Mental Health (mental + health)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Mental Health

  • adolescent mental health
  • adult mental health
  • and adolescent mental health
  • care mental health
  • child and adolescent mental health
  • child mental health
  • children mental health
  • co-occurring mental health
  • community mental health
  • general mental health
  • good mental health
  • maternal mental health
  • parental mental health
  • poor mental health
  • poorer mental health
  • primary care mental health
  • women mental health
  • youth mental health

  • Terms modified by Mental Health

  • mental health act
  • mental health appointment
  • mental health care
  • mental health center
  • mental health centre
  • mental health challenge
  • mental health clinic
  • mental health clinician
  • mental health community
  • mental health concern
  • mental health condition
  • mental health consequence
  • mental health consumer
  • mental health diagnosis
  • mental health difficulty
  • mental health disorder
  • mental health disorders
  • mental health education
  • mental health effects
  • mental health facility
  • mental health field
  • mental health functioning
  • mental health intervention
  • mental health inventory
  • mental health issues
  • mental health law
  • mental health legislation
  • mental health measure
  • mental health need
  • mental health nurse
  • mental health nursing
  • mental health nursing care
  • mental health nursing education
  • mental health nursing practice
  • mental health nursing role
  • mental health outcome
  • mental health patient
  • mental health policy
  • mental health practice
  • mental health practitioner
  • mental health problem
  • mental health professional
  • mental health program
  • mental health promotion
  • mental health provider
  • mental health recovery
  • mental health research
  • mental health score
  • mental health service
  • mental health service delivery
  • mental health service use
  • mental health service user
  • mental health service utilization
  • mental health services
  • mental health services research
  • mental health setting
  • mental health specialist
  • mental health staff
  • mental health status
  • mental health subscale
  • mental health survey
  • mental health symptom
  • mental health system
  • mental health team
  • mental health training
  • mental health treatment
  • mental health trust
  • mental health unit
  • mental health work
  • mental health worker
  • mental health workforce

  • Selected Abstracts


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    Juveniles in secure confinement allegedly suffer from more mental health problems than their peers. This may reflect background and behavioral characteristics commonly found in clients of both mental health and juvenile justice systems. Another explanation is that mental disorders increase the risk of arrest. These interpretations were tested on a sample of Pittsburgh boys (n = 736). Findings indicate that arrested youth exhibit more attention deficit hyperactivity (ADH) problems, oppositional defiant (OD) problems, and nondelinquent externalizing symptoms prior to their first arrests compared to their never-arrested peers. However, arrested and nonarrested youth score similarly on prior affective and anxiety problems and internalizing symptoms. Net of delinquency, substance use, and other selection factors, internalizing problems lower the risk of subsequent arrest, whereas OD problems and nondelinquent externalizing symptoms increase it. ADH problems have no effect on arrest net of delinquency and substance use. These findings lend only partial support to the criminalization hypothesis. Whereas some mental health symptoms increase the risk of arrest, others elicit more cautious or compassionate official responses. [source]


    Sidney M. Greenfield
    This article describes a mental health and development program being carried out under the direction of a Comboni Missionary who is an ordained Roman Catholic priest from Italy and a medical doctor presently completing a Ph.D. in psychiatry in Brazil. It is based on a theoretical framework that integrates the cultural and religious backgrounds of migrants coming into the slums of Brazilian cities with a form of group therapy based on the assumptions of Liberation Theology and the teachings of Paulo Freire that was developed by Prof. Adalberto Barreto, a practicing Brazilian trained M.D.,psychiatrist with European Ph.D.s in psychiatry and anthropology. This unusual combination of anthropological insight combined with a unique approach to group psychotherapy, rooted in a humanistic approach to religion, has resulted in an extremely effective development program that is beginning to be applied in slum areas in other parts of Brazil and elsewhere. [source]


    Jo Wainer
    ABSTRACT This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation. [source]

