Mean Weight (mean + weight)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Mean Weight

  • final mean weight
  • initial mean weight

  • Terms modified by Mean Weight

  • mean weight diameter
  • mean weight gain
  • mean weight loss

  • Selected Abstracts

    Angler awareness of aquatic nuisance species and potential transport mechanisms

    K. K. GATES
    Abstract, The role anglers play in transporting aquatic nuisance species (ANS) is important in managing infestations and preventing introductions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) quantify angler movement patterns in southwestern Montana, ANS awareness and equipment cleaning practices; and (2) quantify the amount of soil transported on boots and waders. Mean distance travelled by residents from their home to the survey site was 115 km (±17, 95% CI). Mean distance travelled by non-residents was 1738 km (±74). Fifty-one percent of residents and 49% of non-residents reported occasionally, rarely or never cleaning their boots and waders between uses. Mean weight of soil carried on one boot leg was 8.39 g (±1.50). Movement and equipment cleaning practices of anglers in southwestern Montana suggest that future control of ANS dispersal may require restricting the use of felt-soled wading boots, requiring river-specific wading equipment or providing cleaning stations and requiring their use. [source]

    Risk of malnutrition in a sample of acute and long-stay NHS Fife in-patients: an audit

    C. H. S. Ruxton
    Abstract Background, Hospital malnutrition (undernutrition) continues to attract concern. The implementation of standards for food and fluids in Scotland provided the stimulus for an audit of current practices in NHS Fife hospitals in order to provide baseline data with which to evaluate progress. Methods, One hundred and fifty in-patients were recruited from wards likely to yield those with a high risk of malnutrition. Using patient records and anthropometry, data were collected on weight, weight change, body mass index (BMI), mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC), dietetic referral, therapeutic diets and patients' perceptions of nutritional status. Malnutrition was estimated by comparing BMI, weight change and MUAC with the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and standards published by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Results, Depending upon the standard used, the minimum risk of malnutrition varied from 14 to 25%. The prevalence was lower than that reported previously, although methods were not directly comparable. Obesity was also evident with 42% of patients having a BMI > 25. Mean weight change from admission to audit was +0.4 kg, with a wide range (,11 kg to +13 kg). Most patients identified as malnourished were referred to the dietitian or given nutritional support. Conclusions, Fewer patients were at risk of malnutrition than expected. However, improving the provision of food and fluids remains a priority in Fife as malnutrition and eating problems can occur across the entire BMI spectrum. [source]

    Pattern of growth after pediatric living-donor small bowel transplantation

    Marian Porubsky
    Abstract:, The aim of our study was to analyze growth in children who underwent LDSB. The question was whether these children obtain linear growth and improvement of the Z-score for height and weight after the transplant. Three children with a mean age of 24 months underwent living-donor intestinal transplantation with 150 cm of terminal ileum. At a mean follow-up of 27 months height increased from 82.5 to 97.5 cm although Z-score for height did not improve, ,2.679 to ,2.675. Mean weight increased from 11.4 to 14.2 kg while Z-score for weight went from ,1.916 to ,2.409. Although these data are pertinent to only three children and the follow-up is slightly longer than two yr, it appears that while long-term survival and independency from TPN is achieved, only linear growth might be expected and catch-up growth does not occur. [source]

    Genetic differences in growth among wild populations of the yabby, Cherax destructor (Clark)

    D R Jerry
    Abstract Before commencing a breeding programme on a new aquaculture species, it is prudent to identify populations or strains with superior characteristics for commercial production. Information on the comparative performance of populations allows informed decisions to be made on the starting genetic base for the programme. As a precursor to a breeding programme in the decapod species, Cherax destructor (Clark), five geographically isolated populations were evaluated for the traits weight at age, abdomen length and abdomen width over a period of 9 months. Mean weight at age was found to vary among the populations by up to 42%, whereas mean abdomen length was similar among four out of the five populations. No differences were found in abdomen width. This study emphasizes that rapid genetic gains can be made simply by starting a breeding programme based on faster growing populations. [source]

    Noninvasive Control of Adequate Cerebral Oxygenation During Low-Flow Antegrade Selective Cerebral Perfusion on Adults and Infants in the Aortic Arch Surgery

    Álvaro Rubio M.D.
    Background: Aortic arch repair techniques using low-flow antegrade selective cerebral perfusion have been standardized to a certain degree. However, some of the often-stated beneficial effects have never been proven. Especially, the existence of an adequate continuous flow in both cerebral hemispheres during the surgical procedure still remains unclear as the monitoring of an effective perfusion remains a nonstandardized technique. Methods: Seventeen patients underwent surgical reconstruction of the aortic arch due to aortic aneurysm surgery (adult group n = 8 patients) or of the hypoplastic aortic arch due to hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) or aortic coarctation (infant group n = 9 patients) under general anesthesia and mild hypothermia (adult group 28 °C; infant group 25 °C). Mean weights were 92.75 ± 14.00 kg and 4.29 ± 1.32 kg, and mean ages were 58.25 ± 10.19 years and 55.67 ± 51.11 days in the adult group and the infant group, respectively. The cerebral O2 saturation measurement was performed by continuous plotting of the somatic reflectance oximetry of the frontal regional tissue on both cerebral hemispheres (rSO2, INVOS®; Somanetics Corporation, Troy, MI, USA). Results: During low-flow antegrade perfusion via innominate artery, continuous plots with similar values of O2 saturation (rSO2) in both cerebral hemispheres were observed, whereas a decrease in the rSO2 values below the desaturation threshold correlated with a displacement or an incorrect positioning of the arterial cannula in the right subclavian artery. Conclusions: Continuous monitorization of the cerebral O2 saturation during aortic arch surgery in adults and infants is a feasible technique to control an adequate cannula positioning and to optimize clinical outcomes avoiding neurological complications related to cerebral malperfusion. [source]

