Metamorphic Rocks (metamorphic + rock)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Metamorphic Rocks

  • high-grade metamorphic rock
  • low-grade metamorphic rock
  • uhp metamorphic rock

  • Selected Abstracts

    40Ar/39Ar Dating of Deformation Events and Reconstruction of Exhumation of Ultrahigh-Pressure Metamorphic Rocks in Donghai, East China

    LI Jinyi
    Abstract Recent investigations reveal that the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) rocks in the Donghai region of East China underwent ductile and transitional ductile-brittle structural events during their exhumation. The earlier ductile deformation took place under the condition of amphibolite facies and the later transitional ductile-brittle deformation under the condition of greenschist facies. The hanging walls moved southeastward during both of these two events. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovites from muscovite-plagioclase schists in the Haizhou phosphorous mine, which are structurally overlain by UHPM rocks, yields a plateau age of 218.02.9 Ma and isochron age of 219.8Ma, indicating that the earlier event of the ampibolite-facies deformation probably took place about 220 Ma ago. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of oriented amphiboles parallel to the movement direction of the hanging wall on a decollement plane yields a plateau age of 213.1 0.3 Ma and isochron age of 213.44.1 Ma, probably representing the age of the later event. The dating of pegmatitic biotites and K-feldspars near the decollement plane from the eastern Fangshan area yield plateau ages of 203.40.3 Ma, 203.60.4 Ma and 204.82.2 Ma, and isochron ages of 204.02.0 Ma, 200.63.1 Ma and 204.05.0 Ma, respectively, implying that the rocks in the studied area had not been cooled down to closing temperature of the dated biotites and K-feldspars until the beginning of the Jurassic (about 204 Ma). The integration of these data with previous chronological ages on the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism lead to a new inference on the exhumation of the UHPM rocks. The UHPM rocks in the area were exhumed at the rate of 3,4 km/Ma from the mantle (about 80,100 km below the earth's surface at about 240 Ma) to the lower crust (at the depth of about 20-30km at 220 Ma), and at the rate of 1,2 km/Ma to the middle crust (at the depth of about 15 km at 213 Ma), and then at the rate of less than 1 km/Ma to the upper crust about 10 km deep at about 204 Ma. [source]

    Contribution of deep-seated bedrock landslides to erosion of a glaciated basin in southern Alaska

    Ann M. Arsenault
    Abstract Landslides represent a key component of catchment-scale denudation, though their relative contribution to the erosion of glaciated basins is not well known. Bedrock landslide contribution was investigated on the surface of one of eleven glaciers on a glaciated ridge in the Chugach-St Elias Range of southern Alaska, where the debris from four major landslides is easily distinguished from moraines and other supraglacial material. A series of aerial and satellite photos from 1972 to 2000 and field observations in 2001 and 2002 indicate that three of four landslides have fallen onto the surface of the glacier since about 1978. The landslides, which originated from the steeply dipping (60,70) bedrock walls, were deposited onto the glacier in the ablation zone and are currently being transported downstream supraglacially. Individual glacial valleys with topographic relief of ,400 m are cut into high-grade metamorphic rock characterized by a steep north-dipping foliation and fractured by numerous large joints. Measurements of landslide area and average thickness obtained from high-resolution survey data indicate a total landslide volume of ,23 105 m3. This volume suggests a basin-averaged erosion rate from landslides of 048 mm a,1. An overall basin-scale erosion rate of 07 to 17 mm a,1 can be inferred, but depends on the percentage of the total-basin sediment yield contributed by supraglacial sources. A mean rockwall retreat rate of 67 mm a,1 is calculated and is considerably higher than published rates, which range from 004 to 40 mm a,1. Controls on landslide generation include seismicity, freeze,thaw processes, topography, rock strength, and debuttressing. It is likely all of these factors contribute to failure, although the primary controls for the landslides in this study are thought to be rock strength and topography. The absence of landslides on ten of the eleven glaciers on this ridge is attributed to landslide magnitude,frequency relationships and short temporal scale of this study. Large-volume bedrock landslides (>100 000 m3) may have low frequency, occurring less than once in a 55-year time frame. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Amphibolite and blueschist,greenschist facies metamorphism, Blue Mountain inlier, eastern Jamaica

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 5 2008
    Richard N. Abbott Jr
    Abstract Cretaceous (possibly older) metamorphic rock occurs mainly in the Blue Mountain inlier in eastern Jamaica. Fault-bounded blocks reveal two styles of metamorphism, Westphalia Schist (upper amphibolite facies) and Mt. Hibernia Schist (blueschist (BS),greenschist (GS) facies). Both Westphalia Schist and Mt. Hibernia Schist preserve detailed records of retrograde P,T paths. The paths are independent, but consistent with different parts of the type-Sanbagawa metamorphic facies series in Japan. For each path, phase relationships and estimated P,T conditions support a two-stage P,T history involving residence at depth, followed by rapid uplift and cooling. Conditions of residence vary depending on the level in a tectonic block. For the critical mineral reaction (isograd) in Westphalia Schist, conditions were P ,7.5,kbars, T ,600C (upper amphibolite facies). Retrograde conditions in Hibernia Schist were P,=,2.6,3.0,kbars, T,=,219,237C for a(H2O),=,0.8,1.0 (GS facies). Mt. Hibernia Schist may represent a volume of rock that was separated and uplifted at an early time from an otherwise protracted P,T path of the sort that produced the Westphalia Schist. Reset K,Ar ages for hornblende and biotite indicate only that retrograde metamorphism of Westphalia Schist took place prior to 76.5,Ma (pre-Campanian). Uplift may have commenced with an Albian,Aptian (,112,Ma) orogenic event. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Shallow velocity structure along the Hirapur,Mandla profile using traveltime inversion of wide-angle seismic data, and its tectonic implications

