Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Medication

  • active medication
  • additional medication
  • adjuvant medication
  • agonist medication
  • analgesic medication
  • anti-diabetic medication
  • anti-inflammatory medication
  • antiarrhythmic medication
  • anticholinergic medication
  • anticoagulant medication
  • anticonvulsant medication
  • antidepressant medication
  • antidiabetic medication
  • antiepileptic medication
  • antifungal medication
  • antihypertensive medication
  • antiparkinsonian medication
  • antiplatelet medication
  • antipsychotic medication
  • antireflux medication
  • antiretroviral medication
  • antiviral medication
  • asthma medication
  • atypical antipsychotic medication
  • cardiac medication
  • cardiovascular medication
  • cessation medication
  • chronic medication
  • cold medication
  • concomitant medication
  • concurrent medication
  • controller medication
  • conventional medication
  • current medication
  • diabetes medication
  • dopaminergic medication
  • effective medication
  • glaucoma medication
  • headache medication
  • immunosuppressive medication
  • inappropriate medication
  • inhibitor medication
  • intracanal medication
  • lipid lowering medication
  • lowering medication
  • multiple medication
  • neuroleptic medication
  • new medication
  • one medication
  • oral medication
  • other antihypertensive medication
  • other medication
  • over-the-counter medication
  • pain medication
  • prescribed medication
  • prescription medication
  • preventive medication
  • psychiatric medication
  • psychoactive medication
  • psychotropic medication
  • same medication
  • smoking cessation medication
  • specific medication
  • stimulant medication
  • study medication
  • symptomatic medication
  • systemic medication
  • taking medication
  • topical medication
  • trial medication
  • used medication

  • Terms modified by Medication

  • medication adherence
  • medication adherence report scale
  • medication administration
  • medication available
  • medication change
  • medication communication
  • medication compliance
  • medication condition
  • medication cost
  • medication data
  • medication decreased
  • medication discontinuation
  • medication dosage
  • medication dose
  • medication effects
  • medication error
  • medication exposure
  • medication history
  • medication list
  • medication management
  • medication non-adherence
  • medication non-compliance
  • medication order
  • medication possession ratio
  • medication prescribing
  • medication prescription
  • medication record
  • medication regimen
  • medication requirement
  • medication review
  • medication safety
  • medication score
  • medication side effects
  • medication side-effect
  • medication treatment
  • medication type
  • medication usage
  • medication use
  • medication used

  • Selected Abstracts


    Bruce I. Gaynes OD, PharmD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    B. P. L. Wijnhoven
    Purpose It is thought that a substantial number of patients who undergo anti-reflux surgery use anti-reflux medication post operatively, despite no objective evidence of reflux. This study aims to determine the prevalence and underlying reasons for anti-reflux medication usage in patients after anti-reflux surgery. Methodology A questionnaire (13 questions) on the usage of anti-reflux medication was sent to 1016 patients from a prospective database of anti-reflux surgery patients. Results 852 patients (84%), (437 males & 415 females with a mean age 58 yrs) returned the questionnaire. Mean follow up was 5.9 yrs after surgery. A single or combination of medications was being taken by 319 patients (37%): 82% proton pump inhibitors, 9% H2-blockers and 34% antacids. 54 patients (18%) had never stopped taking medication, whereas 261 patients (82%) re-started medication at a mean of 2.4 yrs after surgery. Persistent or return of the same or different symptoms was the reason for taking medication by the vast majority (85%), whereas 15% were asymptomatic or had other reasons for medication use. A response of symptoms to the medication occurred for 30% of the patients, whereas 64% noticed some improvement. Postoperative 24-hour pH studies (while off medication) were abnormal in 17/62 patients (27%) on medication and in 5/73 patients (6%) not taking medication. Conclusions Anti-reflux medication is frequently taken by patients for symptoms after surgery, despite normal pH profiles in the majority. Strategies need to be employed to lower the inappropriate use of medications after surgery and to further evaluate the mechanisms underlying postoperative symptoms, which are non-responsive to anti-reflux medication. [source]