    Evaluation of Reduced Fish Meal Diets for Second Year Growout of the Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides

    Nathan J. Cochran
    Development of efficient cost-effective diets is a critical component in the refinement of production technologies for the largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides (LMB). One of the first steps in reducing feed costs can be to decrease the amount of fish meal in the diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate reduced levels of fish meal, and a least-cost formulation diet, for second year growout of LMB under practical pond conditions. Twelve 0.04-ha ponds were stocked with juvenile LMB (210.1±3.3 g) at a stocking density of 8650 fish/ha (350 fish/pond). Each pond was randomly assigned one of the four dietary treatments with three replicate ponds per treatment. The three experimental diets contained varying levels of fish meal. Diets FM-45, FM-24, and FM-8 contained 45, 23.5, and 8% fish meal, respectively. In diets FM-24 and FM-8, fish meal was replaced by varying levels of poultry by-product meal, soybean meal, and blood meal. The fourth diet was a commercial salmonid diet widely used as a LMB growout feed (Nelson and Sons, Inc., SilvercupTM, Steelhead, Murray, UT, USA). This diet served as a commercial control (CC) and contained 46% crude protein. The experimental diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric with the CC diet and were fed once daily to apparent satiation for 180 d. At harvest, there were no significant differences between treatments (P > 0.05) in terms of survival, which averaged 95% overall. Mean weights of fish fed the three experimental diets FM-45, FM-24 and FM-8 were not significantly different (P > 0.05) and averaged 518, 546, and 529 g, respectively, but were all significantly greater (P, 0.05) than those fed the CC (488 g). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of fish fed the FM-45 and FM-8 diets (1.43 and 1.46, respectively) was significantly greater (P, 0.05) than those fed the FM-24 diet (1.34). The FCR of fish fed the CC diet (1.39) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from fish fed other diets. Feed cost per unit of weight gain ($US/kg) was significantly lower (P, 0.05) in fish fed the FM-24 and FM-8 diets ($0.73 and $0.72/kg, respectively) than in fish fed other diets. Feed cost per unit gain of fish fed the FM-45 diet ($0.83/kg) was significantly lower (P, 0.05) than those fed the CC diet ($1.04/kg). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in dress-out percentages or proximate composition among fish fed the four diets. This study indicates that fish meal levels in feeds used for the second year growout of LMB can be reduced to,8% of the formulation without reducing survival or growth and without negatively impacting body composition. [source]

    Growth, Survival, Yield, and Size Distributions of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Polyculture and Monoculture Systems in Puerto Rico

    Alfredo Garcia-Pérez
    The experiment consisted of three treatments with three replicates each. The stocking rates for the prawn monoculture, fish monoculture and polyculture treatments were respectively: 7 prawns/m2, 1 tilapia/M2, and 7 prawns with 1 tilapia/ m2. The mean stocking size for tilapia and prawn were respectively, 7,8 g and 1,1.3 g. After 145 d of culture, yields and mean weight of tilapia in monoculture and polyculture system were not significantly different. Total yields were 2,942 and 2,769 kg/ha, respectively. Mean weights were 348 g in monoculture and 331 g in polyculture. Yields and mean weight of prawns in monoculture and polyculture were significantly different. Total yields were 1,367 and 951 kg/ha, respectively. Mean weights were 55 g in monoculture and 31 g in polyculture. Total yield in polyculture was 3,720 kg/ha showing an increase over the production separately obtained in prawn and fish monoculture. [source]

    Developmental outcome and types of chronic-stage EEG abnormalities in preterm infants

    Akihisa Okumura MD
    The aims of this study were to determine the types of chronic-stage EEG abnormalities that exist and to clarify their relation to neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants. We evaluated 183 preterm infants with gestational ages of less than 33 weeks (mean age 29.2 weeks) and weighing less than 2000g (mean weight 1275g). The first EEG was performed within 72 hours of life; thereafter, EEG was performed once every 1 to 4 weeks until the infant reached a post-conceptional age of 40 to 42 weeks. Two kinds of EEG abnormalities, acute- and chronic-stage abnormalities, were evaluated and we assessed mainly the latter. Chronic-stage EEG abnormalities were divided into two patterns: disorganized and dysmature. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) were diagnosed on the basis of ultrasound findings. Psychomotor development was examined every 3 months after discharge until at least 18 months of the infants'corrected age. Disorganized and dysmature patterns were observed in 52 and 28 infants respectively. Among the 52 infants with disorganized patterns, PVL was observed in 31 and IVH in seven infants. Thirty-nine infants had cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-six achieved normal cognitive development. Of the 28 infants with dysmature patterns, PVL was seen in one and IVH in 11 infants. CP was seen in five infants. Only eight infants achieved normal cognitive development. Gestational age and birth weight were significantly lower in infants with dysmature patterns than in those with disorganized ones. Results indicate that types of chronic-stage EEG abnormalities are related to types of neurological sequelae and are useful for assessing the mode of brain injury in preterm infants. [source]

