Mean Age (mean + age)

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  • Selected Abstracts

    The Rydel Seiffer tuning fork: an inexpensive device for screening diabetic patients with high-risk foot

    V. Vijay
    Abstract Considering the simple and inexpensive nature of the graduated tuning fork, we evaluated its usefulness in screening for vibratory sensation loss in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects, compared with the values obtained with biothesiometer. The vibration perception scores were tested in 195 non-diabetic healthy control subjects (n=195, M:F, 80:115, Mean±SD, age 50.3±10.4 (years), in 455 Type 2 diabetic subjects who had signs and symptoms of sensory neuropathy and abnormal biothesiometric readings (reading>25V), (n=455, M:F 326:129, Mean Age 58.1±7.7 years, HbA1c 10.1±2.4%) and in 471 diabetic patients with no evidence of neuropathy by biothesiometry. (M:F 299:172, Mean Age 48.0±7.5 years, HbA1c 9.5±2.2%). Patients with neuropathy had a lower mean score of 4.5±2.6 compared with the non-neuropathy cases (7.7±0.5, P<0.001). Among the 455 patients identified as having neuropathy by abnormal biothesiometric values, 235 had an abnormal tuning fork score of ,4.0. Tuning fork scores were normal in all the 471 non-neuropathy cases, thus giving a specificity of 100%. This study shows that the graduated tuning fork has a high specificity and a fairly good sensitivity in the diagnosis of diabetic foot problems. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Female Gender and the Risk of Rupture of Congenital Aneurysmal Fistula in Adults

    Salah A.M. Said MD
    ABSTRACT Aims., To delineate the risk factors for rupture of congenital aneurysmal fistulas in adult patients. Methods., We conducted a literature search of the Medline database using Pubmed search interface to identify reports dealing with rupture of congenital aneurysmal fistulas in an adult population. The search included the English and non-English languages between 1963 and 2005. Results., Fourteen adult patients (12 females) with serious and life-threatening complications secondary to aneurysmal fistulas were reported. Mean age was 62.9 years. The ethnic origins of these 14 patients were 9 Asian and 5 Caucasian. Most patients have had no other cardiac malformations. Five patients had a history of hypertension. One patient was asymptomatic. In 13 symptomatic patients, the clinical presentation was cardiac tamponade, pericardial effusion, syncope, heart failure, chest pain, dyspnea, fatigue, distal thromboembolic events with infarction, shock, and/or sudden death. Aneurysmal fistulas were identified in 10 patients; of these 6 were of the saccular type. Rupture occurred in 9 patients (8 females and 1 male). Eleven patients were treated surgically with 1 late death. Two male subjects experienced sudden unexpected cardiac death. Conclusion., Rupture of congenital aneurysmal fistulas occurred more often in females. Identified risk factors for rupture, hemopericardium, tamponade, and death were among others saccular aneurysm, Asian ethnic race, origin of the aneurysmal fistulas from the left coronary artery and a history of hypertension may play a role. In this article, we present a literature review of congenital aneurysmal fistulas associated with or without rupture and a case report of a woman with unruptured aneurysmal fistula. [source]

    Effect of Bisoprolol on Right Ventricular Function and Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Patients With Heart Failure

    Luís Beck-da-Silva MD
    Beta-blocker use improves left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with heart failure. A similar effect of , blockers on right ventricular function has been proposed, although the effect of bisoprolol, a highly selective ,-1 blocker, on right ventricular function has not been assessed. This study investigated the short-term effect of bisoprolol on right ventricular function in chronic heart failure patients. A cohort of 30 heart failure patients who were not taking , blockers at baseline was studied prospectively. Right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and LVEF were measured at both baseline and 4 months by radionuclide angiography. Bisoprolol was up-titrated during four monthly visits by a preestablished protocol to a target dose of 10 mg/d. The dose of vasodilators was not changed. Quality of life and brain natriuretic peptide level were assessed. Mean age was 62.7±14.3 years. Baseline RVEF was 30.7%±6.3% and baseline LVEF was 21.7%±9.4%. Mean bisoprolol dose reached was 5.3±3.9 mg daily. At 4 months, RVEF significantly increased by 7.1 % (95% confidence interval, 3.9,10.2; p=0.0001) and LVEF also increased significantly by 7.9% (95% confidence interval, 4.0%,11.9%p=0.0003). Quality-of-life score improved from 42.8 to 30.8 (p=0.047). No correlation was found between brain natriuretic peptide levels and RVEF. Bisoprolol treatment for 4 months resulted in a significant improvement of RVEF, which paralleled the improvement of LVEF. [source]