    Adam G. Golden MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Santosh B. Murthy MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Mark J. Rapoport MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Article first published online: 29 APR 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Development and validation of the Diabetes Obstacles Questionnaire (DOQ) to assess obstacles in living with Type 2 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 8 2007
    H. Hearnshaw
    Abstract Aims To develop and validate an easy-to-use questionnaire to identify obstacles to self management in Type 2 diabetes. Methods The Diabetes Obstacles Questionnaire (DOQ) was developed from earlier research and the literature. It was completed by 180 people with Type 2 diabetes, recruited from 22 general practices in the UK. Responders also completed a quality-of-life questionnaire (ADDQoL) and the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale. Results From analysis of the 176 usable questionnaires, 36 items of the original 113 items were deemed redundant. The remaining 77 items were assembled into eight sub-scales covering Medication, Self Monitoring, Knowledge and Beliefs, Diagnosis, Relationships with Health-Care Professionals, Lifestyle Changes, Coping, and Advice and Support. Each sub-scale had a factor structure of no more than three factors, had Cronbach's alpha of more than 0.75, and a Kaiser,Meyer,Olkin of more than 0.75. Each sub-scale correlated significantly with the PAID scale (P < 0.01), demonstrating criterion validity. Construct validity was shown by significant correlation between HbA1c and the sub-scales which relate to managing blood glucose levels: Self Monitoring, Relationship with Health-Care Professionals, Lifestyle Changes and Coping. Construct validity was further shown by significant correlation between QoL scores and Medication, Lifestyle Changes and Coping. Discussion The DOQ, comprising eight sub-scales, is a usable, valid instrument for both clinical and research settings. It helps to identify in detail the obstacles which an individual finds in living with Type 2 diabetes. [source]

    Early intervention with second-generation antipsychotics in first-episode psychosis: results of an 8-week naturalistic study

    Richard C. Josiassen
    Abstract Objective: The objective was to compare short-term effectiveness of aripiprazole with three other second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in the treatment of first-episode psychosis. Method: In a naturalistic, ,single-blind' design, 60 subjects experiencing their first psychotic episode were treated for 8 weeks with aripiprazole (n = 19), risperidone (n = 16), olanzapine (n = 14) or quetiapine (n = 11). Medication and dosing decisions were made by treating psychiatrists, constrained to once-a-day dosing, low initial doses and no clozapine. Weekly ratings were obtained using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Simpson-Angus Rating Scale and Barnes Akathasia Rating Scale. Weight and vital signs were also collected weekly. Results: The group presented with severe psychotic symptoms (mean baseline PANSS total score of 105.2), which were reduced rapidly (P < 0.0005). The between-group and group by time interaction terms were non-significant. Similar reductions were seen across all PANSS sub-scales. At Week 1 the mean PANSS Activation Scale score was reduced more with olanzapine than in the other groups (P < 0.002). Few instances of extrapyramidal symptoms occurred; all were sporadic and did not require treatment. Group body weight increased by 7.3% over the study. Vital signs remained unchanged. Conclusions: Early intervention with low doses of four SGAs led to rapid symptom reduction in first-episode psychotic patients with severe psychopathology. Although no clear medication advantages were observed in the short term, longer duration studies with larger samples will be required for determining efficacy, rates of compliance, relapse prevention and diminished incidence of extrapyramidal signs and symptoms. [source]

    Randomized controlled trial of dexamphetamine maintenance for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2010
    Marie Longo
    ABSTRACT Aim To investigate the safety and efficacy of once-daily supervised oral administration of sustained-release dexamphetamine in people dependent on methamphetamine. Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants Forty-nine methamphetamine-dependent drug users from Drug and Alcohol Services South Australia (DASSA) clinics. Intervention Participants were assigned randomly to receive up to 110 mg/day sustained-release dexamphetamine (n = 23) or placebo (n = 26) for a maximum of 12 weeks, with gradual reduction of the study medication over an additional 4 weeks. Medication was taken daily under pharmacist supervision. Measurements Primary outcome measures included treatment retention, measures of methamphetamine consumption (self-report and hair analysis), degree of methamphetamine dependence and severity of methamphetamine withdrawal. Hair samples were analysed for methamphetamine using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Findings Treatment retention was significantly different between groups, with those who received dexamphetamine remaining in treatment for an average of 86.3 days compared with 48.6 days for those receiving placebo (P = 0.014). There were significant reductions in self-reported methamphetamine use between baseline and follow-up within each group (P < 0.0001), with a trend to a greater reduction among the dexamphetamine group (P = 0.086). Based on hair analysis, there was a significant decrease in methamphetamine concentration for both groups (P < 0.0001). At follow-up, degree of methamphetamine dependence was significantly lower in the dexamphetamine group (P = 0.042). Dexamphetamine maintenance was not associated with serious adverse events. Conclusions The results of this preliminary study have demonstrated that a maintenance pharmacotherapy programme of daily sustained-release amphetamine dispensing under pharmacist supervision is both feasible and safe. The increased retention in the dexamphetamine group, together with the general decreases in methamphetamine use, degree of dependence and withdrawal symptom severity, provide preliminary evidence that this may be an efficacious treatment option for methamphetamine dependence. [source]