    Kalachand Sain
    In order to investigate the velocity structure, and hence shed light on the related tectonics, across the Narmada,Son lineament, traveltimes of wide-angle seismic data along the 240 km long Hirapur,Mandla profile in central India have been inverted. A blocky, laterally heterogeneous, three-layer velocity model down to a depth of 10 km has been derived. The first layer shows a maximum thickness of the upper Vindhyans (4.5 km s,1,) of about 1.35 km and rests on top of normal crystalline basement, represented by the 5.9 km s,1 velocity layer. The anomalous feature of the study is the absence of normal granitic basement in the great Vindhyan Graben, where lower Vindhyan sediments (5.3 km s,1,) were deposited during the Precambrian on high-velocity (6.3 km s,1,) metamorphic rock. The block beneath the Narmada,Son lineament represents a horst feature in which high-velocity (6.5 km s,1,) lower crustal material has risen to a depth of less than 2 km. South of the lineament, the Deccan Traps were deposited on normal basement during the upper Cretaceous period and attained a maximum thickness of about 800 m. [source]

    A comparison of cross-hole electrical and seismic data in fractured rock

    J.V. Herwanger
    ABSTRACT Cross-hole anisotropic electrical and seismic tomograms of fractured metamorphic rock have been obtained at a test site where extensive hydrological data were available. A strong correlation between electrical resistivity anisotropy and seismic compressional-wave velocity anisotropy has been observed. Analysis of core samples from the site reveal that the shale-rich rocks have fabric-related average velocity anisotropy of between 10% and 30%. The cross-hole seismic data are consistent with these values, indicating that observed anisotropy might be principally due to the inherent rock fabric rather than to the aligned sets of open fractures. One region with velocity anisotropy greater than 30% has been modelled as aligned open fractures within an anisotropic rock matrix and this model is consistent with available fracture density and hydraulic transmissivity data from the boreholes and the cross-hole resistivity tomography data. However, in general the study highlights the uncertainties that can arise, due to the relative influence of rock fabric and fluid-filled fractures, when using geophysical techniques for hydrological investigations. [source]

    Reaction-induced nucleation and growth v. grain coarsening in contact metamorphic, impure carbonates

    Abstract The understanding of the evolution of microstructures in a metamorphic rock requires insights into the nucleation and growth history of individual grains, as well as the coarsening processes of the entire aggregate. These two processes are compared in impure carbonates from the contact metamorphic aureole of the Adamello pluton (N-Italy). As a function of increasing distance from the pluton contact, the investigated samples have peak metamorphic temperatures ranging from the stability field of diopside/tremolite down to diagenetic conditions. All samples consist of calcite as the dominant matrix phase, but additionally contain variable amounts of other minerals, the so-called second phases. These second phases are mostly silicate minerals and can be described in a KCMASHC system (K2O, CaO, MgO, Al2O3, SiO2, H2O, CO2), but with variable K/Mg ratios. The modelled and observed metamorphic evolution of these samples are combined with the quantification of the microstructures, i.e. mean grain sizes and crystal size distributions. Growth of the matrix phase and second phases strongly depends on each other owing to coupled grain coarsening. The matrix phase is controlled by the interparticle distances between the second phases, while the second phases need the matrix grain boundary network for mass transfer processes during both grain coarsening and mineral reactions. Interestingly, similar final mean grain sizes of primary second phase and second phases newly formed by nucleation are observed, although the latter formed later but at higher temperatures. Moreover, different kinetic processes, attributed to different driving forces for growth of the newly nucleated grains in comparison with coarsening processes of the pre-existing phases, must have been involved. Chemically induced driving forces of grain growth during reactions are orders of magnitudes larger compared to surface energy, allowing new reaction products subjected to fast growth rates to attain similar grain sizes as phases which underwent long-term grain coarsening. In contrast, observed variations in grain size of the same mineral in samples with a similar T,t history indicate that transport properties depend not only on the growth and coarsening kinetics of the second phases but also on the microstructure of the dominant matrix phase during coupled grain coarsening. Resulting microstructural phenomena such as overgrowth and therefore preservation of former stable minerals by the matrix phase may provide new constraints on the temporal variation of microstructures and provide a unique source for the interpretation of the evolution of metamorphic microstructures. [source]

    Deformation during exhumation of medium- and high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Variscan chain in northern Sardinia (Italy)

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
    Rodolfo Carosi
    Abstract The Anglona and SW Gallura regions represent key places to investigate the tectonic evolution of medium- and high-grade metamorphic rocks cropping out in northern Sardinia (Italy). From south to north we distinguish two different metamorphic complexes recording similar deformation histories but different metamorphic evolution: the Medium Grade Metamorphic Complex (MGMC) and the High Grade Metamorphic Complex (HGMC). After the initial collisional stage (D1 deformation phase), both complexes were affected by three contractional deformational phases (D2, D3 and D4) followed by later extensional tectonics. The D2 deformation phase was the most significant event producing an important deformation partitioning that produced localized shearing and folding domains at the boundary between the two metamorphic complexes. We highlight the presence of two previously undocumented systems of shear belts with different kinematics but analogous orientation in the axial zone of Sardinia. They became active at the boundary between the MGMC and HGMC from the beginning of D2. They formed a transpressive regime responsible for the exhumation of the medium- and high-grade metamorphic rocks, and overall represent a change from orthogonal to orogen-parallel tectonic transport. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Fluid evolution in base-metal sulphide mineral deposits in the metamorphic basement rocks of southwest Scotland and Northern Ireland

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2005
    Martin Baron
    Abstract The Dalradian and Ordovician,Silurian metamorphic basement rocks of southwest Scotland and Northern Ireland host a number of base-metal sulphide-bearing vein deposits associated with kilometre-scale fracture systems. Fluid inclusion microthermometric analysis reveals two distinct fluid types are present at more than half of these deposits. The first is an H2O,CO2,salt fluid, which was probably derived from devolatilization reactions during Caledonian metamorphism. This stage of mineralization in Dalradian rocks was associated with base-metal deposition and occurred at temperatures between 220 and 360C and pressures of between 1.6 and 1.9,kbar. Caledonian mineralization in Ordovician,Silurian metamorphic rocks occurred at temperatures between 300 and 360C and pressures between 0.6 and 1.9,kbar. A later, probably Carboniferous, stage of mineralization was associated with base-metal sulphide deposition and involved a low to moderate temperature (Th 70 to 240C), low to moderate salinity (0 to 20,wt% NaCl eq.), H2O,salt fluid. The presence of both fluids at many of the deposits shows that the fractures hosting the deposits acted as long-term controls for fluid migration and the location of Caledonian metalliferous fluids as well as Carboniferous metalliferous fluids. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Origin, age and petrogenesis of Neoproterozoic composite dikes from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, SW Jordan