    Categorizing Urgency of Infant Emergency Department Visits: Agreement between Criteria

    Rakesh D. Mistry MD
    Abstract Background The lack of valid classification methods for emergency department (ED) visit urgency has resulted in large variation in reported rates of nonurgent ED utilization. Objectives To compare four methods of defining ED visit urgency with the criterion standard, implicit criteria, for infant ED visits. Methods This was a secondary data analysis of a prospective birth cohort of Medicaid-enrolled infants who made at least one ED visit in the first six months of life. Complete ED visit data were reviewed to assess urgency via implicit criteria. The explicit criteria (adherence to prespecified criteria via complete ED charts), ED triage, diagnosis, and resources methods were also used to categorize visit urgency. Concordance and agreement (,) between the implicit criteria and alternative methods were measured. Results A total of 1,213 ED visits were assessed. Mean age was 2.8 (SD ± 1.78) months, and the most common diagnosis was upper respiratory infection (21.0%). Using implicit criteria, 52.3% of ED visits were deemed urgent. Urgent visits using other methods were as follows: explicit criteria, 51.8%; ED triage, 60.6%; diagnosis, 70.3%; and resources, 52.7%. Explicit criteria had the highest concordance (78.3%) and agreement (,= 0.57) with implicit criteria. Of limited data methods, resources demonstrated the best concordance (78.1%) and agreement (,= 0.56), while ED triage (67.9%) and diagnosis (71.6%) exhibited lower concordance and agreement (,= 0.35 and ,= 0.42, respectively). Explicit criteria and resources equally misclassified urgency for 11.1% of visits; ED triage and diagnosis tended to overclassify visits as urgent. Conclusions The explicit criteria and resources methods best approximate implicit criteria in classifying ED visit urgency in infants younger than six months of age. If confirmed in further studies, resources utilized has the potential to be an inexpensive, easily applicable method for urgency classification of infant ED visits when limited data are available. [source]

    Change in supporting tissue following loss of a permanent maxillary incisor in children

    Helen D. Rodd
    Abstract,,, Alveolar bone resorption is an inevitable consequence of tooth loss and may be detrimental to long-term dental aesthetics and function. The aim of the present study was to quantify the degree of tissue resorption following the loss of a permanent incisor in a young population. The study group comprised 11 boys and five girls who all required the extraction of a permanent maxillary central incisor due to trauma-related sequelae. Mean age at tooth loss was 10.8 years. Upper alginate impressions were taken at regular intervals following tooth loss and were cast in yellow dental stone. Study models were sectioned longitudinally through the mid-point of both the maxillary incisor socket and the contra-lateral incisor to provide a thin plaster section. Digital photographs were acquired of the edentulous (A1) and dentate (A2) surfaces of this section and image analysis software was employed to quantify the surface area of both A1 and A2. At 3 months postextraction, mean A1 was 15.7% less than mean A2. By 6 months mean A1 had further reduced and was 25.3% less than that of the corresponding dentate alveolus. However, at subsequent time intervals following tooth extraction (>6 months), tissue loss appeared to stabilise with an overall reduction in tissue area remaining at 22%. This reduction in supporting tissue area was found to be highly statistically significant (P = 0.002, anova). Furthermore, girls appeared to have an overall greater degree of tissue loss than boys (P = 0.015). Further research is indicated to explore factors influencing the degree of tissue loss following incisor extraction and the benefit of therapeutic interventions in limiting this resorption. [source]