    Thyroid Function in Girls with Epilepsy with Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine, or Valproate Monotherapy and after Withdrawal of Medication

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 3 2004
    Leena K. Vainionpää
    Summary: Purpose: Antiepileptic drugs may affect the serum thyroid hormone concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function in 78 girls taking carbamazepine (CBZ), oxcarbazepine (OXC), or valproate (VPA) monotherapy for epilepsy and after withdrawal of the treatment. Methods: Forty-one girls taking VPA, 19 taking CBZ, and 18 taking OXC for epilepsy, as well as 54 healthy age-matched controls, aged 8 to 18 years, participated in the study. All the girls were examined clinically, and their pubertal stage was assessed. Blood samples were obtained for thyroid hormone and antibody assays. These examinations were repeated after a mean follow-up of 5.8 years to assess thyroid function, and 64 (82%) of 78 patients and 42 (78%) of 54 controls agreed to participate in the second evaluation. Results: In the first evaluation, the mean serum thyroid hormone concentrations were lower in the girls taking CBZ [thyroxine (T4), 70.2; SD, 10.9 nM; and free thyroxine (FT4), 11.5; SD, 1.8 pM] or OXC (T4, 74.9; SD, 16.4 nM; and FT4, 11.3; SD, 1.8 pM) than in the control girls (T4, 96.6; SD, 15.1 nM, and FT4, 14.4; SD, 1.5 pM; p < 0.001, all comparisons). However, thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations were normal in the girls taking CBZ or OXC. Sixty-three% of the girls taking CBZ and 67% of the girls taking OXC had serum T4 and/or FT4 levels below the lower limit of the reference range. The VPA-treated girls with epilepsy had normal serum T4 and FT4 concentrations, but slightly increased TSH levels (3.3; SD, 1.5 mU/L; p < 0.01) compared with the control girls (2.5; SD, 1.0 mU/L). Normal serum hormone concentrations were restored in the patients who discontinued the medication. Conclusions: Both CBZ and OXC reduce serum thyroid hormone concentrations in girls with epilepsy. Conversely, VPA is associated with normal serum thyroid hormone and increased thyrotropin levels. However, our results suggest that the changes in serum thyroid hormone and thyrotropin levels are reversible after withdrawal of the medication. [source]

    EFNS task force on management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: guidelines for diagnosing and clinical care of patients and relatives

    An evidence-based review with good practice points
    Despite being one of the most devastating diseases known, there is little evidence for diagnosing and managing patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Although specific therapy is lacking, correct early diagnosis and introduction of symptomatic and specific therapy can have a profound influence on the care and quality of life of the patient and may increase survival time. This document addresses the optimal clinical approach to ALS. The final literature search was performed in the spring of 2005. Consensus recommendations are given graded according to the EFNS guidance regulations. Where there was lack of evidence but consensus was clear we have stated our opinion as good practice points. People affected with possible ALS should be examined as soon as possible by an experienced neurologist. Early diagnosis should be pursued and a number of investigations should be performed with high priority. The patient should be informed of the diagnosis by a consultant with a good knowledge of the patient and the disease. Following diagnosis, the patient and relatives should receive regular support from a multidisciplinary care team. Medication with riluzole should be initiated as early as possible. PEG is associated with improved nutrition and should be inserted early. The operation is hazardous in patients with vital capacity <50%. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation improves survival and quality of life but is underused. Maintaining the patients ability to communicate is essential. During the entire course of the disease, every effort should be made to maintain patient autonomy. Advance directives for palliative end of life care are important and should be fully discussed early with the patient and relatives respecting the patients social and cultural background. [source]

    Research Submission: Chronic Headache and Comorbibities: A Two-Phase, Population-Based, Cross-Sectional Study