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 2 2004
    G. Jarrar
    Abstract The evolution of a Pan-African (c. 900,550,Ma) suite of composite dikes, with latite margins and rhyolite interiors, from southwest Jordan is discussed. The dikes cut the Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline granitoids and high-grade metamorphic rocks (c. 800,600,Ma) of the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield in Jordan and have been dated by the Rb-Sr isochron method at 5667,Ma. The symmetrically distributed latite margins constitute less than one-quarter of the whole dike thickness. The rhyolite intruded a median fracture within the latite, while the latter was still hot but completely solidified. The dikes are alkaline and bimodal in composition with a gap in SiO2 between 61 and 74,wt%. Both end members display similar chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns. The rhyolites display the compositional signature of A-type granites. The (La/Lu)N values are 6.02 and 4.91 for latites and rhyolites, respectively, and the rhyolites show a pronounced negative Eu anomaly, in contrast to the slight negative Eu anomaly of the latites. The chemical variability (e.g. Zr/Y, Zr/Nb, K/Rb) within and between latites and rhyolites does not support a fractional crystallization relationship between the felsic and mafic members of the dikes. We interpret the magma genesis of the composite dikes as the result of intrusion of mantle-derived mafic magma into the lower crust in an extensional tectonic regime. The mafic magma underwent extensive fractional crystallization, which supplied the necessary heat for melting of the lower crust. The products of the initial stages of partial melting (5,10%) mixed with the fractionating mafic magma and gave rise to the latite melts. Further partial melting of the lower crust (up to 30%) produced a felsic melt, which upon 50% fractional crystallization (hornblende 15%, biotite 5%, feldspars 60%, and quartz 20%) gave rise to the rhyolitic magma. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Geophysical exploration for interlayer slip breccia gold deposits: example from Pengjiakuang gold deposit, Shandong Province, China

    Z. Qingdong
    ABSTRACT Interlayer slipping breccia-type gold deposit , a new type of gold deposit, defined recently in the northern margin of the Jiaolai Basin, Shandong Province, China , occurs in interlayer slip faults distributed along the basin margin. It has the features of large orebody thickness (ranging from 14 m to 46 m, with an average thickness of 30 m), shallow embedding (0,50 m thickness of cover), low tenor of gold ore (ranging from 3 g/t to 5 g/t), easy mining and ore dressing. This type of gold deposit has promising metallogenic forecasting and potential for economic exploitation. A ground gamma-ray survey in the Pengjiakuang gold-ore district indicates that the potassium/thorium ratio is closely related to the mineralization intensity, i.e. the larger the potassium/thorium ratio, the higher the mineralization. The gold mineralized alteration zone was defined by a potassium/thorium ratio of 0.35. A seismic survey confirms the location of the top and bottom boundaries and images various features within the Pengjiakuang gold mineralization belt. The gold-bearing shovel slipped belt dips to the south at an angle of 50,55 at the surface and 15,20 at depth. The seismic profile is interpreted in terms of a structural band on the seismic section characterized by a three-layered model. The upper layer is represented by weakly discontinuous reflections that represent the overlying conglomerates. A zone of stronger reflections representing the interlayer slip fault (gold-bearing mineralized zone) is imaged within the middle of the section, while the strongest reflections are in the lower part of the section and represent metamorphic rocks at depth. At the same time, the seismic reflection survey confirms the existence of a granite body at depth, indicating that ore-forming fluids may be related to the granite. A CSAMT survey showed that the gold-bearing mineralized zone is a conductive layer and contains a low-resistivity anomaly ranging from 2 ,m to 200 ,m. [source]

    Radon (222Rn) in Ground Water of Fractured Rocks: A Diffusion/Ion Exchange Model

    GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2004
    Warren W. Wood
    Ground waters from fractured igneous and high-grade sialic metamorphic rocks frequently have elevated activity of dissolved radon (222Rn). A chemically based model is proposed whereby radium (226Ra) from the decay of uranium (238U) diffuses through the primary porosity of the rock to the water-transmitting fracture where it is sorbed on weathering products. Sorption of 226Ra on the fracture surface maintains an activity gradient in the rock matrix, ensuring a continuous supply of 226Ra to fracture surfaces. As a result of the relatively long half-life of 226Ra (1601 years), significant activity can accumulate on fracture surfaces. The proximity of this sorbed 226Ra to the active ground water flow system allows its decay progeny 222Rn to enter directly into the water. Laboratory analyses of primary porosity and diffusion coefficients of the rock matrix, radon emanation, and ion exchange at fracture surfaces are consistent with the requirements of a diffusion/ion-exchange model. A dipole-brine injection/withdrawal experiment conducted between bedrock boreholes in the high-grade metamorphic and granite rocks at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States (4256,N, 7143,W) shows a large activity of 226Ra exchanged from fracture surfaces by a magnesium brine. The 226Ra activity removed by the exchange process is 34 times greater than that of 238U activity. These observations are consistent with the diffusion/ion-exchange model. Elutriate isotopic ratios of 223Ra/226Ra and 238U/226Ra are also consistent with the proposed chemically based diffusion/ion-exchange model. [source]

    Parentage of low-grade metasediments in the Sanbagawa belt, eastern Shikoku, Southwest Japan, and its geotectonic implications

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2010
    Kazuo KiminamiArticle first published online: 19 AUG 2010
    Abstract This study examines the geology of low-grade (chlorite zone) metamorphic rocks in the Sanbagawa belt and of a Jurassic accretionary complex in the Northern Chichibu belt, eastern Shikoku, Japan. The bulk chemistries of metasandstones and metapelites in the Sanbagawa belt of eastern Shikoku are examined in order to determine their parentage. The Sanbagawa belt can be divided into northern and southern parts based on lithology and geologic structure. Geochemical data indicate that metasediments in the northern and southern parts are the metamorphic equivalents of the KS-II (Coniacian,Campanian) and KS-I (late Albian,early Coniacian) units of the Shimanto belt, respectively. The depositional ages of the parent sediments of low-grade metamorphic rocks found in the Sanbagawa belt and the Jurassic Northern Chichibu belt, indicate a north-younging polarity. In contrast, sedimentological evidence indicates younging to the south. These observations suggest that a tectonic event has resulted in a change from a northerly to southerly dip direction for schistosity and bedding in the Sanbagawa and Northern Chichibu belts of eastern Shikoku. The younging polarity observed in the Sanbagawa and Northern Chichibu belts, together with previously reported data on vitrinite reflectance and geological structure, indicate that the Northern Chichibu belt was part of the overburden formerly lying on top of the Sanbagawa low-grade metamorphic rocks. [source]