    The association of alcohol dependence with general practice attendance

    Abstract Introduction and Aims. This study was designed to examine the relationship between alcohol dependence and general practitioner (GP) service attendance in Australia. Design and Methods. Data were analysed from the 1997 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. In this survey, a representative sample of the Australian population was interviewed to ascertain past 12 month psychiatric diagnoses for all major mental disorders as well as the use of primary and other health services (n = 10 641, 79% response rate). Results. People with alcohol dependence comorbid with other psychiatric disorders have higher rates of service usage than those without such disorders. Discussion and Conclusions. Alcohol dependence comorbid with mental disorders has a significant impact on GP service in Australia. High rates of service use by individuals with such comorbidities were a considerable burden for GP services.[Proudfoot H, Teesson M. The association of alcohol dependence with general practice attendance. Drug Alcohol Rev 2009] [source]

    Patterns of co-morbidity between alcohol use and other substance use in the Australian population

    Abstract The present study describes patterns of co-morbidity between alcohol use and other substance use problems in the Australian population using data from the 1997 National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being. Multiple regression analyses examined whether the observed associations between alcohol and other drug use disorders were explained by other variables, including demographic characteristics and neuroticism. We also assessed whether the presence of co-morbid substance use disorders affected treatment seeking for a mental health problem. Alcohol use was related strongly to the use of other substances. Those who did not report alcohol use within the past 12 months were less likely to report using tobacco, cannabis, sedatives, stimulants or opiates. Higher rates again were observed among those with alcohol use disorders: half (51%) of those who were alcohol-dependent were regular tobacco smokers, one-third had used cannabis (32%); 15% reported other drug use; 15% met criteria for a cannabis use disorder and 7% met criteria for another drug use disorder. These associations were not accounted for by the demographic and other variables considered here. Co-morbid substance use disorders (sedatives, stimulants or opioids) predicted a high likelihood of seeking treatment for a mental health problem among alcohol-dependent people. [source]

    Seeing America,diary of a drug-focused study tour made in 1967

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    Griffith Edwards
    ABSTRACT In 1965 the British government was forced to admit that the country had an escalating heroin problem, with the supply coming mainly from prescribing by private practitioners. Within the official responses to what was seen at that time as a very worrying public health situation was the decision to fund the setting-up of the Addiction Research Unit (ARU) at the Institute of Psychiatry, London. The US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) generously sponsored a study tour for the nominated director of the ARU shortly before the opening of the British research centre. Extensive contemporaneous diary notes of a visit included contact with administrators, researchers, clinicians, parish priests, narcotic agents and addicts themselves. From a mass of often conflicting advice, some insights could be derived. In particular, these included the need for an awareness of any country's way of dealing with drug problems as a dynamic, multi-factorial total system,a holistic ,national response'. A further conclusion was to see policy itself as a complex subject for analysis: drug policy should be as much an issue for research as drug taking. Besides these broad conclusions, the experience provided many specific leads to development of a British addiction research programme, and fostered professional friendships of immeasurable worth. [source]

    Risk of harm among gamblers in the general population as a function of level of participation in gambling activities

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2006
    Shawn R. Currie
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine the relationship between gambling behaviours and risk of gambling-related harm in a nationally representative population sample. Design Risk curves of gambling frequency and expenditure (total amount and percentage of income) were plotted against harm from gambling. Setting Data derived from 19 012 individuals participating in the Canadian Community Health Survey,Mental Health and Well-being cycle, a comprehensive interview-based survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 2002. Measurement Gambling behaviours and related harms were assessed with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Findings Risk curves indicated the chances of experiencing gambling-related harm increased steadily the more often one gambles and the more money one invests in gambling. Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified the optimal limits for low-risk participation as gambling no more than two to three times per month, spending no more than $501,1000CAN per year on gambling and investing no more than 1% of gross family income on gambling activities. Logistic regression modelling confirmed a significant increase in the risk of gambling-related harm (odds ratios ranging from 2.0 to 7.7) when these limits were exceeded. Conclusions Risk curves are a promising methodology for examining the relationship between gambling participation and risk of harm. The development of low-risk gambling limits based on risk curve analysis appears to be feasible. [source]

    Distress, Dissociation, and Embodied Experience: Reconsidering the Pathways to Mediumship and Mental Health