    HEADACHE, Issue 8 2010
    Ariovaldo Da Silva Jr MD
    Background., Studies using resources of a public family health program to estimate the prevalence of chronic daily headaches (CDH) are lacking. Objectives., To estimate the 1-year prevalence of CDH, as well as the presence of associated psychiatric and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) comorbidities, on the entire population of a city representative of the rural area of Brazil. Methods., This was a cross-sectional, population-based, 2-phase study. In the first phase, health agents interviewed all individuals older than 10 years, in a rural area of Brazil. In the second stage, all individuals who reported headaches on 4 or more days per week were then evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. CDH were classified according to the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2). Medication overuse headache was diagnosed, as per the ICHD-2, after detoxification trials. Psychiatric comorbidities and TMD were diagnosed based on the DSM-IV and on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders criteria, respectively. Results., A total of 1631 subjects participated in the direct interviews. Of them, 57 (3.6%) had CDH. Chronic migraine was the most common of the CDH (21, 36.8%). Chronic tension-type headache (10, 17.5%), medication overuse headache (13, 22.8%) and probable medication overuse headache (10, 17.5%) were also common. Psychiatric disorders were observed in 38 (67.3%) of the CDH subjects. TMD were seen in 33 (58.1)% of them. Conclusions., The prevalence of CDH in the rural area of Brazil is similar to what has been reported in previous studies. A significant proportion of them have psychiatric comorbidities and/or TMD. In this sample, comorbidities were as frequent as reported in convenience samples from tertiary headache centers. (Headache 2010;50:1306-1312) [source]

    Expert Opinion: Rescue Me: Rescue Medication for Migraine

    HEADACHE, Issue 2 2010
    Chad Whyte MD
    (Headache 2010;50:307-313) [source]

    Occipital Nerve Blocks: Effect of Symptomatic Medication

    HEADACHE, Issue 10 2009
    Headache Type on Failure Rate, Overuse
    Objective., To explore the effect of symptomatic medication overuse (SMO) and headache type on occipital nerve block (ONB) efficacy. Methods., We conducted a chart review of all of the ONBs performed in our clinic over a 2-year period. Results., Of 108 ONBs with follow-up data, ONB failed in 22% of injections overall. Of the other 78%, the mean decrease in head pain was 83%, and the benefit lasted a mean of 6.6 weeks. Failure rate without SMO was 16% overall, and with SMO was 44% overall (P < .000). In those who did respond, overall magnitude and duration of response did not differ between those with and those without SMO. Without SMO, ONB failure rate was 0% for postconcussive syndrome, 14% for occipital neuralgia, 11% for non-intractable migraine, and 39% for intractable migraine. With SMO, failure rate increased by 24% (P = .14) in occipital neuralgia, by 36% (P = .08) for all migraine, and by 52% (P = .04) for non-intractable migraine. Conclusions., SMO tripled the risk of ONB failure, possibly because medication overuse headache does not respond to ONB. SMO increased ONB failure rate more in migraineurs than in those with occipital neuralgia, possibly because migraineurs are particularly susceptible to medication overuse headache. This effect was much more pronounced in non-intractable migraineurs than in intractable migraineurs. [source]

    Migraine Prevention: What Patients Want From Medication and Their Physicians (A Headache Specialty Clinic Perspective)

    HEADACHE, Issue 5 2006
    Todd D. Rozen MD
    Objective.,To document the results of a migraine patients survey, from a headache specialty clinic, in which patients were asked to rank, in order of importance, certain characteristics of migraine preventive treatment. Methods.,A 10-question survey was completed by 150 patients (114 females and 36 males) with a history of migraine who presented to the Michigan Head Pain & Neurological Institute. The patients were asked to rank, in order of importance, characteristics of migraine preventive treatment. Each characteristic was rated individually on a 1 to 10 scale (1 being of little importance and 10 being extremely important). The mean rating of each characteristic was then calculated and the results analyzed. Results/Discussion.,From this migraine preventive treatment survey, the most important thing to migraineurs, from a headache specialty clinic population, is that the prescribing physician involves them in the decision making of choosing a preventive agent. The physician taking time to explain the possible medication side effects is the second most highly ranked characteristic. Migraine preventives with published efficacy in the medical literature are also deemed very important. Migraineurs do not mind using more than 1 preventive agent at one time if greater efficacy can be achieved. Agents that may affect weight and /or cause sedation may be important factors as to why patients (especially females) may not want to take a preventive medication. Natural therapies and once-daily dosing are ranked lower overall but still are important characteristics of preventive treatment. Some gender differences are noted in the ranking of migraine preventive characteristics. [source]