    Role of southeastern Sanandaj,Sirjan Zone in the tectonic evolution of Zagros Orogenic Belt, Iran

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 4 2009
    Ramin Arfania
    Abstract Geological studies indicate that the southeastern Sanandaj,Sirjan Zone, located in the southeastern Zagros Orogenic Belt, is subdivided transversally into the Esfahan,Sirjan Block with typical Central Iranian stratigraphic features and the Shahrekord,Dehsard Terrane consisting of Paleozoic and Lower Mesozoic metamorphic rocks. The Main Deep Fault (Abadeh Fault) is a major lithospheric fault separating the two parts. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the role of the southeastern Sanandaj,Sirjan Zone in the tectonic evolution of the southeastern Zagros Orogenic Belt on the basis of geological evidence. The new model implies that Neo-Tethys 1 came into being when the Central Iran Microcontinent split from the northeastern margin of Gondwana during the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian. During the Late Triassic a new spreading ridge, Neo-Tethys 2, was created to separate the Shahrekord,Dehsard Terrane from Afro,Arabian Plate. The Zagros sedimentary basin was formed on a continental passive margin, southwest of Neo-Tethys 2. The two ophiolitic belts of Naien,Shahrebabak,Baft and Neyriz were developed to the northeast of Neo-Tethys 1 and southwest of Neo-Tethys 2 respectively, related to the sinking of the lithosphere of the Neo-Tethys 1 in the Late Cretaceous. It can be concluded that deposition of the Paleocene conglomerate on the Central Iran Microcontinent and Pliocene conglomerate in the Zagros Sedimentary Basin is directly linked to the uplift generated by collision. [source]

    Textural varieties in the Indochinese metamorphic rocks: A key for understanding Asian tectonics

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2008
    Nobuhiko Nakano
    First page of article [source]

    Mass movements caused by recent tectonic activity: The 1999 Chi-chi earthquake in central Taiwan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 4 2003
    Wen-Neng Wang
    Abstract The Chi-chi earthquake (MS = 7.7), which occurred in September 1999, seriously damaged central Taiwan. Approximately 2 years later (July 2001), the Toraji typhoon brought a heavy rainstorm (650 mm rain/day) and triggered widespread landslides in central Taiwan and parts of eastern Taiwan. Approximately 10 000 Chi-chi earthquake-induced landslides and 6000 Toraji typhoon-related mass movements were delineated in an area of 2400 km2 using Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT; French earth resource satellite) images. The landslide distribution could be closely related to the distribution of peak ground acceleration registered during the Chi-chi earthquake. The study area was composed of Tertiary sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, whose age and induration increased eastward. The earthquake-induced landslides were mostly distributed in the region between the Chelungpu Fault and the Lishan Fault to the east, whereas they were few in the region east of the Lishan Fault. The Toraji typhoon in 2001 severely damaged both regions that had been shattered by the Chi-chi earthquake in 1999. The occurrence of earthquake-induced landslides can be correlated with epicentral distance, and their occurrence has more influence from the rock type than from the ground motion. [source]

    Cooling and inferred exhumation history of the Ryoke metamorphic belt in the Yanai district, south-west Japan: Constraints from Rb,Sr and fission-track ages of gneissose granitoid and numerical modeling

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 2 2001
    Takamoto Okudaira
    Abstract The Ryoke metamorphic belt in south-west Japan consists mainly of I-type granitoids and associated low-pressure/high-temperature metamorphic rocks. In the Yanai district, it has been divided into three structural units: northern, central and southern units. In this study, we measured the Rb,Sr whole-rock,mineral isochron ages and fission-track ages of the gneissose granodiorite in the central structural unit. Four Rb,Sr ages fall in a range of ca 89,87 Ma. The fission-track ages of zircon and apatite are 68.9 2.6 Ma and 57.4 2.5 Ma (1, error), respectively. Combining the newly obtained ages with previously reported (Th,)U,Pb ages from the same unit, thermochronologic study revealed two distinctive cooling stages; 1) a rapid cooling (> 40C/Myr) for a period (~7 Myr) soon after the peak metamorphism (~ 95 Ma) and 2) the subsequent slow cooling stage (~ 5C/Myr) after ca 88 Ma. The first rapid cooling stage corresponds to thermal relaxation of the intruded granodiorite magma and its associated metamorphic rocks, and to the uplift by a displacement along low-angle faults which initiated soon after the intrusion of the magma. Uplift by the later stage deformation having formed large-scale upright folds resulted in progress of the exhumation during the first stage. The average exhumation velocity of the stage is , 2 mm/yr. During the second stage, the rocks were not accompanied by ductile deformation and were exhumed with the rate of 0.1,0.2 mm/yr. The difference in the exhumation velocity between the first and second cooling stages resulted from the difference in the thickness of the crust and in the activity of ductile deformation between the early and later stages of the orogenesis. [source]

