Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Applicability

  • broad applicability
  • broader applicability
  • clinical applicability
  • general applicability
  • limited applicability
  • potential applicability
  • practical applicability
  • technical applicability
  • wide applicability
  • wider applicability

  • Terms modified by Applicability

  • applicability domain

  • Selected Abstracts


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 4 2010
    A series of 112 waterlogged archaeological wood samples of different provenances, wood species, burial times and states of preservation were analysed with the aim of assessing the validity (in terms of limits and reliability) of procedures conventionally used in the pulp and paper industry, to evaluate the state of preservation of decayed wood. In particular, the extent of any damage wrought on decayed wood tissue by the repetitive cycles that characterize these procedures was evaluated as a function of the degradation of the samples. The results indicated that standard methodologies give reliable measurements regardless of the extent of wood decay. However, it is essential to compare these data with those of non-decayed wood that has been measured using the same procedures to take account of the errors that are inherent in these methodologies and that affect measurements. [source]

    The Anglo-Saxon Approach to Corporate Governance and its Applicability to Emerging Markets

    Dennis C. Mueller
    Almost all firms start out as small, owner-managed companies. Many stay that way throughout their lives. Some create attractive investment opportunities, however, that will allow them to grow rapidly and become leading companies in their country. These firms typically do not have sufficient internal funds flows and must turn to external sources of finance. Among these is the issuance of equity. Once a firm sells shares, however, the cost of the managers engaging in on-the-job consumption falls, and they can be expected to do so at the expense of their shareholders. Knowing this, potential shareholders may be unwilling to purchase a new offering of a young firm's shares, and the firm with attractive investment opportunities is unable to finance them. Strong corporate governance institutions help to protect shareholders from the discretionary use of their firm's resources. This paper reviews the case for having strong corporate governance institutions to facilitate the creation of thick equity markets in the context of developing countries in emerging markets, and examines the case for relying on alternative sources of capital including the state. [source]

    Applicability of pushover methods for the seismic analysis of single-column bent viaducts

    Tatjana Isakovi
    Abstract An overview of the applicability of a typical single-mode pushover method (the N2 method) and two typical multi-mode pushover methods (the modal pushover analysis (MPA) and incremental response spectrum analysis (IRSA) methods) for the analysis of single column bent viaducts in the transverse direction is presented. Previous research, which was limited to relatively short viaducts supported by few columns, has been extended to longer viaducts with more bents. The single-mode N2 method is accurate enough for bridges where the effective modal mass of the fundamental mode is at least 80% of the total mass. The applicability of this method depends on (a) the ratio of the stiffness of the superstructure to that of the bents and (b) the strength of the bents. In short bridges with few columns, the accuracy of the N2 method increases as the seismic intensity increases, whereas in long viaducts (e.g. viaducts with lengths greater than 500,m) the method is in general less effective. In the case of the analyzed moderately irregular long viaducts, which are common in construction design practice, the MPA method performed well. For the analysis of bridges where the modes change significantly, depending on the seismic intensity, the IRSA method is in principle more appropriate, unless a viaduct is torsionally sensitive. In such cases, all simplified methods should be used with care. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Construction and Evaluation of a Gold Tubular Electrode for Flow Analysis: Application to Speciation of Antimony in Water Samples

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 6 2007
    Rodrigo Santos
    Abstract A tubular gold electrode (TGE) is described for the first time by summarizing the important aspects of its construction and evaluation. Applicability of the TGE is evaluated in the speciation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) using anodic stripping voltammetry in a single flow manifold. Studies with surface active interferences and metallic cations were performed. The proposed conditions for antimony determination showed good tolerance towards cationic, anionic and nonionic surface active substances. A linear response for antimony was obtained for solutions containing significant amounts of several metallic cations. Linear calibration curves for Sb(III) were obtained in the range 1,10,ppb with a detection limit of 0.19,ppb (CV=2.91%, n=5, [Sb(III)]=5,ppb). For Sb(V), linear calibration curves were in the range 1,15,ppb with a detection limit of 0.32,ppb (CV=1.41%, n=5, [Sb(V)]=5,ppb). The figures of merit achieved sustain for the good applicability of the proposed method as it allows the determination of antimony at levels below maximum values permitted in consuming waters. Results of antimony concentration determined in water samples were validated against the ICP-MS reference procedure or compared with reference water samples. [source]