    Impact of substance use on the physical health of patients with bipolar disorder

    M. P. Garcia-Portilla
    Garcia-Portilla MP, Saiz PA, Benabarre A, Florez G, Bascaran MT, Díaz EM, Bousoño M, Bobes J. Impact of substance use on the physical health of patients with bipolar disorder. Objective:, To describe the impact of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis on metabolic profile and cardiovascular risk in bipolar patients. Method:, Naturalistic, cross-sectional, multicenter Spanish study. Current use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis was determined based on patient self-reports. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999,2000 and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria, and cardiovascular risk using the Framingham and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation functions. Results:, Mean age was 46.6 years, 49% were male. Substance use: 51% tobacco, 13% alcohol and 12.5% cannabis. Patients who reported consuming any substance were significantly younger and a higher proportion was male. After controlling for confounding factors, tobacco was a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) (unstandardized linear regression coefficient 3.47, 95% confidence interval 1.85,5.10). Conclusion:, Substance use, mainly tobacco, was common in bipolar patients. Tobacco use negatively impacted CHD risk. [source]

    Digital versus Local Anesthesia for Finger Lacerations: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Stuart Chale MD
    Abstract Objectives To compare the pain of needle insertion, anesthesia, and suturing in finger lacerations after local anesthesia with prior topical anesthesia with that experienced after digital anesthesia. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial in a university-based emergency department (ED), with an annual census of 75,000 patient visits. ED patients aged ,8 years with finger lacerations were enrolled. After standard wound preparation and 15-minute topical application of lidocaine-epinephrine-tetracaine (LET) in all wounds, lacerations were randomized to anesthesia with either local or digital infiltration of 1% lidocaine. Pain of needle insertion, anesthetic infiltration, and suturing were recorded on a validated 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 (none) to 100 (worst); also recorded were percentage of wounds requiring rescue anesthesia; time until anesthesia; percentage of wounds with infection or numbness at day 7. Outcomes were compared by using Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests. A sample of 52 patients had 80% power to detect a 15-mm difference in pain scores. Results Fifty-five patients were randomized to digital (n= 28) or local (n= 27) anesthesia. Mean age (±SD) was 38.1 (±16.8) years, 29% were female. Mean (±SD) laceration length and width were 1.7 (±0.7) cm and 2.0 (±1.0) mm, respectively. Groups were similar in baseline patient and wound characteristics. There were no between-group differences in pain of needle insertion (mean difference, 1.3 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI] =,17.0 to 14.3 mm); anesthetic infiltration (mean difference, 2.3 mm; 95% CI =,19.7 to 4.4 mm), or suturing (mean difference, 7.6 mm; 95% CI =,3.3 to 21.1 mm). Only one patient in the digital anesthesia group required rescue anesthesia. There were no wound infections or persistent numbness in either group. Conclusions Digital and local anesthesia of finger lacerations with prior application of LET to all wounds results in similar pain of needle insertion, anesthetic infiltration, and pain of suturing. [source]

    Developmental coordination disorder in children with attention-deficit,hyperactivity disorder and physical therapy intervention

    Nathan Watemberg MD
    Although physical therapy (PT) is effective in improving motor function in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), insufficient data are available on the impact of this intervention in children with combined attention-deficit,hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and DCD. This prospective study aimed to establish the prevalence of DCD among a cohort of patients with ADHD, characterize the motor impairment, identify additional comorbidities, and determine the role of PT intervention on these patients. DCD was detected in 55.2% of 96 consecutive children with ADHD (81 males, 15 females), mostly among patients with the inattentive type (64.3% compared with 11% of those with the hyperactive/impulsive type, p<0.05). Mean age was 8 years 4 months (SD 2y). Individuals with both ADHD and DCD more often had specific learning disabilities (p=0.05) and expressive language deficits (p=0.03) than children with ADHD only. Twenty-eight patients with ADHD and DCD randomly received either intensive group PT (group A, mean age 9y 3mo, SD 2y 3mo) or no intervention (group B, mean age 9y 3mo, SD 2y 2mo). PT significantly improved motor performance (assessed by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children; p=0.001). In conclusion, DCD is common in children with ADHD, particularly of the inattentive type. Patients with both ADHD and DCD are more likely to exhibit specific learning disabilities and phonological (pronunciation) deficits. Intensive PT intervention has a marked impact on the motor performance of these children. [source]

    Exploring effects of different treadmill interventions on walking onset and gait patterns in infants with Down syndrome