    Geology of the Kokchetav UHP-HP metamorphic belt, Northern Kazakhstan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2000
    Y. Kaneko
    Abstract Ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) rocks of the Kokchetav Massif of Kazakhstan contain metamorphic microdiamond and coesite inclusions inside rigid capsules such as garnet and zircon. Precambrian protoliths of the UHPM rocks were metamorphosed at around 530 Ma, at pressures of about 7 GPa, which suggests that crustal protoliths were subducted to depths of over 200 km. Primary UHPM minerals are poorly preserved due to partial obliteration by subsequent Barrovian overprint during exhumation and later collision events in Caledonian times. We report the results of detailed mapping of the Kokchetav Massif and use structural data to propose intrusion and exhumation mechanisms for the UHPM rocks. Detailed mapping revealed that many subvertical structures in the ultrahigh-pressure,high-pressure (UHP,HP) units were formed due to later folding. The primary structure appears to be subhorizontal and the total thickness of the UHP rocks is estimated at around 2 km. The first order structure is sandwich-like; that is, the UHP,HP units are separated from underlying low-P metamorphic rocks of the Daulet Series and from feebly metamorphosed to unmetamorphosed sedimentary strata on the top by subhorizontal faults. Kinematic indicators show top-to-the-south sense of shear along the top, and top-to-the-north displacement along the bottom boundaries. These shear senses, together with the observed metamorphic gradients, suggest that the thin UHPM sheet was extruded toward the north. We consider wedge extrusion to have been the most effective mechanism for the exhumation of the UHPM rocks. [source]

    Overview of the geology, petrology and tectonic framework of the high-pressure,ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt of the Kokchetav Massif, Kazakhstan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2000
    S. Maruyama
    Abstract High- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (HP,UHPM) rocks crop out over 150 km along an east,west axis in the Kokchetav Massif of northern Kazakhstan. They are disposed within the Massif as a 2 km thick, subhorizontal pile of sheet-like nappes, predominantly composed of interlayered pelitic and psammitic schists and gneisses, amphibolite and orthogneiss, with discontinuous boudins and lenses of eclogite, dolomitic marble, whiteschist and garnet pyroxenite. On the basis of predominating lithologies, we subdivided the nappe group into four north-dipping, fault-bounded orogen-parallel units (I,IV, from base to top). Constituent metabasic rocks exhibit a systematic progression of metamorphic grades, from high-pressure amphibolite through quartz,eclogite and coesite,eclogite to diamond,eclogite facies. Coesite, diamond and other mineral inclusions within zircon offer the best means by which to clarify the regional extent of UHPM, as they are effectively sequestered from the effects of fluids during retrogression. Inclusion distribution and conventional geothermobarometric determinations demonstrate that the highest grade metamorphic rocks (Unit II: T = 780,1000C, P = 37,60 kbar) are restricted to a medial position within the nappe group, and metamorphic grade decreases towards both the top (Unit III: T = 730,750C, P = 11,14 kbar; Unit IV: T = 530C, P = 7.5,9 kbar) and bottom (Unit I: T = 570,680C; P = 7,13.5 kbar). Metamorphic zonal boundaries and internal structural fabrics are subhorizontal, and the latter exhibit opposing senses of shear at the bottom (top-to-the-north) and top (top-to-the-south) of the pile. The orogen-scale architecture of the massif is sandwich-like, with the HP,UHPM nappe group juxtaposed across large-scale subhorizontal faults, against underlying low P,T metapelites (Daulet Suite) at the base, and overlying feebly metamorphosed clastic and carbonate rocks (Unit V). The available structural and petrologic data strongly suggest that the HP,UHPM rocks were extruded as a sequence of thin sheets, from a root zone in the south toward the foreland in the north, and juxtaposed into the adjacent lower-grade units at shallow crustal levels of around 10 km. The nappe pile suffered considerable differential internal displacements, as the 2 km thick sequence contains rocks exhumed from depths of up to 200 km in the core, and around 30,40 km at the margins. Consequently, wedge extrusion, perhaps triggered by slab-breakoff, is the most likely tectonic mechanism to exhume the Kokchetav HP,UHPM rocks. [source]

    Provenance of sandstones from the Wakino Subgroup of the Lower Cretaceous Kanmon Group, northern Kyushu, Japan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2000
    Daniel K. Asiedu
    Abstract The Wakino Subgroup is a lower stratigraphic unit of the Lower Cretaceous Kanmon Group. Previous studies on provenance of Wakino sediments have mainly concentrated on either petrography of major framework grains or bulk rock geochemistry of shales. This study addresses the provenance of the Wakino sandstones by integrating the petrographic, bulk rock geochemistry, and mineral chemistry approaches. The proportions of framework grains of the Wakino sandstones suggest derivation from either a single geologically heterogeneous source terrane or multiple source areas. Major source lithologies are granitic rocks and high-grade metamorphic rocks but notable amounts of detritus were also derived from felsic, intermediate and mafic volcanic rocks, older sedimentary rocks, and ophiolitic rocks. The heavy mineral assemblage include, in order of decreasing abundance: opaque minerals (ilmenite and magnetite with minor rutile), zircon, garnet, chromian spinel, aluminum silicate mineral (probably andalusite), rutile, epidote, tourmaline and pyroxene. Zircon morphology suggests its derivation from granitic rocks. Chemistry of chromian spinel indicates that the chromian spinel grains were derived from the ultramafic cumulate member of an ophiolite suite. Garnet and ilmenite chemistry suggests their derivation from metamorphic rocks of the epidote-amphibolite to upper amphibolite facies though other source rocks cannot be discounted entirely. Major and trace element data for the Wakino sediments suggest their derivation from igneous and/or metamorphic rocks of felsic composition. The major element compositions suggest that the type of tectonic environment was of an active continental margin. The trace element data indicate that the sediments were derived from crustal rocks with a minor contribution from mantle-derived rocks. The trace element data further suggest that recycled sedimentary rocks are not major contributors of detritus. It appears that the granitic and metamorphic rocks of the Precambrian Ryongnam Massif in South Korea were the major contributors of detritus to the Wakino basin. A minor but significant amount of detritus was derived from the basement rocks of the Akiyoshi and Sangun Terrane. The chromian spinel appears to have been derived from a missing terrane though the ultramafic rocks in the Ogcheon Belt cannot be discounted. [source]

    Influence of ferric iron on the stability of mineral assemblages

    J. F. A. DIENER
    Abstract Ferric iron is present in all metamorphic rocks and has the ability to significantly affect their phase relations. However, the influence of ferric iron has commonly been ignored, or at least not been considered quantitatively, mainly because its abundance in rocks and minerals is not determined by routine analytical techniques. Mineral equilibria calculations that explicitly account for ferric iron can be used to examine its effect on the phase relations in rocks and, in principle, allow the estimation of the oxidation state of rocks. This is illustrated with calculated pseudosections in NCKFMASHTO for mafic and pelitic rock compositions. In addition, it is shown that ferric iron has the capacity to significantly increase the stability of the corundum + quartz assemblage, making it possible for this assemblage to exist at crustal P,T conditions in oxidized rocks of appropriate composition. [source]