    Morphological variations in the pre-imaginal development of the ponerine ant Diacamma ceylonense

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 1 2005
    Sébastien Baratte
    Abstract In the present paper, the larval development of the queenless ponerine ant Diacamma ceylonense is studied. Four instars were identified on the basis of cuticular processes , tubercles and spinules , which show discontinuous variation during growth and provide precise and reliable external morphological criteria for instar discrimination. In the first three instars, the larva possesses a striking proboscis, which disappears between the third and fourth instars. Larval weight increased around 50-fold in the 21 days of larval life between eclosion and pupation (mean weight for first instar = 0.37 mg; for fourth instar = 20 mg). In addition, the morphology of the gemmae, structures resembling vestigial wings in workers, is described in nymphae. [source]

    Combining fishery prohibition with stocking of landlocked salmon, Salmo salar L.: an effort to gain bigger yield and individual size

    P. Hyvärinen
    After stocking landlocked salmon, Salmo salar L., in Lake Änättijärvi, all fishing was prohibited for 18 months to provide time for the fish to establish and reach a larger size prior to capture. The potential benefit of the fishery prohibition was severely diminished by emigration of the stocked fish down the watercourse to other lakes. Only 19% of the recaptures of Carlin-tagged individuals came from Lake Änättijärvi. Also, the CPUE of test fishing in Lake Änättijärvi indicated a steep decline in the density of stocked fish during the fishery prohibition period. The mean weight of landlocked salmon in the combined recaptures from Lake Änättijärvi and other lakes downstream was 660 g. When fishing was not prohibited, the corresponding mean weight at recapture was 442 g. It is recommended that landlocked salmon stocking should be carried out in lakes with relatively low fishing pressure. [source]

    Spawning habitat and daily egg production of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) in the eastern Mediterranean

    Abstract Spawning habitats of two eastern Mediterranean sardine, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792), stocks (coastal waters of central Aegean and Ionian Seas) are characterized from daily egg production method (DEPM) surveys conducted during the peak of the spawning period. The latter occurs earlier in the Aegean Sea (December) than in the less-productive Ionian Sea (February). Single-parameter quotient analysis showed that the preferred bottom depth for spawning was 40,90 m in both areas but sardine selected sites of increased zooplankton in the Aegean Sea during December and increased fluorescence in the Ionian Sea during February. Estimates of daily egg production (P) and spawning stock biomass (B) were about four times lower for the Ionian Sea (P = 7.81 eggs m,2, B = 3652 tonnes) than the Aegean Sea (P = 27.52 eggs m,2, B = 16 174 tonnes). We suggest that zooplankton biomass might not be sufficient to support sardine reproduction in the highly oligotrophic Ionian Sea where the very small sardine stock may rely on the late-winter phytoplankton bloom. Actively selecting sites with increased zooplankton or phytoplankton and feeding plasticity (the well-known switching from selective particle feeding to non-selective filter feeding in sardines) are interpreted as adaptations to grow and reproduce optimally at varying prey conditions. Despite differences in temperature and productivity regimes, reproductive performance of sardine in the Ionian Sea was very similar to that in the Aegean Sea during the peak of the spawning period. In comparing adult parameters from DEPM applications to Sardina and Sardinops stocks around the world, a highly significant linear relation emerged between mean batch fecundity (F) and mean weight of mature female (W, g) (F = 0.364W, r2 = 0.98). The latter implies that, during the peak of the spawning period, mean relative batch fecundity (eggs g,1) of sardine is fairly constant in contrasting ecosystems around the world. [source]

    Patterns of weight change after treatment for bulimia nervosa

    Frances A. Carter
    Abstract Objective The current study examined changes in weight and body mass index (BMI) at 5-year follow-up among women treated for bulimia nervosa. Method The study comprised 80 women who had participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating cognitive-behavior therapy for bulimia nervosa. The women had attended assessments at posttreatment and at 5-year follow-up while not pregnant. Results Changes in mean weight and BMI between posttreatment and 5-year follow-up were small in absolute terms and were not statistically significant. However, by the 5-year follow-up, approximately one half of the participants had either lost (31%) or gained (18%) 5 or more kilograms or were underweight (31%) or overweight (24%) as defined by BMI. Univariate analyses suggest that it is the patients who gain weight over the follow-up that are distinctive. Patients who gained weight over the follow-up were more likely to have commenced menstruation at a younger age, to have a lifetime history of being heavier, and to have been heavier and more dissatisfied with their body at pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 5-year follow-up. Conclusion Five years after treatment for bulimia nervosa, approximately one half of the participants had changed substantially in weight. For those who had changed, weight loss was more common than weight gain. © 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 36: 12,21, 2004. [source]

    Propofol intravenous conscious sedation for anxious children in a specialist paediatric dentistry unit