    Separation and Detection of Nitrophenols at Capillary Electrophoresis Microchips with Amperometric Detection

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 2 2006
    Jan Fischer
    Abstract A miniaturized analytical system for the separation and amperometric detection of toxic nitrophenols, based on the coupling of a micromachined capillary electrophoresis (CE) chip with a glassy carbon detector is described. This microsystem enables a rapid (120,s/sample) simultaneous determination of five priority nitrophenolic pollutants (2-nitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol). These compounds can be detected down to the 1×10,5,M level using a 15,mM phosphate buffer pH,7.2 (containing 1.3,mM ,-cyclodextrin) as running solution on 77,mm long microchannel by applying a separation voltage of 3000,V and a negative potential of ,0.7,V (vs. Ag /AgCl wire). Applicability to ground water samples was demonstrated. [source]

    Air Pollution from Secondary Aluminum Production: Determining the Applicability of MACT Requirements

    Mario G. Cora
    EPA's Maximum Achievable Control Technology rule for secondary aluminum production is intended to substantially reduce emissions of hazardous air pollutants. It may also impose significant costs on affected facilities. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    Modeling polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition profiles of sources and receptors in the Pearl River Delta, China,

    Chang Lang
    Abstract Changes in concentration profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from emission sources to various environmental media in the Pearl River Delta, China were investigated using fugacity modeling under steady state assumption. Both assumed evenly and observed unevenly distributed PAH moles emission profiles were applied. Applicability of the fugacity model was validated against the observed media PAH concentrations and profiles. At equal emission rates, the differences of media concentrations among various PAHS were as high as three (air) to seven (soil and sediment) orders of magnitude. Dramatic changes of PAH profiles from emission sources to various bulk environmental media also were demonstrated by using the actual emission rates. In general, the fractions of higher molecular weight PAHs in air and water were much lower than those at the emission sources, although the PAH profiles in soil and sediment were characterized by a significant reduction of lower molecular weight PAHs. It is likely that the field-measured median concentration profiles cannot be adopted directly for source apportionment without rectification. The most influential parameters affecting PAH profiles in the study area were emission rates, degradation rates, adsorption coefficient, Henry's law constant, PAH concentrations in upstream surface water, fugacity ratio, vapor pressure, and diffusion coefficient in air. [source]

    Applicability of spraints for monitoring organic contaminants in free-ranging otters (Lutra lutra)

    Nico W. van den Brink
    Abstract In the current study, the use of spraints for monitoring levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in individual otters was experimentally validated. On the basis of a detailed pattern analysis, it is concluded that in the current study, PCB concentrations in spraints that contain relatively high concentrations of nonmetabolizable PCB congeners (PCB 138 and 153>42.5% of total PCB concentrations) reflect the internal PCB concentrations of the otter that produced the spraint. In general, however, spraints should be selected that contain relative concentrations of PCB 138 and PCB 153>95th percentile of these congeners in samples from local food items of otters. On the basis of relationships between levels in spraints and internal levels and on earlier reported effect concentrations, a threshold level range of 1.0 to 2.3 ,g/g (lipid normalized) in such spraints is proposed. The validated methods to monitor PCBs in otters may be combined with genetic marker techniques that can assess the identity of the otter that produced the spraints. In such a design, it is feasible to monitor PCB levels in individual free-ranging otters in a truly animal friendly way. [source]

    A Facile Method for the Preparation of Gold Glyconanoparticles from Free Oligosaccharides and Their Applicability in Carbohydrate-Protein Interaction Studies,