    ETHOS, Issue 1 2005
    This article explores the biocultural bases of spirit possession mediumship in the Afro-Brazilian religion, Candomblé. After a brief review of the literature, the article moves beyond the biomedical and social-structural explanations that have dominated the theoretical landscape, by attempting to construct an etiology of mediumship that is traced through the interface of individual characteristics with the cultural belief system that forms their context. Data were collected from a total of 71 individuals over the course of a year-long field study in Salvador, Brazil. Analyses of social ethnography, life history and semistructured interviews along with results from psychological inventories, suggest that altered states of consciousness should not be considered the central and defining element of mediumship. An alternative model is proposed, in which the combination of social conditions and somatic susceptibilities causes certain individuals to identify with the mediumship role, and predisposes them to dissociate. However in the context of Candomblé, dissociation is not a pathological experience, but rather a therapeutic mechanism, learned through religious participation, that benefits individuals with a strong tendency to somatize. [source]

    Straight Talk About Your Child's Mental Health: What To Do When Something Seems Wrong

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 1 2006
    Janet C. Benavente
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Correction to "Cost Shifting to Jails After a Change to Managed Mental Health Care."

    Marisa Elena Domino
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Improvements in early care in Russian orphanages and their relationship to observed behaviors

    Christina J. Groark
    This article describes a unique study that attempts to promote positive social-emotional relationships and attachment between caregivers and children in orphanages in St. Petersburg, Russia. The children who reside in these orphanages are typically between birth and 48 months of age; approximately 50% are diagnosed with disabilities, and approximately 60% leave through foreign adoption. Initially, their orphanage caregivers showed a high level of current anxiety and depression and were detached from and communicated little with the children. Likewise, during baseline observations, the children demonstrated poor attachment behaviors such as indiscriminant friendliness, lack of eye contact with adults, aggression, and impulsive behavior. Two interventions were used in a quasiexperimental design: (a) training of caregivers to promote warm, responsive caregiving and (b) staffing and structural alterations to support relationship building, especially increasing the consistency of caregivers. The methodology required that both the training and staffing interventions be provided to one orphanage, only the training to a second, and neither to a third. (At any one time, ns = 80,120 in each condition.) Initial informal observations reveal positive behaviors for both the caregivers and the children, such as increased two-way conversations, animated and enthusiastic emotional responses, and positive social and language interactions. Early data analyses show an increase in the consistency and stability of caregivers and increased scores for caregivers on every subscale of the HOME Scales. Children showed improvements in physical growth, cognition, language, motor, personal-social, and affect, with children having severe disabilities improving the most. The implications of these findings suggest that training staff with modest educational backgrounds and structural changes are effective, can increase socially responsive caregiving behaviors, and improves social interactions of children, at least temporarily. ©2005 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    The emotional quality of childcare centers in Israel: The Haifa study of early childcare

    Nina Koren-Karie
    Data from an Israeli project shows higher proportion of insecurely attached infants in center care as compared with noncenter care (Sagi, Koren-Karie, Gini, Ziv, & Joels, 2002). The present study was designed to assess structural and emotional aspects characterizing infants' experiences in center care, aiming to explain, in part, the high incidence of attachment insecurity among center-care infants. In the present study, we focus on 151 center-care infants who were observed in the Ainsworth Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978) with their mothers. Sixty-one percent of them were coded as securely attached to their mothers while 39% were coded as insecurely attached. In addition, 56 directors and 120 caregivers in 56 centers were videotaped throughout a full-day observation. The Assessment Profile of Early Childhood Program (Abbott-Shim & Sibley, 1987) was also employed. Results indicated that the centers in Israel are of low standards: Large group size, high caregiver,infants ratio, inadequate professional training, and minimal attention to individual emotional needs. No associations were found between infants' attachment and various aspects of the settings. The low quality of the Israeli settings may explain the higher rate of attachment insecurity in center-care infants. ©2005 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Parental capacities for triadic relationships during pregnancy: Early predictors of children's behavioral and representational functioning at preschool age

    Kai von Klitzing
    This study examines associations between parental capacities for triadic (mother,father,child) relationships, assessed prenatally, and the representational and behavioral functioning of their offspring at preschool age. Thirty-eight parental couples were given an intensive psychodynamic interview during their first pregnancy to assess how they anticipated their future parenthood and their relationships as threesomes (mother,father,child). The capacity for triadic relationships ("triadic capacity") was defined as the capacity of fathers and mothers to anticipate their family relationships without excluding either themselves or their partners from the relationship with the infant. Four years later, the representational and behavioral functioning of their children were assessed in depth using child narrative interviews and parental behavior ratings. The coherence of the children's narratives and the number of positive themes they expressed were significantly negatively correlated with the number of behavioral problems. In the longitudinal analyses, there were significant positive correlations between the parental triadic capacities and the coherence/number of positive themes in the children's narratives whereas parental triadic capacities showed a significant negative correlation with the number of the children's externalizing problems. The significance of triadic relational family processes for the development of children's representational world and behavioral functioning is discussed. ©2005 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Predicting toddler anxiety/depressive symptoms: Effects of caregiver sensitivity on temperamentally vulnerable children