    Cradling in the prevention of excessive crying and colic symptoms in infants

    Elina Hyödynmaa
    To evaluate lying in a cradle in the prevention of excessive infant crying or colic symptoms, and to investigate potential protective or risk factors for the phenomenon, 220 newborns were randomized to sleep either in a bed or cot (control group, N = 108) or in a cradle (cradle group, N = 112). During three months, the parents filled in diaries on the sleeping place most used and the amount of crying of their infants. Three infants in the cradle group and one control fulfilled the criteria of colic. The percentages of extremely weepy infants (25.7% vs 24.4 %) and the intensity of crying did not differ between the groups. Medication for colic symptoms was used equally frequently in both groups. A high educational (OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.01; 10.04) and socioeconomic (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.34; 10.52) level of the family and having a sibling with a history of colic (OR 6.46, 95% CI 1.17; 35.73) were predictors for the infant being weepy. Absence of nursing problems and having no sibling with a history of colic seemed to be related with a low amount of crying. Excessive infant crying was less common in families with unemployed fathers compared to those in which the father had an occupation (p = 0.018). Cradling seems not to prevent excessive crying or colic symptoms in infants. Breast-feeding guidance during rooming-in period and presence of father or another adult supporter at home might be preventive means against excessive crying. [source]

    Predictors of medication compliance among older heart failure patients

    Krystyna Cholowski PhD
    Aim. To examine relationships between psycho-social and patho-physiological measures in explaining medication compliance in older heart failure (HF) patients. Background. Self-efficacy is a predictor not only of medication compliance, but also health recovery. How older HF patients conceptualize and manage this life-threatening event is central to ongoing rehabilitation. Regulating ongoing medical and lifestyle changes in the rehabilitation process requires that any underlying negative affect be productively managed by the use of appropriate coping strategies. Method. Using an exploratory correlational design, 51 older HF patients were asked to complete the Beck Depression Inventory, Beliefs about Medication and Diet Questionnaire, Reactions to Daily Events Questionnaire and Self-regulation scale. A self-report measure of medication compliance was obtained as part of a semi-structured interview. The study was conducted in 2003,2004. Results. Using descriptive statistics, patho-physiological and psychosocial characteristics were given. Independent t -tests were used to assess the gender effects. Pairwise correlations were used to examine the relationships between presenting circumstances, psychosocial characteristics, medication compliance beliefs and self-reported medication compliance behaviours. All positive coping strategies and self-regulation were associated with positive intentions in medication compliance. Males were more inclined towards proactive coping and self-regulatory strategies than were females. Increased depressive symptoms were linked to carelessness in compliance. A belief in medication compliance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carelessness Conclusion. Bandura's three conditions for agency in rehabilitation, self-efficacy and goal-directed intention appeared to be important even in the early phase of the programme. Positive coping strategies and self-regulation suggests a positive basis for medication compliance and more successful ongoing rehabilitation for older HF patients. We identify a significantly enhanced educative role for nurses in this context. Relevance to clinical practice. We suggest that nurses dealing with compliance issues among older patients need to monitor behaviour through addressing both the quality of affect during the patient's response to HF (self-concept, -esteem and -efficacy) as well as the quality of health-related metacognitive knowledge underlying the self-regulatory decisions (such as the patients conceptions of ,wellness' and the strategic knowledge underpinning its achievement and maintenance). [source]

    Which Providers Should Communicate Which Critical Information About a New Medication?

    Patient, Pharmacist, Physician Perspectives
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate older patient, pharmacist, and physician perspectives about what information is essential to impart to patients receiving new medication prescriptions and who should provide the information. DESIGN: Qualitative focus group discussions. SETTINGS: Senior centers, retail pharmacies, and primary care physician offices. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two patients aged 65 and older, 13 pharmacists, and 17 physicians participated in eight focus groups. MEASUREMENT: Qualitative analysis of transcribed focus group interviews and consensus through iterative review by multidisciplinary auditors. RESULTS: Patient, pharmacist, and physician groups all affirmed the importance of discussing medication directions and side effects and said that physicians should educate about side effects and that pharmacists could adequately counsel about certain important issues. However, there was substantial disagreement between groups about which provider could communicate which critical elements of medication-related information. Some pharmacists felt that they were best equipped to discuss medication-related issues but acknowledged that many patients want physicians to do this. Physicians tended to believe that they should provide most new-medication education for patients. Patients had mixed preferences. Patients aged 80 and older listed fewer critical topics of discussion than younger patients. CONCLUSION: Patients, pharmacists, and physicians have incongruent beliefs about who should provide essential medication-related information. Differing expectations could lead to overlapping, inefficient efforts that result in communication deficiencies when patients receive a new medication. Collaborative efforts to ensure that patients receive complete information about new medications could be explored. [source]