    M. T. Hosey
    Summary. Objectives., To report on both the use and dosage of propofol, as a new intravenous (IV) conscious sedative agent, for anxious children referred to a specialist paediatric dentistry service. Setting., Paediatric Dentistry Unit, Glasgow Dental Hospital and School. Sample., Thirty-four children, 25 females and 9 males, mean age 12 years 10 months, with a mean weight of 54·6 kg (range 30,110 kg). Methods., Report from 34 patients receiving intravenous sedation for the first time in respect of weight dose and amount of treatment completed. Results., Thirty-two children successfully accepted operative dental care on their first visit, they received a mean total dose of 146·25 mg of propofol (range 10 mg to 356 mg); in relation to body weight, the mean was 2·5 mg/kg (range 0·2,5·4 mg/kg). The treatment that they received included fissure sealants, amalgam and adhesive restorations, root canal therapy and single and multiple extractions. Their sedation and recovery were uneventful. Conclusions., Sub-anaesthetic doses of propofol used for IV conscious sedation infusion facilitated operative dental treatment in anxious children. [source]

    How two different host species influence the performance of a gregarious parasitoid: host size is not equal to host quality

    Summary 1Hyssopus pallidus Askew (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of the two tortricid moths species Cydia molesta Busck and C. pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). It paralyses and parasitizes different larval instars of both species inside the apple fruit, which leads to the death of the caterpillar. 2We assessed the influence of host species characteristics and host food on the performance of the parasitoid female in terms of clutch size decisions and fitness of the F1 generation. 3A comparison of clutch size revealed that female parasitoids deposited similar numbers of eggs on the comparatively smaller C. molesta hosts as on the larger C. pomonella hosts. The number of parasitoid offspring produced per weight unit of host larva was significantly higher in C. molesta than in C. pomonella, which is contrary to the general prediction that smaller hosts yield less parasitoid offspring. However, the sex ratio was not influenced by host species that differed considerably in size. 4Despite the fact that less host resources were available per parasitoid larva feeding on C. molesta caterpillars, the mean weight of emerging female wasps was higher in the parasitoids reared on C. molesta. Furthermore, longevity of these female wasps was neither influenced by host species nor by the food their host had consumed. In addition we did not find a positive relationship between adult female weight and longevity. 5Parasitoid females proved to be able to assess accurately the nutritional quality of an encountered host and adjust clutch size accordingly. These findings indicate that host size is not equal to host quality. Thus host size is not the only parameter to explain the nutritional quality of a given host and to predict fitness gain in the subsequent generation. [source]

    Overwinter survival of stocked age-0 lake sturgeon

    J. A. Crossman
    Summary Knowledge of age-specific survivorship is critical when developing management prescriptions for imperiled species such as the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Management has focused on population restoration through hatchery supplementation, largely in the absence of data about relationships between hatchery rearing conditions, size/age at release, and estimates of overwinter survival for stocked age-0 lake sturgeon. Young of the year lake sturgeon were reared from egg to age 3 months in two separate hatchery environments: a streamside hatchery on the natal Upper Black River, Michigan, and a traditional hatchery environment. From age 3 to 6 months all fish were reared in the traditional hatchery. Fish (n = 20) originating from each rearing environment were surgically implanted with ultrasonic transmitters at 6 months of age (mean total length: 31.4 cm; mean weight: 106.4 g) and released into Black Lake in December 2005. Tracking using manual and automated hydrophones was conducted during April and May 2006 to estimate overwinter survival and to test for differences in survival of fish reared in different hatchery environments. Eighteen fish (45%) were detected, 16 (40%) of which survived the winter (range of distance traveled between observations of surviving fish was 0.09,0.55 km). The remaining fish were not detected. No significant differences in survival were documented due to rearing environment or size at release. This study represents the first quantified estimate of overwinter survival for stocked age-0 lake sturgeon. The minimum estimate of 40% survival through the first winter is encouraging for hatchery programs, and will aid in the development of management prescriptions for this species. [source]

    Reproductive biology of the skate, Rioraja agassizii (Müller and Henle, 1841), off Puerto Quequén, Argentina

    M. Estalles
    Summary A total of 230 specimens of the skate, Rioraja agassizii, was collected from the commercial bottom trawl fishery of Puerto Quequén, Argentina. During the warmer seasons greater proportions of females were sampled. The largest male and female sampled were 629 and 698 mm total length (TL), respectively. Sexual dimorphism was detected in the relationship between weight (W),TL and disc width (DW),TL, in that females were heavier and wider than males. The smallest mature male and female were 485 and 530 mm TL, respectively. TL at 50% maturity (TL50%) was estimated at 504 and 570 mm for males and females, respectively. Females exhibited heavier livers than males throughout their lifetimes. Seasonal variations in the gonadosomatic (GSI) and hepatosomatic (HSI) indices, and in the width of the left oviducal gland (OG), along with the greater number of pregnant females sampled during spring, suggested that the peak of the egg laying season could be during this season. The egg cases presented a mean length of 69.01 ± 5.53 mm, mean width of 43.40 ± 1.86 mm and mean weight of 17.00 ± 4.59 g. According to these results specimens from Puerto Quequén and southern Brazil appeared to differ in size, the peak of the egg-laying season and in egg dimensions. [source]

    Influence of dietary amino acid profiles on growth performance and body composition of juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides

    Z. Luo
    Summary A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary amino acid (AA) profiles on growth performance and body composition of juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides (initial mean weight: 68.1 ± 1.0 g, mean ± SD). Five diets contained 30% fishmeal, 12% soy protein concentrate and 20% crystalline amino acids (CAAs); the control diet contained 54% fishmeal and 17% soy protein concentrate as intact protein sources. CAAs were added to the five diets to simulate the AA pattern found in white fishmeal protein (WFP), brown fishmeal protein (BFP), hen egg protein (HEP), grouper E. coioides juvenile protein (GJP) and red sea bream egg protein (REP), respectively. The highest WG and SGR were obtained in fish fed the control diet, followed by fish fed the diets with AA profiles of WFP and GJP. Fish fed the diets with AA profiles of BFP, REP and HEP showed relatively poor growth performance. Feed utilization showed a similar trend in growth parameters. Protein content of whole body among these treatments showed no significant differences (P > 0.05), but lipid content of whole body showed the highest value in the control group (P < 0.05). Dietary AA profiles significantly influenced plasma protein, cholesterol, triacylglycerol and glucose concentrations (P < 0.05). Dietary AA profiles significantly influenced the condition factor, hepatosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat ratio (P < 0.05). [source]

    Growth performance and body composition of sub-yearling Persian sturgeon, (Acipenser persicus, Borodin, 1897), fed different dietary protein and lipid levels

    M. Mohseni
    Summary In order to evaluate the protein and energy requirement of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) sub-yearlings, eight experimental diets containing two protein levels (40% and 45%) and four lipid levels (10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) were tested. Sturgeons (W0 = 136.8 g) were fed the experimental diets to satiation four times daily for 150 days, resulting in a final mean weight of 375.8 g. Growth was significantly affected by lipid content of the diets. At 40% protein level, weight gain and specific growth rate (% per day) were significantly improved (P < 0.05) by increasing the dietary lipid (energy) content. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) was significantly affected by different dietary treatments for each dietary protein level tested, reaching a mean value of 3.58 in fish fed high lipid diets and a PER of 2.77 in low lipid diets. Results obtained in the present study suggest that the optimum dietary protein content for Persian sturgeon is 40%, with an estimated optimum protein-to-energy ratio of 18,20 mg kJ,1. [source]

    Nutritional evaluation of fermented black gram (Phaseolus mungo) seed meal in compound diets for rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), fingerlings

    S. Ramachandran
    Summary Six isonitrogenous (approximately 35% crude protein) and isocaloric (approximately 4.0 kcal g,1) diets were formulated incorporating raw and fermented black gram, Phaseolus mungo, seed meal at 20%, 30% and 40% levels by weight into a fishmeal-based control diet fed to rohu, Labeo rohita, fingerlings (mean weight, 1.81 ± 0.21 g) for 80 days for a study of fish performance. A particular bacterial strain (Bacillus sp.) isolated from the intestine of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared in the wild having significant amylolytic, cellulolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic activities was used for fermentation of seed meal for 15 days at 37 ± 2°C. Fermentation of P. mungo seed meal was effective in significantly reducing the crude fibre content and antinutritional factors such as tannins and phytic acid, and enhancing available free amino acids and fatty acids. In terms of growth, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, the 30% fermented black gram seed meal incorporated diet resulted in a significantly (P < 0.05) better performance of rohu fingerlings. In general, growth and feed utilization efficiencies of diets containing fermented seed meal were superior to diets containing raw seed meal. The apparent protein digestibility (APD) values decreased with increasing levels of raw seed meal in the diets. The APD for raw seed meal was lower at all levels of inclusion in comparison to those for the fermented seed meals. The maximum deposition of protein in the carcass was recorded in fish fed the diet containing 40% fermented seed meal. The results indicate that fermented black gram seed meal can be incorporated in carp diets up to the 30% level compared to the 10% level of raw seed meal. [source]

    Effects of amino acid supplementation on the nutritive quality of fermented linseed meal protein in the diets for rohu, Labeo rohita, fingerlings

    N. Mukhopadhyay
    A feeding trial was conducted for 8 weeks to examine the effects of partial substitution of fish meal (FM) protein (crude protein content: 58.5%) with linseed meal protein with and without supplemental amino acids in diets for rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton), fingerlings (mean weight: 1.50 ± 0.3 g). Prior to incorporation into the diets, linseed meal was fermented with lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus) to reduce/eliminate the antinutritional tannin and phytic acid factors. Twelve experimental diets (diets D1,D12) were formulated to replace the FM protein from a reference diet (RD) with linseed meal protein at different levels (four sets of diets, of which each set of three diets contained 25%, 50% and 75% replacement of FM protein by linseed meal protein, respectively). Diets D1,D3 were not supplemented with any amino acid. Lysine was supplemented in diets D4,D6. Diets D7,D9 were supplemented with methionine + cystine (together), and diets D10,D12 contained lysine and methionine + cystine (together). Lysine and methionine + cystine (together) were added to the diets at 5.7% and 3.1% of dietary protein, respectively. The groups of fish fed diets without amino acid supplementation had significantly lower percentages of weight gain, specific growth rate and high feed : gain ratio than the fish groups fed other experimental diets. The addition of lysine and methionine + cystine to the diet in which 50% of the FM protein was replaced by linseed meal protein (diet D11) significantly improved fish performance. The results of the present study suggest that rohu fingerlings can effectively utilize the supplemented amino acids and that linseed meal protein can replace up to 50% of the FM protein in rohu diets if the linseed meal is properly processed (fermented) and supplemented with the lacking amino acids. [source]

    Nutritional evaluation of various plant protein sources in diets for Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer

    By P. S. Eusebio
    A biological assay was conducted to evaluate the suitability of various leguminous seed meals and leaf meals as dietary protein sources for Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer. In the growth experiment, fish (initial mean weight ±,standard error (SE) of 3.8 ± 0.5 g) were fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing test ingredients to replace 13,18% of the diet. The same diet formulations were used in a digestibility experiment, except that 1% Cr2O3 was added as an external indicator. The growth of the control fish was comparable to fish fed leguminous seed meal-based diets, and better than those given leaf meal-based diets. The control diet had the highest apparent protein digestibility (APD) value. No significant differences were observed between the APD of white cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), green mungbean (V. radiata) and papaya (Carica papaya) leaf meal-based diets. However, the cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf meal-based diet had the lowest APD value. The present findings suggest that white cowpea and green mungbean meals can be used as protein sources in practical diets to replace 18% of the sea bass diet without affecting their growth. [source]

    The pathology and seawater performance of farmed Atlantic salmon infected with glochidia of Margaritifera margaritifera

    J. W. Treasure
    The pathology of glochidial infection of the freshwater mussel Margaritifera margaritifera was examined in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in fresh water and for 150 days after transfer of salmon to sea water. Prevalence of infection in fresh water was 95%, mean abundance 134 per fish and mean infection intensity 140. Prevalence in sea water was 80,94% in the first 7 weeks after transfer but glochidia were absent, apart from remains, after 50 days in sea water. Glochidia on salmon in fresh water were associated with localized hyperplasia and fusion of secondary gill lamellae. Focally extensive epithelial hyperplasia and fusion of secondary lamellae were present 4,10 days after transfer to sea water. Twenty-three days after transfer, small nodules with a more discrete appearance were present suggesting partial resolution of tissue response; hyperplastic responses associated with glochidia were much reduced after 50 days. Plasma chloride in infected fish 10 days after transfer was 153 mmol. 1,1, significantly higher than fish without infection, suggesting poorer adaptation to sea water. No mortalities due to glochidial infection in sea water were recorded and there was no significant difference in mean weight between infected and control fish. [source]

    Patellar luxation in 70 large breed dogs

    S. E. Gibbons
    Objectives: To report the signalment, history, clinical features, and outcome in dogs weighing greater than 15 kg, treated surgically and non-surgically for patellar luxation. Risk factors for the development of patellar luxation, postoperative complications, and outcome were evaluated. Methods: Details regarding signalment, bodyweight, breed, aetiology, unilateral or bilateral luxation, duration of lameness, grade of luxation, direction of luxation, grade of lameness at presentation, concomitant cranial cruciate ligament rupture, method of treatment, surgical technique, surgeon, and complications were obtained from the medical records. Outcome was graded as excellent, good, fair, or poor, according to the degree of lameness. Results: Seventy dogs (45 males and 25 females) were included. Thirty-five had bilateral luxations (105 limbs). Mean age was two years, and mean weight was 30 kg. The relative risk for Labrador retrievers was 3·3 (P<0·001). All luxations were developmental. Luxations were medial in 102 stifles and lateral in three. Fourteen stifles had concomitant cranial cruciate ligament rupture. As the grade of patellar luxation increased, so did the grade of lameness (P<0·001). Surgery was performed in 70 stifles, and outcome was excellent/good in 94 per cent and fair/poor in 6 per cent of stifles. Complications occurred in 29 per cent of stifles, and increasing bodyweight was found to be a risk factor (P=0·03). Thirty-five stifles were managed non-surgically, and outcome was excellent/good in 86 per cent and fair/poor in 14 per cent of stifles. Clinical Significance: In view of the potential risk of postoperative complications, all surgically treated cases of patellar luxation in large breed dogs should be managed with a femoral trochleoplasty, a tibial tuberosity transposition (stabilised with K-wires and a tension band wire), and soft tissue releasing and tightening procedures. [source]

    Evaluation of Alternative Protein Sources to Replace Fish Meal in Practical Diets for Juvenile Tilapia, Oreochromis spp

    Tri N. Nguyen
    Two feeding experiments were conducted to evaluate if methionine is limiting in practical grow-out diets for tilapia, Oreochromis spp. Four diets containing 32% protein and 5% lipid were designed to compare the use of diets high in dehulled solvent-extracted soybean meal (DSESM) and expeller pressed soybean meal (EPSM) compared with a diet containing 6% fish meal (FM). Tilapia (4.78 ± 0.07 g, mean ± SD) were randomly stocked into twelve 600-L flow-through tanks at 20 fish per tank. After 6 wk, there were no notable trends or statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in final mean weight, survival rate, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among the treatments. Because results of this study indicated that DSESM could totally replace FM in practical diets for juvenile tilapia, a second batch of diets were formulated using other protein sources. Typical levels of cottonseed meal (CSM), DSESM, and meat and bone meal (MBM) were used to evaluate whether methionine could be limiting. Two basal diet formulations were tested either without or with methionine supplement (0.06/100 g diet). The first diet contained 15% CSM, 27% DSESM, and 10% MBM and the second diet contained 15% CSM and 37% DSESM. These diets contained 28% protein and 5% lipid. Tilapia (3.90 ± 0.05 g) were randomly stocked into twelve 60-L glass aquaria of a recirculation system at 18 fish per aquarium for 5 wk and then moved to the 600-L flow-through tanks for five more weeks. After 10 wk, there were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in final mean weight, survival rate, and FCR among the four treatments. Results of the present study indicated that DSESM and EPSM could totally replace FM's inclusion rate in commercial diets for juvenile tilapia. Furthermore, methionine did not appear to be limiting in practical diets using typical levels of CSM, DSESM, and MBM as primary protein sources. [source]