    P,T,t path of the Hercynian low-pressure rocks from the Mandatoriccio complex (Sila Massif, Calabria, Italy): new insights for crustal evolution

    Abstract The tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Hercynian intermediate,upper crust outcropping in eastern Sila (Calabria, Italy) has been reconstructed, integrating microstructural analysis, P,T pseudosections, mineral isopleths and geochronological data. The studied rocks belong to a nearly complete crustal section that comprises granulite facies metamorphic rocks at the base and granitoids in the intermediate levels. Clockwise P,T paths have been constrained for metapelites of the basal level of the intermediate,upper crust (Umbriatico area). These rocks show noticeable porphyroblastic textures documenting the progressive change from medium- P metamorphic assemblages (garnet- and staurolite-bearing assemblages) towards low- P/high -T metamorphic assemblages (fibrolite- and cordierite-bearing assemblages). Peak-metamorphic conditions of ,590 C and 0.35 GPa are estimated by integrating microstructural observations with P,T pseudosections calculated for bulk-rock and reaction-domain compositions. The top level of the intermediate,upper crust (Campana area) recorded only the major heating phase at low- P (,550 C and 0.25 GPa), as documented by the static growth of biotite spots and of cordierite and andalusite porphyroblasts in metapelites. In situ U,Th,Pb dating of monazite from schists containing low -P/high -T metamorphic assemblages gave a weighted mean U,Pb concordia age of 299 3 Ma, which has been interpreted as the timing of peak metamorphism. In the framework of the whole Hercynian crustal section the peak of low -P/high -T metamorphism in the intermediate-to-upper crust took place concurrently with granulite facies metamorphism in the lower crust and with emplacement of the granitoids in the intermediate levels. In addition, decompression is a distinctive trait of the P,T evolution both in the lower and upper crust. It is proposed that post,collisional extension, together with exhumation, is the most suitable tectonic setting in which magmatic and metamorphic processes can be active simultaneously in different levels of the continental crust. [source]

    The formation of foliated (garnet-bearing) granites in the Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt: partial melting of subducted continental crust during exhumation

    L. ZHANG
    Abstract Foliated (garnet-bearing) (FGB) granites are associated closely with and are usually the major wall rocks of the high-pressure (HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks in the Tongbai-Dabie region, the mid segment of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in central China. These granites appear either as small plutons or as veins, which commonly intrude into or surround the HP and UHP metamorphic eclogites or gneisses. The veins of FGB granites usually penetrate into the retrograded eclogites or gneisses along the foliations. Condensation rims can occasionally be found along the margins of granite veins. These granites are rich in Si and alkali with high Ga/Al ratios, and depleted in Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Sc, V, Ni, Co, Cr and Sr, which are similar to A-type granites. In a chondrite normalized diagram, the samples are light rare earth elements enriched with different extent of negative Eu anomaly. Moreover, Rb, Nb, Ta, Sr, P and Ti show different degrees of negative anomalies, whereas Ba, K, La, Zr and Hf show positive anomalies in the primitive mantle normalized diagram. Negative anomalies of Eu and Sr indicate strong influence of plagioclase. In conventional discrimination diagrams, these FGB granites belong to the A-type granite, with geochemical characteristics affinitive to post-collisional granites. The ,Nd (230 Ma) values (,15.80 to ,2.52) and TDM values (1.02,2.07 Ga) suggest that magma for the FGB granites were derived from a heterogeneous crustal source. Therefore, the FGB granites may provide clues for deciphering the formation of post-collisional granites. It is proposed that the magma of the FGB granites both in the HP and UHP units was formed in an extensional tectonic setting slightly post-dating the HP and UHP metamorphism, most likely as a result of decompressional partial melting of UHP retrograded eclogites during exhumation. [source]

    Microfabric of folded quartz veins in metagreywackes: dislocation creep and subgrain rotation at high stress

    Abstract The microfabrics of folded quartz veins in fine-grained high pressure,low temperature metamorphic greywackes of the Franciscan Subduction Complex at Pacheco Pass, California, were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy including electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The foliated host metagreywacke is deformed by dissolution,precipitation creep, as indicated by the shape preferred orientation of mica and clastic quartz without any signs of crystal-plastic deformation. The absence of crystal-plastic deformation of clastic quartz suggests that the flow stress in the host metagreywacke remained below a few tens of MPa at temperatures of 250,300 C. In contrast, the microfabric of the folded quartz veins indicates deformation by dislocation creep accompanied by subgrain rotation recrystallization. For the small recrystallized grain size of ,8 6 ,m, paleopiezometers indicate differential stresses of a few hundred MPa. The stress concentration in the single phase quartz vein is interpreted to be due to its higher effective viscosity compared to the fine-grained host metagreywacke deforming by dissolution,precipitation creep. The fold shape suggests a viscosity contrast of one to two orders of magnitude. Deformation by dissolution,precipitation creep is expected to be a continuous process. The same must hold for folding of the vein and deformation of the vein quartz by dislocation creep. The microfabric suggests dynamic recrystallization predominantly by subgrain rotation and only minor strain-induced grain boundary migration, which requires low contrasts in dislocation density across high-angle grain boundaries to be maintained during climb-controlled creep at high differential stress. The record of quartz in these continuously deformed veins is characteristic and different from the record in metamorphic rocks exhumed in seismically active regions, where high-stress deformation at similar temperatures is episodic and related to the seismic cycle. [source]

    Constraints on the early metamorphic evolution of Broken Hill, Australia, from in situ U-Pb dating and REE geochemistry of monazite