    Reduction in the Sodium Currents in Isolated Ventricular Myocytes of Guinea Pigs Treated by Chronic L-Thyroxin Medication

    Yu-Ping Ma
    Objective: Cardiac remodeling induced by chronic medication of L-thyroxin is manifested by a much more severe cardiac arrhythmias on the occlusion/reperfusion of the coronary artery in rats. A pattern of changes in ion currents in a diseased heart (L-thyroxin induced cardiac remodeling) is possibly provided as a basis of promoting malignant cardiac arrhythmias. An enhanced delayed outward rectifier potassium currents the rapid (IKr) and slow (IKS) component was found in the remodeled heart by L-thyroxin chronic medication. It is interested to investigate the changes in the sodium currents in the L-thyroxin remodeled guinea pig ventricle. Method: The remodeling model in guinea pig was developed by L-thyroxin 4 mg po for 10 days. On d 11, the heart was removed and perfused to isolate ventricular myocytes with medium of Ca2+ free medium containing collagen. The whole cell holding technique was applied. Results: The INa density in the L-thyroxin caused hypertrophied myocytes was reduced significantly at holding potential ,30 mV, ,53.20 +/,10.78pA/pF against ,73.78+/,14.66pA/pF in the normal. (n = 45, p < 0.001). No difference in the steady-state inactivation and recovery kinetics between the remodeled and the normal was found. The recovery constant 37.54+/,3.63 ms in the remodeled vs 36.57+/,2.81 ms in the normal (n = 18, p > 0.05). The accelerated deactivation time constant 3.67+/,0.14 of the remodeled (n = 39) against the normal 4.14+/,0.15 ms (n = 43) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: There is a reduced INa in the L-thyroxin remodeled ventricular myocytes and the deactivation of the current is accelerated. A changed depolarization of the affected myocardium is likely involved in the mechanism of arrhythmogenesis of the remodeled ventricle. [source]

    ASH Position Paper: Adherence and Persistence With Taking Medication to Control High Blood Pressure

    Martha N. Hill RN
    J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2010;12:757-764. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Nonadherence and poor or no persistence in taking antihypertensive medications results in uncontrolled high blood pressure, poor clinical outcomes, and preventable health care costs. Factors associated with nonadherence are multilevel and relate not only to the patient, but also to the provider, health care system, health care organization, and community. National guideline committees have called for more aggressive approaches to implement strategies known to improve adherence and technologies known to enable changes at the systems level, including improved communication among providers and patients. Improvements in adherence and persistence are likely to be achieved by supporting patient self-management, a team approach to patient care, technology-supported office practice systems, better methods to measure adherence, and less clinical inertia. Integrating high blood pressure control into health care policies that emphasize and improve prevention and management of chronic illness remains a challenge. Four strategies are proposed: focusing on clinical outcomes; empowering informed, activated patients; developing prepared proactive practice teams; and advocating for health care policy reform. With hypertension remaining the most common reason for office visits, the time is now. [source]

    Effective Treatment of Hypertension Without Medication: Is It Possible?

    Marvin Moser MD Editor in Chief
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A structured observation of the interaction between nurses and patients during the administration of medication in an acute mental health unit

    Joy A Duxbury
    Aims., This aims of this study are to describe current practice in the administration of medication in an acute psychiatric unit and explore factors that influence nurses' decisions regarding the administration of medication during ,rounds'. Background., Medication ,rounds' form part of the ward routine in many inpatient mental health settings. Nurses make several clinical decisions about administrating medication; yet, concerns have been raised about the poor assessment of patients' needs and the quality of the information exchanged. Design., A structured non-participant observational design was used for this research. Method., This study involved the observation of 20 medication ,rounds' over three months. The Ward Administration of Medication Schedule was used to report on the interactions between nurses and patients and aspects of their communication during each round. Results., From the rounds observed nurses appeared adept at communicating a positive interpersonal style but less so in demonstrating skills portraying collaboration and information giving. For example whilst nurses communicated warmth in 97% of cases, using non-verbal behaviours such as good eye contact, the provision of information was only initiated in 46% of cases. Enquiries regarding the patient's general health and medication taking (35% and 17% respectively) were less commonly observed. Verbal consent was sought in only 25% of cases. Procedural matters were adhered to overall. Conclusions., Findings suggest limited collaboration between nurses and patients and the poor monitoring of health status and medication effects. Information exchange could be improved; however, this may be related to medication procedures that make it difficult to explore sensitive information with patients, rather than nursing skills and behaviour. Relevance to clinical practice., The Ward Administration of Medication Schedule can be used as a clinical or educational tool in the administration of medication. In both instances, it may be self-administered and used to reflect on personal skills or employed as an observational tool during peer review and audit. [source]