    Susan L. Warren
    This research examines whether maternal sensitivity in early childhood reduces later anxiety/depressive symptoms for children with more temperamental vulnerability, and whether these effects are different for boys and girls. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care study with 1,226 subjects (631 boys, 595 girls) were analyzed. Mothers and other caregivers rated children's difficult temperament at 1 and 6 months. Trained observers scored maternal sensitivity when children were 6 and 15 months. Child anxiety/depressive symptoms were rated by mothers and other caregivers when children were 2 and 3 years of age. Maternal sensitivity in early childhood significantly predicted decreased 2- and 3-year-old anxiety/depressive symptoms. Children with more difficult temperament were significantly more likely to show decreased anxiety/depressive symptoms at 2 years of age if their mothers had been more sensitive. Maternal sensitivity also was a significant predictor of decreased anxiety/depressive symptoms for more temperamentally difficult boys, and temperamentally difficult boys with more sensitive mothers were found to be significantly more likely than girls to show decreased anxiety/depressive symptoms at 3 years of age. The findings of this pilot research suggest that facilitating and supporting increased sensitivity for mothers with more temperamentally difficult children could be beneficial. ©2005 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Infant colic and maternal depression

    Aimee E. Maxted
    The combined impact of infant colic and maternal depression on infant, parent, and family difficulties was examined. The sample included 93 consecutive patients seen at an outpatient Colic Clinic. Most mothers had private insurance and completed high school. Infants were approximately 2 months of age. Questionnaires completed by the mother prior to treatment onset were used to measure depressive symptoms in the mothers, infant cry, sleep and temperament, characteristics, parenting stress, maternal self-esteem, social support, and family function. Moderate to severe depressive symptoms were reported by 45.2% of the mothers. More severe depressive symptoms in the mothers were related to fussy/difficult infant temperament, more parenting stress, lower parental self-esteem, and more family-functioning problems. Pediatric health care providers need to be aware that the combined effects of colic and maternal depression can be problematic for the family. ©2005 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    AQS security scores: What do they represent?

    A study in construct validation
    In a sample of 129 Dutch 15-month-old infants, attachment security was assessed both with the Attachment Q-Set (AQS; Waters, 1995) and with a short version of Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, and Wall's (1978) Strange Situation (SSS). Infants classified as secure using the SSS had significantly higher AQS scores than insecure and disorganized infants in particular. At the AQS item level, disorganized infants were described as significantly more noncompliant, fussy, and angry relative to secure infants. When security as assessed using the SSS was controlled, the observed quality of parental interactive behavior, parental ego-resilience, high levels of infant task orientation and pleasure, and low levels of infant anger proneness were found to explain significant and unique portions of the variance in the AQS security scores. The apparently unfavorable set of characteristics associated with low AQS security scores suggests such scores to predict later developmental problems. ©2004 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Improving communication between health and infant mental health professionals utilizing ongoing Collaborative Peer Supervision Groups

    Michael Thomasgard
    This article discusses the use of Collaborative Peer Supervision Groups (CPSG) to promote ongoing professional development for those who work with infants, toddlers, and their families. Our model's strength and clinical utility result from its three major components: (a) a relationship-based perspective that acknowledges the important role that feelings and emotions play across the life span, (b) a peer supervision model that helps to ensure that no individual or discipline is "the expert," and (c) a collaborative case-based continuing-education experience. Salient features of forming and maintaining a CPSG group are discussed including access to a Web site containing many key start-up and evaluation materials. Existing barriers to effective communication between disciplines are discussed as are specific methods to structure case data. Additional tools to help anchor a CPSG are considered as are methods of evaluation. Two case presentations are considered to illustrate group process. Lessons learned from such groups are highlighted. Our intent is to provide sufficient background material so that others with a similar interest will be comfortable starting and maintaining a CPSG group on their own. ©2004 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Mothers' interactions with temperamentally frustrated infants