    Koen M. Halkes
    Abstract The weak binding affinity of monomeric oligosaccharides with carbohydrate-binding proteins are hampering their use in in-vivo and in-vitro bio-assays. Gold glyconanoparticles (GNPs), prepared from synthetic oligosaccharides, have been used to overcome this weak binding affinity. In this paper, a convenient method for the preparation of GNPs from free oligosaccharides is presented. The reductive amination of saccharides with trityl-protected cysteamine, followed by de-tritylation, afforded cysteamine-extended saccharides that could be used for the preparation of GNPs under reducing conditions in water. The robust chemistry and facile purification of intermediate and final compounds ensure high yields and reproducible results and the, subsequent, preparation of GNPs proceeded smoothly, even with minute quantities (nanomolar scale) of the cysteamine-extended saccharide. The described method was used to synthesize a series of gluco - and manno -oligosaccharide-containing GNPs. The prepared GNPs were validated in interaction studies with Con A, using either surface plasmon resonance (SPR), UV/Vis spectroscopy, or transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The described method for the preparation of water-soluble gold glyconanoparticles can be used for the identification of carbohydrate ligands for novel carbohydrate-binding proteins, and can find application as inhibitors of pathological interactions. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2005) [source]

    The effect of sward structure as influenced by ryegrass genotype on bite dimensions and short-term intake rate by dairy cows

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 1 2003
    P. D. Barrett
    Abstract The effects of genotypic variation in ryegrasses on sward structure, bite dimensions and intake rate by dairy cows were investigated. Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, swards were in a vegetative state whereas, in Experiment 2, they were partly reproductive and were taller with higher herbage mass but lower leaf proportion than in Experiment 1. Applicability of relationships between sward structure and bite characteristics, previously established from artificial or hand-constructed swards, to field conditions were tested. Additional short-term intake rates and/or sward structural characteristics were considered as indicators of potential intake for use in protocols for the evaluation of grass varieties. Four cultivars were studied: AberElan, Twins (diploid and tetraploid perennial ryegrasses respectively), Polly, a hybrid ryegrass (perennial × Italian ryegrass) and Multimo (Italian ryegrass), each established in 200-m2 plots in four replicated blocks. Herbage intake rate was determined by short-term liveweight change (taking account of insensible weight loss) using 16 dairy cows allocated to four balanced groups with each plot grazed by one group for a 1-h assessment period. One block was grazed per day, over a 4-d experimental period, with each group grazing each variety in a complete crossover design. Sward characteristics and bite rate were also measured in both experiments. Bite dimensions were subsequently estimated, with bite depth being determined as a function of extended tiller height (ETH) in both experiments. Within both experiments, bite mass and intake rate did not differ significantly between swards of different cultivars despite swards containing Multimo generally having a higher ETH and water-soluble carbohydrate concentration and lower green leaf mass, sward bulk density and neutral-detergent fibre concentration than the other swards. However, bite depth was significantly higher (P < 0·01) in swards containing Multimo swards than in the others and, in Experiment 1, bite depth, as a proportion of ETH, was higher in swards containing Multimo and lower in those containing Twins than in the other two cultivars, whereas there was no difference in Experiment 2. Taking both experiments together, the mean bite depth was 0·5 of ETH with sward bulk density accounting for almost half the variance in the relationship between bite depth and ETH. The bulk density of the bite (bite mass per unit bite volume), measured in Experiment 2, followed a similar pattern to sward bulk density, increasing in the order Multimo, Polly, AberElan and Twins. It is concluded that the relationships between sward characteristics and bite dimensions, derived from artificial swards, are applicable to field swards, although the range in natural ryegrass sward characteristics is usually not as wide as in experiments using artificial swards. Lack of precision in the measurement of short-term intake and in sward-based measurements is likely to preclude their use in the evaluation of grass varieties. [source]

    Applicability and safety of recombinant activated factor VII to control non-haemophilic haemorrhage: investigational experience in 265 children