    Evidence-based treatment and quality of life in heart failure

    Daniela Dobre MD MPH
    Abstract Objectives, To explore whether prescription of evidence-based drug therapy is associated with better quality of life (QoL) in patients with heart failure (HF). Methods, Patients (n = 62) were recruited in the outpatient clinic of Groningen University Hospital. Inclusion criteria were previous diagnosis of HF, age 40,80 years; ejection fraction of less than 45%, free from other serious disease (such as cancer) and psychiatric problems in the last year. QoL was assessed with the RAND 36-item health survey questionnaire, on five scales: physical functioning, mental health, social functioning, vitality and general health perception. Medication prescribed for 1 to 6 months before the QoL assessment was classified as either evidence-based treatment or under-treatment, according to the 2001 European guidelines on optimal HF treatment. The study had a cross-sectional design. Results, QoL did not differ significantly between evidence-based and under-treated patients, unadjusted or after adjustment for significant patient imbalances. Conclusions, Conventional step-up medication approach in HF may have a positive impact on survival or morbidity, but it seems not beneficial in relation to QoL. Other interventions should be designed to improve QoL of patients with HF. [source]

    Should we be ,pushing meds'?

    The implications of pharmacogenomics
    Medication continues to be the most widely prescribed treatment in the NHS for mental health problems. It has been known for many years that individuals differ in the way they respond to a given pharmaceutical therapy, and one reason for this lies in the genetic variation between individuals. This paper recognizes the impact that pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics are having in the field of mental health. Variants in genes that code for the drug metabolizing enzymes in the liver have been found to influence the way in which these enzymes handle psychotropic medication. Individuals can be classified as poor, moderate or extensive metabolizers when standard regimes are used, and this can lead to huge differences in therapeutic effect and toxicity. There are now genotyping tests available which provide information on the individual's ability to metabolize psychotropic medication. One author provides an account of the effects of medication on her son's physical and psychological well-being. Genotyping provided evidence for his poor metabolism of psychotropic medication, and his life is now changing as he is being very gradually weaned off this medication. This emerging field of work has implications for the way in which practitioners consider medication adherence. [source]

    A Pilot Trial of the Alpha-1 Adrenergic Antagonist, Prazosin, for Alcohol Dependence

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2009
    Tracy L. Simpson
    Background:, Current medications for alcohol dependence (AD) show only modest efficacy. None target brain noradrenergic pathways. Theory and preclinical evidence suggest that noradrenergic circuits may be involved in alcohol reinforcement and relapse. We therefore tested the ,-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, as a pharmacotherapy for AD. Methods:, We randomized 24 participants with AD but without posttraumatic stress disorder to receive either prazosin or placebo in a 6-week, double-blind pilot study. Medication was titrated to a target dose of 4 mg QAM, 4 mg QPM, and 8 mg QHS by the end of week 2. Participants received 5 medical management treatment sessions. Participants were reminded 3 times each day via a text pager to take medications and to call a telephone monitoring system once daily to provide self-reports of alcohol consumption and craving, the primary outcome measures. Results were analyzed using mixed linear regression adjusted for drinking days per week at baseline and week number. Results:, Twenty of the 24 (83%) subjects completed. Among the completers, the prazosin group reported fewer drinking days per week than the placebo group during the final 3 weeks of the study. Since only 1 woman was randomized to placebo and only three women completed the trial, the following results focus on the 17 male completers. The prazosin group reported fewer drinking days per week and fewer drinks per week during the final 3 weeks of the study; average total number of drinking days for the placebo group 5.7 (SEM 1.9) versus 0.9 (SEM 0.5) for the prazosin group, and average total number of drinks 20.8 (SEM 6.5) for the placebo group versus 2.6 (SEM 1.3) for the prazosin group. Rates of adverse events were equivalent across conditions. Conclusions:, Prazosin holds promise as a pharmacologic treatment for AD and deserves further evaluation in a larger controlled trial. [source]