    C. R. M. McFARLANE
    Abstract The Broken Hill Pb-Zn deposit, New South Wales Australia, is hosted in granulite facies gneisses of the Southern Curnamona Province (SCP) that have long been known to record a polydeformational and polymetamorphic history. The details of this potentially prolonged tectonothermal history have remained poorly understood because of a historical emphasis on conventional (i.e. grain mount) U-Pb zircon geochronology to reveal details of the sedimentary, magmatic and metamorphic history of the rock that crops out in the vicinity of the city of Broken Hill. An alternative approach to unravelling the metamorphic history of the granulite facies gneisses in and around Broken Hill is to date accessory minerals, such as monazite, that participate in sub-solidus metamorphic reactions. We have taken advantage of the high spatial resolution and high sensitivity afforded by SHRIMP monazite geochronology to reconstruct the early history of the metamorphic rocks at Broken Hill. In contrast to previous studies, in situ analysis of monazite grains preserved in their original textural context in polished thin sections is used. Guided by electron microprobe X-ray maps, SHRIMP U-Pb dates for three distinct monazite compositional domains record pulses of monazite growth at c. 1657 Ma, c.1630 Ma and c.1602 Ma. It is demonstrated that these ages correspond to monazite growth during lower amphibolite facies, upper amphibolite facies and granulite facies metamorphism, respectively. It is speculated that this progressive heating of the SCP crust may have been driven by inversion of the upper crust during the Olarian Orogeny that was pre-heated by magmatic underplating at c.1657 Ma. [source]

    Late Cretaceous blueschist facies metamorphism in southern Thrace (Turkey) and its geodynamic implications

    G. TOPUZ
    Abstract A blueschist facies tectonic sliver, 9 km long and 1 km wide, crops out within the Miocene clastic rocks bounded by the strands of the North Anatolian Fault zone in southern Thrace, NW Turkey. Two types of blueschist facies rock assemblages occur in the sliver: (i) A serpentinite body with numerous dykes of incipient blueschist facies metadiabase (ii) a well-foliated and thoroughly recrystallized rock assemblage consisting of blueschist, marble and metachert. Both are partially enveloped by an Upper Eocene wildflysch, which includes olistoliths of serpentinite,metadiabase, Upper Cretaceous and Palaeogene pelagic limestone, Upper Eocene reefal limestone, radiolarian chert, quartzite and minor greenschist. Field relations in combination with the bore core data suggest that the tectonic sliver forms a positive flower structure within the Miocene clastic rocks in a transpressional strike,slip setting, and represents an uplifted part of the pre-Eocene basement. The blueschists are represented by lawsonite,glaucophane-bearing assemblages equilibrated at 270,310 C and ,0.8 GPa. The metadiabase dykes in the serpentinite, on the other hand, are represented by pumpellyite,glaucophane,lawsonite-assemblages that most probably equilibrated below 290 C and at 0.75 GPa. One metadiabase olistolith in the Upper Eocene flysch sequence contains the mineral assemblage epidote + pumpellyite + glaucophane, recording P,T conditions of 290,350 C and 0.65,0.78 GPa, indicative of slightly lower depths and different thermal setting. Timing of the blueschist facies metamorphism is constrained to c. 86 Ma (Coniacian/Santonian) by Rb,Sr phengite,whole rock and incremental 40Ar,39Ar phengite dating on blueschists. The activity of the strike,slip fault post-dates the blueschist facies metamorphism and exhumation, and is only responsible for the present outcrop pattern and post-Miocene exhumation (,2 km). The high- P/T metamorphic rocks of southern Thrace and the Biga Peninsula are located to the southeast of the Circum Rhodope Belt and indicate Late Cretaceous subduction and accretion under the northern continent, i.e. the Rhodope Massif, enveloped by the Circum Rhodope Belt. The Late Cretaceous is therefore a time of continued accretionary growth of this continental domain. [source]

    Ultrahigh-pressure eclogite transformed from mafic granulite in the Dabie orogen, east-central China

    Y.-C. LIU
    Abstract Although ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks are present in many collisional orogenic belts, almost all exposed UHP metamorphic rocks are subducted upper or felsic lower continental crust with minor mafic boudins. Eclogites formed by subduction of mafic lower continental crust have not been identified yet. Here an eclogite occurrence that formed during subduction of the mafic lower continental crust in the Dabie orogen, east-central China is reported. At least four generations of metamorphic mineral assemblages can be discerned: (i) hypersthene + plagioclase garnet; (ii) omphacite + garnet + rutile + quartz; (iii) symplectite stage of garnet + diopside + hypersthene + ilmenite + plagioclase; (iv) amphibole + plagioclase + magnetite, which correspond to four metamorphic stages: (a) an early granulite facies, (b) eclogite facies, (c) retrograde metamorphism of high-pressure granulite facies and (d) retrograde metamorphism of amphibolite facies. Mineral inclusion assemblages and cathodoluminescence images show that zircon is characterized by distinctive domains of core and a thin overgrowth rim. The zircon core domains are classified into two types: the first is igneous with clear oscillatory zonation apatite and quartz inclusions; and the second is metamorphic containing a granulite facies mineral assemblage of garnet, hypersthene and plagioclase (andesine). The zircon rims contain garnet, omphacite and rutile inclusions, indicating a metamorphic overgrowth at eclogite facies. The almost identical ages of the two types of core domains (magmatic = 791 9 Ma and granulite facies metamorphic zircon = 794 10 Ma), and the Triassic age (212 10 Ma) of eclogitic facies metamorphic overgrowth zircon rim are interpreted as indicating that the protolith of the eclogite is mafic granulite that originated from underplating of mantle-derived magma onto the base of continental crust during the Neoproterozoic (c. 800 Ma) and then subducted during the Triassic, experiencing UHP eclogite facies metamorphism at mantle depths. The new finding has two-fold significance: (i) voluminous mafic lower continental crust can increase the average density of subducted continental lithosphere, thus promoting its deep subduction; (ii) because of the current absence of mafic lower continental crust in the Dabie orogen, delamination or recycling of subducted mafic lower continental crust can be inferred as the geochemical cause for the mantle heterogeneity and the unusually evolved crustal composition. [source]

    Zircon U,Pb age and Hf isotope evidence for contrasting origin of bimodal protoliths for ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project