    Replacement of Fish Meal with Poultry By-product Meal as a Protein Source in Pond-raised Sunshine Bass, Morone chrysops , × M. saxatlis ,, Diets

    Harvey J. Pine
    Replacement of fish meal (FM) as a protein source with alternative sources of protein in aquaculture diets has been widely explored in aquaculture. The goal of replacement of FM in production diets is to maintain growth, lower production costs, and increase sustainability. Evaluation of the replacement of FM with poultry by-product meal (PBM) in phase II sunshine bass diets, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis, was conducted in ponds over 246 d. Four diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (37%) and isocaloric (4 kcal/g) with different levels of FM replacement with PBM (0, 33, 67, and 100%, Diets 1,4, respectively). Twelve ponds were stocked with 400 phase II sunshine bass (mean weight 5.6 g) and randomly assigned one of the four diets. Fish were fed below satiation based on predicted growth and feed conversion, initially once daily (1700 h) and then twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) as water temperatures and feeding activity increased. Diets were evaluated based on production and performance indicators, body composition, and economic analysis. Production results revealed no significant differences in mean final individual fish weight (511 ± 21 g), net production (4257 ± 247 kg/ha), and survival (85 ± 2%). No significant differences occurred between the performance indicators: mean feed conversion ratio (2.47 ± 0.11), specific growth rate (1.84 ± 0.02), and protein conversion efficiency (23 ± 1.3%). Body composition was statistically similar for mean percent fillet weight (49 ± 0.6%) and percent intraperitoneal fat (9.8 ± 1.0%); however, the hepatosomatic index was significantly different between Diets 3 (3.7 ± 0.1%) and 4 (3.2 ± 0.1%). Mean proximate analysis of whole fish (dry weight basis) was not significantly different among treatments yielding the following: percent protein (46 ± 0.4%), lipid (47 ± 1.3%), and ash (8 ± 0.7%). Mean fillet composition (dry weight basis) also revealed no significant differences: percent protein (72 ± 0.8%), percent lipid (30 ± 1.6%), and percent ash (5 ± 0.2%). Proximate analysis was also performed on the diets and revealed a significantly lower protein content in Diet 3 (34.3 ± 0.5%) compared to the other diets (37.1 ± 0.4%). Amino acid analysis of the diets indicated a possible deficiency in methionine in Diets 3 and 4. Based on production, performance, and body composition, the results indicate that complete replacement of FM with PBM in sunshine bass diets is feasible; however, economic analysis suggests that the replacement of FM with PBM may result in reduced revenue over feed costs. [source]

    Differences in Growth and Nutrient Efficiency Between and Within Two Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Strains

    A 6-wk growth study was conducted comparing fingerling (mean weight = 24.7 g) USDA103 strain channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus to Norris strain channel catfish in an effort to determine strain differences in growth and nutrient efficiency. Variability within strains also was assessed by randomly selecting four families from each strain for comparison. On average, USDA103 fish gained significantly (P < 0.05) more weight (51.2 vs. 31.7 g) and length (4.7 vs. 4.1 cm) compared to Norris strain catfish. Significantly (P < 0.05) greater feed consumption (56.6 vs 41.3 g) and feed efficiency (95.7 vs. 89.9) for USDA103 catfish were also observed. Family differences in weight and length gain and feed intake were significant (P < 0.05) among USDA103 families; whereas, only differences in feed intake and feed efficiency were significant (P < 0.05) among Norris families. Nitrogen retention was higher (P < 0.05) for the Norris strain catfish (35.6%) relative to the USDA103 strain average (31.0%). The results of this study reiterate the superior growth and feed efficiency of the USDA103 strain of channel catfish. Observed differences among USDA103 families suggest that further improvements in weight gain can be made through selective breeding; however, improvements in feed and protein efficiency may be difficult. [source]

    Replacement of Fish Meal with Soybean Meal in the Production Diets of Juvenile Red Snapper, Lutjanus campechanus

    D. Allen Davis
    The replacement of fish meal with soybean meal in fish diets has met with varying degrees of success. Quite often, poor responses to high soybean meal diets are either due to shifts in the nutrient profile or a reduced palatability of the diet when fish meal is removed. The present research was designed to evaluate the replacement of menhaden fish meal with solvent-extracted soybean meal in practical diets containing 10% poultry by-product meal and formulated to contain 40% protein, 8% lipid, and a total sulfur amino acid content of > 3.0% of the protein. The response of red snapper (mean initial weight 10.9 g) to diets containing graded levels of fish meal (30,20, 10, 0%) as well as the response to a low fish meal diet (10%) without poultry by-product meal were evaluated over a 6-wk growth period. Significant (P± 0.05) differences in final mean weight, percent weight gain, and feed conversion were observed. Final weights (percent gain) ranged from 30.9 g (185.5%) for fish offered diets with 30% fish meal to 12.6 g (16.3%) for fish offered diets with 0% fish meal. Corresponding feed conversion efficiencies ranged from 60.1% to 7.7%. No significant differences were observed for survival between treatment means. Although there was a clear reduction in performance as the fish meal was replaced with soybean meal, the use of 10% poultry by-product meal or 10% fish meal resulted in similar performance of the fish. This is a good indication that poultry by-product meal does not have palatability problems and could be used as a substitute. The present findings suggest that replacing fish meal with high levels of soybean meal appears to reduce the palatability of the diet. While the cost reducing benefit, with respect to the replacement of fish meal, has been shown with other species, before high levels of inclusion can be efficiently utilized further research is needed to address the palatability problems observed with red snapper. [source]