    Susan D. Calkins
    A sample of 162 six-month-old infants was selected from a larger sample of 346 infants on the basis of mothers' report of their infants' temperament and a laboratory assessment of temperament. Infants were classified as easily frustrated or less frustrated and observed in several types of interactions with their mothers in the laboratory. Mothers completed several measures that indicated their level of parenting stress, psychological functioning, and marital adjustment. Maternal behavior with infants was coded along the dimensions of sensitivity, intrusiveness, and physical stimulation. Results indicated that maternal intrusiveness was related to infant temperament and that maternal physical stimulation was predicted by an interaction of infant temperament and mothers' perceived parenting stress. Implications of these findings for mother,infant interaction and subsequent child adjustment are discussed. ©2004 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Insecure adult attachment style and depressive symptoms: Implications for parental perceptions of infant temperament

    Anu-Katriina Pesonen
    The current study tested associations between parental depressive symptoms, adult attachment styles, and perceptions of infant temperament among 319 mother,infant and 173 father,infant dyads. Depressive symptoms and insecure attachment style among the mothers and/or fathers were associated with perceptions of the infant as temperamentally more negatively and/or less positively tuned. Multivariate analyses of depressive symptoms and attachment styles with perceived temperament suggest that depressive symptoms and perceived temperament remain significantly associated, while the associations between attachment styles and perceived temperament, in most instances, were reduced to nonsignificance. We also tested whether secure attachment among the parents buffered any negatively and/or positively tuned depression-related perceptions, but found no supporting evidence. Even though the study results await replication in longitudinal designs, they nevertheless underline the significance of parental depressive information processing in the perceiving of infant temperament. ©2004 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    A French adaptation of the Infant,Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment

    Ziva Bracha
    This article presents the psychometric properties of the French adaptation of the Infant,Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA), named the Evaluation Sociale et Emotionelle de Jeunes Enfants (ESEJE). The French adaptation involved translation and backtranslation and was administered to 179 parents in pediatric well-baby centers and 115 parents in childcare centers. Confirmatory factor analyses were employed to assess for latent factor structure, and model fit was assessed using three standard-fit indices. Analysis of variance examined age and gender effects on mean domain and scale scores. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a comparable latent factor structure to that reported for the ITSEA. All domains and most scales show adequate intrascale reliability. Certain age and gender effects on mean score differed from those reported for the U.S. sample. Our preliminary results indicate that the ESEJE shares the same latent factor structure as its English counterpart and may be a promising tool for the early detection of problem behaviors and delays in the acquisition of competencies in a French population. ©2004 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Maternal resolution of loss and abuse: Associations with adjustment to the transition to parenthood

    Kim Leon
    This study examined relationships between mothers' resolution of past loss and abuse and their adjustment to the transition to parenthood. Three groups of mothers were compared: 1) those who were unresolved with respect to loss or abuse (Unresolved Loss/Abuse), 2) those who had experienced loss or abuse, but were considered resolved (Resolved Loss/Abuse), and 3) those who had not experienced loss or abuse (No Loss/Abuse). Mothers in the Resolved Loss/Abuse group reported more negative perceptions of the transition to parenthood than did mothers in the No Loss/Abuse group, which may reflect a greater awareness of negative emotions and a greater ability to communicate openly about them. Although mothers who have experienced loss or abuse and appear to have resolved these experiences may be at risk for distress during the transition to parenthood, they do not appear to be at risk for insensitive care giving. Unresolved loss, however, was associated with less sensitive care giving. The findings of this study highlight the importance of examining current state of mind regarding past experiences when investigating relationships between childhood loss and abuse and adjustment to subsequent life transitions. ©2004 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Maternal representations during pregnancy and early motherhood

    Ebru Taskin Ilicali
    The aim of the present study was to study the maternal representations of pregnant women and mothers in their early postpartum period, by beginning the process of validating the maternal representations questionnaire L'entretien R1 and by developing a means to assess the content-free aspects of the representations. Participants were 23 primiparous (first-time mothers) pregnant women in their fourth to seventh month of pregnancy and 22 primiparous mothers in their early (zero to six months) postpartum period. It was found that the four subscales of L'entretien (self-as-mother, self-as-person, own-mother, and partner) produced meaningful results for Turkish subjects. The results were compatible with the idea of integrated representations of self-as-person and self-as-mother even in the second trimester of their pregnancy and also showed that they could differentiate themselves from their mothers as early as that period. The results revealed no significant differences in the content and content-free dimensions of the representations of pregnant women and mothers. ©2004 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Maternal limit setting during toddlerhood, delay of gratification, and behavior problems at age five