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 4 2008
    Summary., Experience of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven®; Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) to control haemorrhage in non-haemophilic children is limited. The object of this study was to examine the applicability and safety of rFVIIa amongst a group of non-haemophilic paediatric subjects. Details of all non-haemophilic children ,16 years receiving rFVIIa whose data were recorded in the investigational, internet-based registry, were analysed. A total of 265 children (mean age 7.7 years) were treated with rFVIIa; the median dose administered was 78.4 ,g kg,1 body weight (range 9.0,393.4) and the median total dose received 100.0 ,g kg,1 body weight (range 10.9,1341.2). Therapeutic areas included surgery (34.5%), coagulopathy (including thrombocytopenia; 29.0%), spontaneous bleeding (17.2%), trauma (8.4%) and intracranial haemorrhage (4.5%). Two patients experienced thromboembolic events following administration of rFVIIa. Thirty-nine patients died on account of haemorrhage or complications relating to their underlying condition; neither the thromboembolic events nor the deaths were related to rFVIIa administration. Bleeding stopped in 118/237 (49.8%), markedly decreased in 54/237 (22.8%), decreased in 51/237 (21.5%), remained unchanged in 13/237 (5.5%) and increased in 1/237 (0.4%) patients. These results suggest that rFVIIa is safe and widely applicable in children to control non-haemophilic haemorrhage. [source]

    Applicability of the Washburn theory for determining the wetting angle of soils

    Henryk Czachor
    Abstract The Washburn theory is frequently applied to determine the wetting angle of soils. It is based on the porous medium being characterized as a set of cylindrical, straight capillaries. It is clear that this is an oversimplification as real soil pores vary at least as regards two important features: cross-section and tortuosity. In this study, a mathematical model of meniscus movement in a tortuous, sinusoidal shaped capillary was developed and the obtained analytical expressions for the wetting angle and for the pore radius were compared with the appropriate formula concerning the Washburn theory. The results demonstrate that the wetting angle of water in soil determined on the basis of the measured wetting front kinetics and of Washburn equations is likely to have an overestimated value due to the wavy, tortuous nature of inter-soil grain pores. The above conclusion was confirmed by capillary rise experiments. Wetting angles of methyl alcohol and of water measured on flat glass were 0 and 27·4° , respectively. Apparent wetting angles calculated from capillary rise in powdered glass kinetics and Washburn equation were 70 and 83° respectively. If the pore structure characteristics of porous media are not taken into account the applicability of the Washburn theory for soil wettability estimation seems to be very limited. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Applicability of the International Classification of Nursing Practice (ICNP®) in the Areas of Nutrition and Skin Care

    Margareta Ehnfors PhD
    PURPOSE. To evaluate completeness, granularity, multiple axial content, and clinical utility of the beta version of the ICNP® in the context of standardized nursing care planning in a clinical setting. METHODS. An 35-bed acute care ward for infectious diseases at a Swedish university hospital was selected for clinical testing. A convenience sample of 56 patient records with data on nutrition and skin care was analyzed and mapped to the ICNP. FINDINGS. Using the ICNP terminology, 59%-62% of the record content describing nursing phenomena and 30%-44% of the nursing interventions in the areas of nutrition and skin care could be expressed satisfactorily. For about a quarter of the content describing nursing phenomena and interventions, no corresponding ICNP term was found. CONCLUSIONS. The ICNP needs to be further developed to allow representation of the entire range of nursing care. Terms need to be developed to express patient participation and preferences, normal conditions, qualitative dimensions and characteristics, nonhuman focus, and duration. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. The practical usefulness of the ICNP needs further testing before conclusions about its clinical benefits can be determined. Search terms: ICNP®, nursing classification, standardized terminology, VIPS [source]

    Theory of chemical bonds in metalloenzymes.