    Pilot Production of Hatchery-Reared Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus in a Marine Recirculating Aquaculture System: The Effects of Ration Level on Growth, Feed Conversion, and Survival

    Patrick M. Carroll
    Pilot-scale trials were conducted to evaluate growout performance of hatchery-reared summer flounder fingerlings in a state-of-the-art recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). The outdoor RAS consisted of four 4.57-m dia × 0.69-m deep (vol. =11.3 m3) covered, insulated tanks and associated water treatment components. Fingerlings (85.1 g mean initial weight) supplied by a commercial hatchery were stocked into two tanks at a density of 1,014 fish/tank (7.63 kg/m3). Fish were fed an extruded dry floating diet consisting of 50% protein and 12% lipid. The temperature was maintained between 20 C and 23 C and the salinity was 34 ppt. Under these conditions, growth, growth variation (CVwt), feed utilization, and survival of fish fed to 100% and 82% of a satiation rate were compared. Due to clear changes in growth patterns during the study, data was analyzed in three phases. During phase 1 (d 1,d 196), fish showed rapid growth, reaching a mean weight of 288 g ± 105 and 316 g ± 102, with a CVwt of 0.36 and 0.32 and FCR's of 1.38 and 1.36 in the subsatiation and satiation groups, respectively. During phase 2 (d 196,d 454), fish displayed slower growth reaching mean weights of 392 g ± 144 and 436 g ± 121, with a CVwt of 0.37 and 0.28, and increasing FCR's of 3.45 and 3.12 in the subsatiation and satiation groups, respectively. During phase 3 (d 454,d 614), fish showed little growth reaching mean weights of 399 g ± 153 and 440 g ± 129, with a CVwt of 0.38 and 0.29 in the subsatiation and satiation groups, respectively. Over the entire growout period (d 1,d 614), feed conversion ratios were 2.39 and 2.37 and survival was 75% and 81 % in the subsatiation and satiation treatments, respectively. The maximum biomass density reached during the study was 32.3 kg/m3. The satiation feed rate was superior to the 82% satiation rate, since it maximized growth rates, with no effect on FCR. The higher CVwt in the subsatiation group suggests increased competition for a restricted ration led to a slower growth with more growth variation. The decrease in growth in phases 2 and 3 was probably related to a high percentage of slower growing male fish in the population and the onset of sexual maturity. This study demonstrated that under commercial scale conditions, summer flounder can be successfully grown to a marketable size in a recirculating aquaculture system. Based on these results, it is recommended that a farmer feed at a satiation rate to minimize growout time. More research is needed to maintain high growth rates through marketable sizes through all-female production and/or inhibition of sexual maturity. [source]

    Effects of Artificial Substrate and Stocking Density on the Nursery Production of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Komarey R. K. Moss
    Nursery production may be enhanced by the addition of artificial substrate to increase the surface area upon which shrimp graze and to serve as refuge. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the artificial substrate, AquaMatsTM, on the performance of postlarval Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei stocked at three densities. Eighteen 230-L tanks were stocked with 10-d postlarvae (mean weight < 0.01 g). Six treatments were evaluated and consisted of shrimp stocked at three densities (778 shrimp/m2, 1,167 shrimp/ m2, and 1,556 shrimp/m2) with and without access to artificial substrate. Shrimp in all treatments received a commercial diet ad libitum. After 6 wk, shrimp were harvested from each nursery tank, counted, and batch weighed. Mean final weight, survival, production, feed conversion ratio, and water quality parameters were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA. There were highly significant (P < 0.001) density and substrate effects on final weight, but there was no significant interaction effect. Final weight was 26.0, 17.4, and 34.5% greater in treatments with substrate than without substrate when stocked at 778, 1,167, and 1,556 shrimp/m2, respectively. There was no significant density, substrate, or interaction effect on survival or water quality. Mean survival was ± 89.1% for all treatments. Increased shrimp growth in the presence of added substrate was likely due to the availability of attached particulate organic matter on the AquaMatsTM that served as an additional food source. Results from this study indicate that artificial substrate can be used to mitigate the potential negative effects of high stocking density on growth of L. vannamei in nursery systems. [source]

    Quantitative Protein Requirements of the Edible Snail Pomacea urceus (Muller)

    Indar W. Ramnarine
    Six isocaloric, semi-purified diets containing 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40% crude protein were formulated and fed to juvenile Pomacea urceus (mean length 34.8 mm, mean weight 7.35 g) at the daily rate of 4% biomass over an 18-wk period. The best weight gain of 230% was obtained with the test diet containing 30% crude protein, but was not significantly different from the weight gain of 228% obtained with the 20% protein diet. A lower feed conversion ratio (1.77 compared with 1.90) was obtained with the test diet containing 20% crude protein. A diet containing 20% crude protein is recommended for the culture of Pomacea urceus. [source]