    Gail M. Houck
    In this study, self-regulation was examined in relation to maternal limit setting during toddlerhood. Observational coding of limit-setting interactions was carried out at 12, 24, and 36 months using the Prohibition Coding Scheme (Houck & LeCuyer, 1995; LeCuyer-Maus & Houck, 2002). At five years, self-regulation was assessed by observation of self-imposed delay-of-gratification (Shoda, Mischel, & Peake, 1990), and behavior problems were measured by maternal report on a behavior checklist (CBCL; Achenbach, 1991). Maternal limit-setting patterns at every age differentiated subsequent duration of delay, but not behavior problems. A power-based maternal pattern in limit setting adversely affected later self-imposed delay. Although an indirect limit-setting pattern optimized the child's delay duration, a teaching-based pattern yielded more consistently positive outcomes at 36 months and normative delay durations at age five years. ©2004 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    A challenging intervention with maternal anxiety: Babies requiring surgical correction of a congenital anomaly after missed prenatal diagnosis

    Lucia Aite
    The objective of this study is to assess the impact on maternal anxiety of a short-term intervention in a particularly stressful situation, such as a surgical anomaly diagnosed only at birth after repeated negative prenatal ultrasounds. The patients were 30 mothers of babies requiring surgical correction of a congenital anomaly who were randomly assigned to an intervention (N = 16) or control (N = 14) group. The intervention group received standard care plus short-term intervention that included weekly meetings with the psychologist and weekly team meetings. The control group received only standard care available on the Neonatal Surgery Unit. The main outcome measure was maternal anxiety levels, assessed at birth and on discharge with the Spielberger State,Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI,S). Statistical comparisons were made, and no significant differences were found at birth in the STAI,S scores of the two groups. At discharge, the intervention group exhibited a much lower STAI,S score than the group without short-term intervention. The authors concluded that psychological counseling for parents of newborn babies has been shown to be helpful. However, the impact of such assistance was shown to be particularly beneficial for parents facing the emotional stress of their children requiring unexpected surgical corrections of congenital anomalies at birth. Therefore, the presence of a psychologist, as part of the standard care of newborns requiring surgical correction, is recommended. ©2003 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Child and family correlates of toddlers' emotional and behavioral responses to a mishap

    Pamela W. Garner
    This study evaluated the unique and joint contributions of internal state language, externalizing behavior, and maternal talk about emotions to the prediction of toddlers' empathy-related responsiveness. The empathy-based guilt reactions of 47 toddlers (27 boys) were observed in response to distress that they thought they had caused. In addition, mothers reported on the children's internal state language, externalizing behavior, and empathy-based guilt. In a separate observation, the mothers discussed emotional expressions with their children, and the functional significance of their emotional discourse was considered. Results revealed that toddlers' internal state language ability was positively related to their attempts to comprehend another's affective state and to maternal reports of children's sympathy reactions. There was also an unexpected inverse relation between externalizing behavior and arousal level. In terms of the parent measures, maternal explanations of emotions were positively related to children's attempts to comprehend another's affective state, whereas mothers' directives for children to label emotions were positively related to children's expressed emotional concern for others. The implications of these findings for understanding empathy and guilt development in young children are discussed. ©2003 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    The effects of traumatic experiences on the infant,mother relationship in the former war zones of central Mozambique: The case of madzawde in Gorongosa