    Abstract Reaction mechanisms of oxygen evolution in native and artificial photosynthesis II (PSII) systems have been investigated on the theoretical grounds, together with experimental results. First of all, our previous broken-symmetry (BS) molecular orbitals (MO) calculations are reviewed to elucidate the instability of the d,-p, bond in high-valent (HV) Mn(X)O systems and the d,-p,-d, bond in HV MnOMn systems. The triplet instability of these bonds entails strong or intermediate diradical characters: ,Mn(IV)O, and ,MnOMn,; the BS MO resulted from strong electron correlation, leading to the concept of electron localizations and local spins. The BS computations have furthermore revealed guiding principles for derivation of selection rules for radical reactions of local spins. As a continuation of these theoretical results, the BS MO interaction diagrams for oxygen-radical coupling reactions in the oxygen evolution complex (OEC) in the PSII have been depicted to reveal scope and applicability of local singlet diradical (LSD) and local triplet diradical (LTD) mechanisms that have been successfully utilized for theoretical understanding of oxygenation reactions mechanisms by p450 and methane monooxygenase (MMO). The manganese-oxide cluster models examined are London, Berlin, and Berkeley models of CaMn4O4 and related clusters Mn4O4 and Mn3Ca. The BS MO interaction diagrams have revealed the LSD and/or LTD mechanisms for generation of molecular oxygen in the total low-, intermediate and high-spin states of these clusters. The spin alignments are found directly corresponding to the spin-coupling mechanisms of oxygen-radical sites in these clusters. The BS UB3LYP calculations of the clusters have been performed to confirm the comprehensive guiding principles for oxygen evolution; charge and spin densities by BS UB3LYP are utilized for elucidation and confirmation of the LSD and LTD mechanisms. Applicability of the proposed selection rules are examined in comparison with a lot of accumulated experimental and theoretical results for oxygen evolution reactions in native and artificial PSII systems. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2010 [source]

    Semilocalized approach to investigation of chemical reactivity

    V. GineityteArticle first published online: 21 JUL 200
    Abstract Application of the power series for the one-electron density matrix Gineityte, V., J Mol Struct Theochem 1995, 343, 183 to the case of two interacting molecules is shown to yield a semilocalized approach to investigate chemical reactivity, which is characterized by the following distinctive features: (1) Electron density (ED) redistributions embracing orbitals of the reaction centers of both molecules and of their neighboring fragments are studied instead of the total intermolecular interaction energy; (2) the ED redistributions are expressed directly in the basis of fragmental orbitals (FOs) without passing to the basis of delocalized molecular orbitals (MOs) of initial molecules; (3) terms describing the ED redistributions due to an intermolecular contact arise as additive corrections to the purely monomolecular terms and thereby may be analyzed independently; (4) local ED redistributions only between orbitals of the reaction centers of both molecules are described by lower-order ter s of the power series, whereas those embracing both the reaction centers and their neighborhoods are represented by higher-order terms. As opposed to the standard perturbative methods based on invoking the delocalized (canonical) MOs of isolated molecules, the results of the approach suggested are in-line with the well-known intuition-based concepts of the classic chemistry concerning reactivity, namely, with the assumption about different roles of the reaction center and of its neighborhood in a chemical process, with the expectation about extinction of the indirect influence of a certain fragment (substituent) when its distance from the reaction center grows, etc. Such a parallelism yields quantum chemical analogs for the classic concepts and thereby gives an additional insight into their nature. The scope of validity of these concepts also is discussed. Applicability of the approach suggested to specific chemical problems is illustrated by a brief consideration of the SN2 and AdE2 reactions. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem 94: 302,316, 2003 [source]

    Design of active inductors in SiGe/SiGe:C processes for RF applications

    A. Chakravorty
    Abstract Applicability of silicon-based heterojunction bipolar processes is investigated for designing active inductors with high quality factors (Q). Results for grounded type one-port active inductor incorporating frequency-dependent as well as frequency-independent negative resistances are examined. Later, the negative resistance aspect is extended from one-port to two-port active inductor circuit to ensure its use as a series element. The enhanced Q -values of all the inductive circuits are observed in accordance with the theory. Moderately high- Q values (,100) with considerable inductances (,0.2,1 nH) are obtained in the RF frequency ranges (,5,9 GHz). © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J RF and Microwave CAE, 2007. [source]