    Anaphylaxis to Ophthalmic Medication in a Cat

    Signe J. Plunkett D.V.M.
    Summary There is an increasing incidence of anaphylactic reactions in cats due to the administration of ophthalmic bacitracin, neomycin, polymyxin medications. Most of the reported cases have been fatal. This is the report of a cat that survived the initial episode only to develop renal failure and cardiomyopathy. This lead to euthanasia seven days later. Dr. Kathryn Meyer of the U.S. Pharmacopeia and Dr. Signe Plunkett of the Emergency Animal Clinic in Phoenix are conducting an ongoing study, and they are interested in the reports of any additional cases. [source]

    Effect of medication on EMG patterns in individuals with Parkinson's disease

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 5 2002
    Julie A. Robichaud PT
    Abstract Individuals with Parkinson's disease show dramatic improvements in their ability to move when medicated. However, the neural cause of this improvement is unclear. One hypothesis is that neural activation patterns, as measured by surface electromyography (EMG), are normalized by medication. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the effect of medication on the electromyographic (EMG) patterns recorded when individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease performed elbow flexion movements over three movement distances while off and on antiparkinsonian medication. When the subjects were off medication, they lacked the ability to modulate the agonist EMG burst duration with changes in movement distance. The ability to modulate agonist EMG burst duration is characteristic of the EMG patterns observed in healthy subjects. Also, multiple agonist bursts were exhibited during the acceleration phase. As expected, medication diminished the clinical signs of Parkinson's disease, increased movement speed, and increased the magnitude of the first agonist burst. Medication did not restore agonist burst duration modulation with movement distance, did not change the frequency of agonist bursting, and did not alter the timing of the antagonist activation. These results show that medication does not alter the temporal profile of EMG activation. © 2002 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    The influence of medication beliefs and other psychosocial factors on early discontinuation of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs

    DClinPsy, M. Wong MSc
    Abstract Objective:,Although drug survival time might be a better measure of clinical effectiveness than drug adherence, there is little research literature in this area, in particular about the influence of medication beliefs and psychosocial factors. This study aimed to investigate the above relationships using patients who were newly diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods:,Sixty-eight RA patients starting their first disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) were interviewed shortly after initiating therapy, and then one year later. Before each meeting, patients were asked to complete a set of questionnaires, including Beliefs about Medication, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory , Short Form, the modified Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory-1 and the Significant Others Scale. Relevant sociodemographic background, disease activity and drug history were obtained. Clinical measures such as grip strength and joint count were assessed. Results:,A stepwise logistic regression analysis was applied to two patient groups: those who continued taking their DMARD one year later, and those who did not. No significant difference between the groups for levels of disability and disease activity were found. Only age and anxiety emerged as significant predictors of drug discontinuation at 52 weeks. Conclusions:,Contrary to expectation, this study demonstrated that older and less anxious patients were more likely to discontinue taking their initial DMARD within the first year. The study may have implications for counselling older and less anxious patients prior to DMARD therapy. However, there are limitations in generalizing the results because of the small population sample. It also did not take into account drug intolerance as a pertinent factor for early drug discontinuation. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Nonmedical Use of Stimulant Medication: A Concerning Trend

    Sue A. Woodson CNM
    First page of article [source]

    The implications of physical activity in patients with chronic heart failure

    Catherine T Mondoa
    Summary ,,The clinical syndrome of chronic heart failure is increasingly prevalent. It can be considered a multiorgan disorder that may exert a negative physical and psychological influence on a patient ,,Medication and surgical intervention have important roles to play and have certainly improved both morbidity and mortality in this field, but clearly these interventions alone are not enough ,,Excessive resource utilization for this group of patients has provided added impetus to research into non-pharmacological interventions. These encompass dietary and other lifestyle measures, including smoking cessation and exercise ,,Exercise has been shown to favourably affect the functional capacity and quality of life. There is also emerging evidence that it reduces mortality ,,In the absence of contraindications, regular endurance exercise coupled with strength training is undoubtedly beneficial ,,As with other cardiovascular research, there is a trend towards recruiting middle-aged males. This effectively means that practitioners need to be cautious when evaluating and/or implementing research evidence ,,By addressing the implications of physical activity for deconditioned patients with chronic heart failure, a holistic therapeutic regimen is fostered. This has been shown to improve the quality of life of patients and to enhance the quality of service delivered to this patient group [source]