    Victor Igreja
    This article addresses the ways in which years of war and periods of serious drought have affected the cultural representations of the populations in Gorongosa District, Mozambique. In the wake of these events different cultural and historical representations have been disrupted, leaving the members of these communities with fragmented protective and resilience factors to cope effectively. Emphasis is placed on the disruption of madzawde, a mechanism that regulates the relationship between the child (one to two years of life) and the mother, and the family in general. The war, aggravated by famine, prevented the populations from performing this child-rearing practice. Nearly a decade after the war ended, the posttraumatic effects of this disruption are still being observed both by traditional healers and health-care workers at the district hospital. The results suggest that this disruption is affecting and compromising the development of the child and the physical and psychological health of the mother. An in-depth understanding of this level of trauma and posttraumatic effects is instrumental in making a culturally sensitive diagnosis and in developing effective intervention strategies based on local knowledge that has not been entirely lost but is nonetheless being questioned. ©2003 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Mother,infant behavioral interactions in teenage and adult mothers during the first six months postpartum: Relations with infant development

    Andrée Pomerleau
    The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent mothers' (high-risk group), at-risk adult mothers' (moderate-risk group), and no-risk adult mothers' (low-risk group) behavioral interactions at one and six months postpartum, and to examine the relationships between maternal behaviors and infant developmental scores on the Bayley scales. Results indicated that high-risk teenage mothers and moderate-risk adult mothers vocalized less and had lower contingency rating scores compared to low-risk adult mothers. Also, infants in the high-risk and moderate-risk groups obtained lower mental scores at six months compared to the low-risk group. Moderate stability across time was found for maternal vocalizations and infant scores on the mental scale. Maternal vocalizations and behavioral contingency rating scores at one month were associated with infants' six-month performance on the Bayley scales. Specific intervention strategies were discussed with the aim of targeting and improving early maternal behavioral patterns in at-risk groups. ©2003 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Fits and starts: A mother,infant case-study involving intergenerational violent trauma and pseudoseizures across three generations

    Daniel S. Schechter
    This case-study presents in detail the clinical assessment of a 29-year-old mother and her daughter who first presented to infant mental health specialists at age 16 months, with a hospital record suggesting the presence of a dyadic disturbance since age eight months. Data from psychiatric and neurological assessments, as well as observational measures of child and mother, are reviewed with attention to issues of disturbed attachment, intergenerational trauma, and cultural factors for this innercity Latino dyad. Severe maternal affect dysregulation in the wake of chronic, early-onset violent-trauma exposure manifested as psychogenic seizures, referred to in the mother's native Spanish as "ataques de nervios," the latter, an idiom of distress, commonly associated with childhood trauma and dissociation. We explore the mechanisms by which the mothers' reexperiencing of violent traumatic experience, together with physiologic hyperarousal and associated negative affects, are communicated to the very young child and the clinician-observer via action and language from moment to moment during the assessment process. The article concludes with a discussion of diagnostic and treatment implications by Drs. Marshall, Gaensbauer, and Zeanah. ©2003 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    The Zero-to-Three diagnostic classification: A contribution to the validation of this classification from a sample of 85 under-threes

    Nicole Guédeney
    The goal of this article is to contribute to the validity of the Zero-to-Three diagnostic classification (DC: 0,3) by studying the range, the indices of consistency, the interjudge reliability, and the issue of comorbidity on Axis I. Eighty-five consecutive children under three years of age and their families were assessed in six mental health centers with clinical interviews and developmental testing. Diagnoses on the five axes of the classification system were made after clinical consensus. The Task Force data record DC: 0,3 was completed for each subject. The use of the classification on a sample of 85 children showed good consistency between the different axes, moderate interjudge reliability, and a high percentage of associated diagnoses on Axis I. The DC: 0,3 appears to help the clinician catch the complexity of the clinical situation in planning the therapeutic strategy. However, the objectivity of the diagnostic criteria must be improved if this system is to be used in research settings. ©2003 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Brain and behavior interface: Stress and the developing brain

    Megan R. Gunnar
    Animal studies have shown that mother,infant interactions can have long-term impacts on areas of the brain that regulate fearful behavior and the physiology of stress. Here, the research on human infants and children is reviewed with an eye to whether early experiences have similar effects in our species. Research shows that during the first year, sensitive and responsive caregiving becomes a powerful regulator of emotional behavior and neuroendocrine stress hormone activity in young children. Indeed, quality-of-care effects can be detected for children throughout the preschool years. Reviewed research suggests that temperament affects the likelihood that children will show increases in stress hormones as the quality of their care decreases. Finally, we review the literature on stress hormone activity in children who have been maltreated early in life, and explore the critical question of whether enhancing care later in development can reverse the effects on behavior and neurobiology of early adverse experiences. ©2003 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]