    Genetic heterogeneity and functional properties of intestinal bifidobacteria

    J. Mättö
    Abstract Aims:, The aim of the present study was to compare several molecular methods for the identification and genotyping of bifidobacteria, and further to investigate genetic heterogeneity and functional properties of bifidobacterial isolates from intestinal samples of Finnish adult subjects. Methods and Results:, A total of 153 intestinal bifidobacterial isolates were included in initial screening and 34 isolates were further characterized. Identification results obtained with PCR,ELISA and ribotyping were well in accordance with each other, while randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) gave tentative identification only to Bifidobacterium bifidum and to 65% of the B. longum isolates. The most commonly detected species were B. longum biotype longum followed by B. adolescentis and B. bifidum. In addition, B. animalis (lactis), B. angulatum and B. pseudocatenulatum were found. Ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) proved to be discriminatory methods for bifidobacteria, but also RAPD revealed intraspecies heterogeneity. Besides two B. animalis (lactis) isolates with very close similarity to a commercially available probiotic strain, none of the intestinal isolates showed optimal survival in all tolerance (acid, bile and oxygen) or growth performance tests. Conclusions:, Several species/strains of bifidobacteria simultaneously colonize the gastrointestinal tract of healthy Finnish adults and intestinal Bifidobacterium isolates were genetically heterogeneous. Functional properties of bifidobacteria were strain-dependent. Significance and Impact of the Study:, Applicability of ribotyping with the automated RiboPrinter® System for identification and genotyping of bifidobacteria was shown in the present study. [source]

    A semi-empirical cell voltage model for polymer electrolyte/methanol systems: Applicability of the group contribution method

    Ji Yun Seong
    Abstract A new group contribution model is established to describe the cell voltage of a direct methanol fuel cell as a function of the current density. The model equation is validated with experimental data over a wide range of methanol concentrations and temperatures. The proposed model focuses on very unfavorable conditions for cell operation, that is, low methanol solution concentrations and relatively low cell temperatures. The proposed group contribution method includes a methanol crossover effect that plays a major role in determining the cell voltage of a direct methanol fuel cell. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Applicability of MNDO techniques AM1 and PM3 to ring-structured polymers

    L. Y. A. Dávila
    Abstract Semiempirical Hartree-Fock techniques are widely used to study properties of long ring-structured chains, although these types of systems were not included in the original parametrization ensembles. These techniques are very useful for an ample class of studies, and their predictive power should be tested. We present here a study of the applicability of some techniques from the NDDO family (MNDO, AM1, and PM3) to the calculation of the ground state geometries of a specific set of molecules with the ring-structure characteristic. For this we have chosen to compare results against ab initio Restricted Hartree-Fock 6-31G(d,p) calculations, extended to Møller-Plesset 2 perturbation theory for special cases. The systems investigated comprise the orthobenzoquinone (O2C6H4) molecule and dimers (O2C6H4)2, as well as trimers of polyaniline, which present characteristics that extend to several systems of interest in the field of conducting polymers, such as ring structure and heterosubstitution. We focus on the torsion between rings, because this angle is known to affect strongly the electronic and optical properties of conjugated polymers. We find that AM1 is always in qualitative agreement with the ab initio results, and is thus indicated for further studies of longer, more complicated chains. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 23: 1135,1142, 2002 [source]

    Applicability of laser-induced Raman microscopy for in situ monitoring of imine formation in a glass microfluidic chip