    R.-X. CHEN
    Abstract A combined study of zircon morphology, U,Pb ages and Hf isotopes as well as whole-rock major and trace elements was carried out for ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogite and felsic gneiss from the main hole (MH) of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) project in the Sulu orogen. The results show contrasting Hf isotope compositions for bimodal UHP metaigneous rocks, pointing to contrasting origins for their protoliths (thus dual-bimodal compositions). The samples of interest were from two continuous core segments from CCSD MH at depths of 734.21,737.16 m (I) and 929.67,932.86 m (II) respectively. Zircon U,Pb dating for four samples from the two core segments yields two groups of ages at 784 17 and 222 3 Ma, respectively, corresponding to protolith formation during supercontinental rifting and metamorphic growth during continental collision. Although the Triassic UHP metamorphism significantly reset the zircon U,Pb system of UHP rocks, the Hf isotope compositions of igneous zircon can be used to trace their protolith origin. Contrasting types of initial Hf isotope ratios are, respectively, correlated with segments I and II, regardless of their lithochemistry. The first type shows positive ,Hf(t) values of 7.8 3.1 to 6.0 3.0, with young Hf model age of 1.03 and 1.11 Ga. The second type exhibits negative ,Hf(t) values of ,6.9 1.6 to ,9.1 1.1, with old Hf model ages of 2.11 and 2.25 Ga. It appears that the UHP rocks from the two segments have protoliths of contrasting origin. Consistent results are also obtained from their trace element compositions suggesting that mid-Neoproterozoic protoliths of bimodal UHP metaigneous rocks formed during supercontinental rifting at the northern margin of the South China Block. Thus, the first type of bimodal magmatism formed by rapid reworking of juvenile crust, whereas the second type of bimodal magmatism was principally generated by rift anatexis of Paleoproterozoic crust. Melting of orogenic lithosphere has potential to bring about bimodal magmatism with contrasting origins. Because arc,continent collision zones are the best place to accumulate both juvenile and ancient crusts, the contrasting types of bimodal magmatism are proposed to occur in an arc,continent collision orogen during the supercontinental rifting, in response to the attempted breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia at c. 780 Ma. [source]

    Using estimated thermodynamic properties to model accessory phases: the case of tourmaline

    Abstract Accessory phases and minor components in minerals are commonly ignored in thermodynamic modelling. Such an approach seems unwarranted, as accessory phases can represent a significant element reservoir and minor components can substantially change their host mineral's stability field. However, a lack of thermodynamic data prohibits assessment of these effects. In this contribution, the polyhedron method is used to estimate the thermodynamic properties of tourmaline, a common and widespread accessory phase, stable over a range of P,T,X conditions. The polyhedron method allows ,H, S, V, CP and Vm(T,P) properties to be estimated from a linear stoichiometric summation over the fractional properties of its polyhedron constituents. To allow for estimates of tourmaline, fractional thermodynamic properties for BIII and BIV polyhedra were derived. Mixing contributions to molar volume were evaluated and symmetrical mixing parameters derived for Al-Mg, Al-Fe and Al-Li interaction on tourmaline's Y-site and T-site Al-Si interaction. Evaluation of the estimated properties using experimental and natural equilibria between tourmaline and melts, minerals and hydrothermal fluids, shows that reliable semi-quantitative results are obtained. The boron contents in fluids coexisting with tourmaline are calculated to within an order of magnitude of measured content, and where anchor-points are available, agreement improves to within a factor of 2. Including tourmaline in petrogenetic modelling of metamorphic rocks indicates that its presence leads to disappearance of staurolite and garnet, among others, and modifies the XMg of coexisting phases, in line with observations on natural rocks. [source]

    Experimental studies of mineralogical assemblages of metasedimentary rocks at Earth's mantle transition zone conditions

    Abstract Metasedimentary rocks, a major component of the continental crust, are abundant within ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes related to continental collisions. The presence of diamond, coesite, and relics of decompressed minerals in these rocks suggests that they were subducted to a depth of more than 150,250 km. Reconnaissance experiments at 9,12 GPa and 1000,1300 C on compositions corresponding to felsic rocks from diamond-bearing UHP terranes of Germany and Kazakhstan show that at higher pressures they consist of majoritic garnet, Al-Na-rich clinopyroxene, stishovite, solid solution of KAlSi3O8 -NaAlSi3O8 hollandite, topaz-OH, and TiO2 with , -PbO2 structure. Comparison of our data with experiments conducted by others at similar P,T conditions shows differences, which are due to variations in bulk chemistry and the type of starting material (gel, oxides, minerals). These differences may affect correct establishment of the ,point of no return' of subducted continental lithologies. This paper discusses the implication of the experimental data with regard to naturally existing UHP metamorphic rocks and their significance for our understanding of the deep subduction of continental material. [source]

    Fluid flow during exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust: zircon U-Pb age and O-isotope studies of a quartz vein within ultrahigh-pressure eclogite

    Y.-F. ZHENG
    Abstract Quartz veins in high-pressure to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks witness channelized fluid flow that transports both mass and heat during collisional orogenesis. This flow can occur in the direction of changing temperature/pressure during subduction or exhumation. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon from a kyanite-quartz vein within ultrahigh-pressure eclogite in the Dabie continental collision orogen yields two age groups at 212 7 and 181 13 Ma, which are similar to two groups of LA-ICPMS age at 210 4 and 180 5 Ma for the same sample. These ages are significantly younger than zircon U-Pb ages of 224 2 Ma from the host eclogite. Thus the two age groups from the vein date two episodes of fluid flow involving zircon growth: the first due to decompression dehydration during exhumation, and the second due to heating dehydration in response to a cryptic thermal event after continental collision. Laser fluorination O-isotope analyses gave similar ,18O values for minerals from both vein and eclogite, indicating that the vein-forming fluid was internally derived. Synchronous cooling between the vein and eclogite is suggested by almost the same quartz,mineral fractionation values, with regularly decreasing temperatures that are in concordance with rates of O diffusion in the minerals. While the quartz veining was caused by decompression dehydration at 700,650 C in a transition from ultrahigh-pressure to high-pressure eclogite-facies retrogression, the postcollisional fluid flow was retriggered by heating dehydration at ,500 C without corresponding metamorphism. In either case, the kyanite,quartz vein formed later than the peak ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic event at the Middle Triassic, pointing to focused fluid flow during exhumation rather than subduction. The growth of metamorphic zircon in the eclogite appears to have depended on fluid availability, so that their occurrence is a type of geohygrometer besides geochronological applicability to dating of metamorphic events in orogenic cycles. [source]