3 proteins on NF-,B activation, caspase 1 signaling, and speck formation. Results A heterozygous NLRP3 missense mutation (p.Tyr859Cys) was identified in exon 6, which encodes the LRR domain of the protein. This mutation was found to segregate with the disease phenotype within the family, and had a moderate activating effect on speck formation and procaspase 1 processing and did not alter the inhibitory properties of NLRP3 on NF-,B signaling. Conclusion This report is the first to describe a familial form of a cryopyrinopathy associated with a mutation outside of exon 3 of NLRP3. This finding, together with the known efficacy of anti,IL-1 treatments in these disorders, underlines the importance of screening all exons of NLRP3 in patients who present with atypical manifestations. In addition, the gain of function associated with this mutation in terms of activation of caspase 1 signaling was consistent with the observed inflammatory phenotype. Therefore, this study of the functional consequences of an LRR mutation sheds new light on the clinical relevance of in vitro assays. [source]