    Moonkwon Lee
    Abstract Laser-induced Raman microscopy has been used to illustrate its applicability for the in situ monitoring of imine formation reaction in a glass microfluidic chip. In order to monitor the diffusion process in a micro channel, the Raman spectra were measured at various points along the channel with a constant flow rate of 2.7 µl min,1. Time-dependent Raman spectra were also measured without flow in order to monitor the variation of Raman peaks to a complete conversion. The disappearance of the CO stretching peak at 1700 cm,1 of the reactant, benzaldehyde, and the appearance of the Raman peak for the product, an imine, at 1628 cm,1 were successfully monitored. In addition, the intensity increases of three phenyl stretching modes in the 1550,1630 cm,1 region were also observed. The increase in Raman intensity for this vibrational mode is caused by an effective ,-electron conjugation between two phenyl rings through the ,CN,bridging group of the product. Laser-induced Raman microscopy enables us to monitor in situ product formation and to obtain detailed structural information in a glass microfluidic chip. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Applicability of the reported prevalence of bile salt malabsorption in irritable bowel

    A. C. Ford
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Applicability of the reported prevalence of bile salt malabsorption in irritable bowel: authors' reply

    L. Wedlake
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Microgel-Based Engineered Nanostructures and Their Applicability with Template-Directed Layer-by-Layer Polyelectrolyte Assembly in Protein Encapsulation

    Dinesh B. Shenoy
    Abstract Summary: A novel strategy for the fabrication of microcapsules is elaborated by employing biomacromolecules and a dissolvable template. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) microparticles were used as sacrificial templates for the two-step deposition of polyelectrolyte coatings by surface controlled precipitation (SCP) followed by the layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption technique to form capsule shells. When sodium alginate was used for inner shell assembly, template decomposition with an acid resulted in simultaneous formation of microgel-like structures due to calcium ion-induced gelation. An extraction of the calcium after further LbL treatment resulted in microcapsules filled with the biopolymer. The hollow as well as the polymer-filled polyelectrolyte capsules were characterized using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning force microscopy (SFM). The results demonstrated multiple functionalities of the CaCO3 core , as supporting template, porous core for increased polymer accommodation/immobilization, and as a source of shell-hardening material. The LbL treatment of the core-inner shell assembly resulted in further surface stabilization of the capsule wall and supplementation of a nanostructured diffusion barrier for encapsulated material. The polymer forming the inner shell governs the chemistry of the capsule interior and could be engineered to obtain a matrix for protein/drug encapsulation or immobilization. The outer shell could be used to precisely tune the properties of the capsule wall and exterior. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) image of microcapsules (insert is after treating with rhodamine 6G to stain the capsule wall). [source]

    Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Microspheres as Carriers for Bienzyme System: Preparation and Characterization

    Nadezda G. Balabushevich
    Abstract Summary: Polyelectrolyte multilayer microspheres were prepared by alternating adsorption of dextran sulfate and protamine on melamine formaldehyde cores followed by the partial decomposition of the core. Peroxidase and glucose oxidase were immobilized in the prepared microspheres. Retention of enzymatic activity of the peroxidase/glucose oxidase system incorporated into the microspheres was demonstrated. Applicability of the bienzyme system immobilized in the microspheres for kinetic glucose assay was shown. SEM image of the polyelectrolyte multilayer microsphere. [source]

    Investigation of ion beam techniques for the analysis and exposure of particles encapsulated by silica aerogel: Applicability for Stardust

    G. A. GRAHAM
    These particles will be the first sample return from a solid planetary body since the Apollo missions. In preparation for the return, analogue particles were implanted into a keystone of silica aerogel that had been extracted from bulk silica aerogel using the optical technique described in Westphal et al. (2004). These particles were subsequently analyzed using analytical techniques associated with the use of a nuclear microprobe. The particles have been analyzed using: a) scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) that enables quantitative density imaging; b) proton elastic scattering analysis (PESA) and proton backscattering (PBS) for the detection of light elements including hydrogen; and c) proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for elements with Z > 11. These analytical techniques have enabled us to quantify the composition of the encapsulated particles. A significant observation from the study is the variable column density of the silica aerogel. We also observed organic contamination within the silica aerogel. The implanted particles were then subjected to focused ion beam (FIB) milling using a 30 keV gallium ion beam to ablate silica aerogel in site-specific areas to expose embedded particles. An ion polished flat surface of one of the particles was also prepared using the FIB. Here, we show that ion beam techniques have great potential in assisting with the analysis and exposure of Stardust particles. [source]

    (Q)SARs for Predicting Skin Irritation and Corrosion: Mechanisms, Transparency and Applicability of Predictions


    Abstract This paper describes previously-developed (quantitative) structure-activity relationships [(Q)SARs]for predicting skin irritation and corrosion, proposes mechanisms of skin irritation and corrosion, and discusses the transparency and applicability of predictions. This paper was written to set the tone for companion papers that describe three applications of skin irritation and corrosion (Q)SARs. The first companion paper describes physicochemical property limits that can be used to develop rules for identifying chemical substances with no skin irritation or corrosion potential. The second companion paper describes structural alerts that can be used to develop rules for identifying chemical substances with skin irritation or corrosion potential. The third companion paper describes the Skin Irritation Corrosion Rules Estimation Tool (SICRET), a user-friendly tool that allows non-(Q)SAR experts to identify chemical substances with skin irritation or corrosion potential based on physicochemical property limits and structural alerts. [source]

    Supermarket Sales Data: Feasibility and Applicability in Population Food and Nutrition Monitoring

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 1 2007
    Sandar Tin Tin MBBS
    Population food and nutrition monitoring plays a critical role in understanding suboptimal nutrition at the population level, yet current monitoring methods such as national surveys are not practical to undertake on a continuous basis. Supermarket sales data potentially address this gap by providing detailed, timely, and inexpensive monitoring data for informing policies and anticipating trends. This paper reviews 22 studies that used supermarket sales data to examine food purchasing patterns. Despite some methodological limitations, feasibility studies showed promising results. The potential and limitations of using supermarket sales data to supplement food and nutrition monitoring methods are discussed [source]

    Essential thrombocythemia in patients with platelet counts below 600x109/L: Applicability of the 2008 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria revision proposal,

    Mi Kwon
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Applicability of electrical resistivity tomography monitoring to coarse blocky and ice-rich permafrost landforms

    C. Hilbich
    Abstract The inversion and interpretation of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data from coarse blocky and ice-rich permafrost sites are challenging due to strong resistivity contrasts and high contact resistances. To assess temporal changes during ERT monitoring (ERTM), corresponding inversion artefacts have to be separated from true subsurface changes. Appraisal techniques serve to analyse an ERTM data set from a rockglacier, including synthetic modelling, the depth of investigation index technique and the so-called resolution matrix approach. The application of these methods led step by step to the identification of unreliable model regions and thus to the improvement in interpretation of temporal resistivity changes. An important result is that resistivity values of model regions with strong resistivity contrasts and highly resistive features are generally of critical reliability, and resistivity changes within or below the ice core of a rockglacier should therefore not be interpreted as a permafrost signal. Conversely, long-term degradation phenomena in terms of warming of massive ground ice at the permafrost table are detectable by ERTM. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Ab initio theory of exchange interactions in itinerant magnets

    I. Turek
    Abstract The paper reviews an ab initio two-step procedure to determine thermodynamic properties of itinerant magnets. In the first step, the selfconsistent electronic structure of a system is calculated using the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital method combined with Green function techniques. In the second step, the parameters of the effective classical Heisenberg Hamiltonian are determined using the magnetic force theorem and they are employed in subsequent evaluation of magnon spectra, the spin-wave stiffness constants and the Curie/Néel temperatures. Applicability of the developed scheme is illustrated by investigations of selected properties of 3d metals Fe, Co, and Ni, diluted magnetic semiconductors (Ga,Mn)As, and 4f metals Gd and Eu. [source]