    Jianhua Wu PhD
    Two cohorts of participants were included to investigate the effects of different treadmill interventions on walking onset and gait patterns in infants with Down syndrome (DS). The first cohort included 30 infants with DS (17 males, 13 females; mean age 10mo [SD 1.9mo]) who were randomly assigned to either a lower-intensity-generalized (LG) training group, or a higher-intensity-individualized (HI) training group. A control (C) group from another study, who did not receive treadmill training, served as the control (eight males, seven females; mean age 10.4mo [SD 2.2mo]). Mean age at walking onset was 19.2, 21.4, and 23.9 months for the HI, LG, and C groups respectively. At walking onset the HI group was significantly younger than the C group (p=0.011). At the gait follow-up that was conducted between 1 and 3 months after walking onset, three groups significantly different in overall gait patterns (p=0.037) were examined by six basic gait parameters including average velocity, stride length, step width, stride time, stance time, and dynamic base. Post-hoc analyses demonstrated that stride length was the gait parameter largely contributing to this overall group difference (p=0.033), and the HI group produced a significantly longer stride length than the C group (p=0.030). In conclusion, the HI treadmill intervention significantly promoted earlier walking onset and elicited more advanced gait patterns (particularly in stride length) in infants with DS. [source]

    Surveillance of vision and ocular disorders in children with Down syndrome

    Elma Stephen MBBS MD MRCPCH
    Children with Down syndrome have a high prevalence of ocular disorders. The UK Down's Syndrome Medical Interest Group (DSMIG) guidelines for ophthalmic screening were locally implemented into a protocol that included neonatal eye examination by an opthalmologist and a comprehensive ophthalmological examination (cycloplegic refraction, ophthalmoscopy, and orthoptic assessement) by at least the age of 3 years, followed by preschool follow-up as indicated. We audited retrospectively surveillance for ocular disorders before and after the DSMIG-based guidelines were locally adopted in 1995. Results were compared for children born before and after the implementation of screening guidelines. A total of 81 children (43 females, 38 males) with Down syndrome were identified. After the DSMIG protocol, 34/36 children received a full ophthalmological examination in the neonatal period, compared with 9/27 children before 1995 (p<0.001). Neonatal screening resulted in the detection of cataracts in three infants. Mean age of first comprehensive ophthalmic screening outside the neonatal period was similar in the two groups (1y 6mo before guidelines vs 1y 9mo after), as were the proportion of children receiving preschool eye checks (27/30 before; 17/18 after). Overall, 65.7% children were screened in accordance with the guidelines, improving to 100% in recent years. At school age, 43% of the study population had significant refractive errors, with 27% having hypermetropia and astigmatism. Earlier prescription of glasses for refractive errors was seen (mean age 5y 6mo before guidelines; 3y 6mo after; p<0.001). Prevalence of other ocular disorders included strabismus (34/72, 47%), nasolacrimal duct obstruction (26/73, 35.6%), cataracts (5/64, 7.8%), and nystagmus (12/72, 16%). Establishment of the DSMIG-based local protocol has streamlined ocular surveillance. It is anticipated that this will improve developmental and functional outcomes in Down syndrome. [source]

    Intravenous lidocaine for status epilepticus during childhood

    Shin-ichiro Hamano MD;
    The clinical efficacy of lidocaine for convulsive status epilepticus in 53 convulsive episodes was examined in 37 children (17 males, 20 females). Mean age of patients receiving lidocaine was 3 years 7 months (SD 3y 5mo). Lidocaine administration achieved control of status epilepticus in 19 of 53 convulsive episodes (35.8%). Seizures ceased within 5 minutes of lidocaine administration in all 19 patients who were responsive to the drug. Regarding aetiology of status epilepticus and types of seizures, there was no statistical difference in effectiveness. Mild decrease of oxygen saturation, monitored by pulse oximetry, was observed in one patient, which improved by oxygenation using a mask. Lidocaine is a useful anticonvulsive agent; however, the response rate to lidocaine appears to be quite low, as less than half of the seizures were effectively controlled by lidocaine. Favourable properties of the drug include prompt responses, less alteration of consciousness, and fewer adverse effects, including less respiratory depression. [source]

    Clinical characteristics of language regression in children

    Sy Wilson MD;
    The spectrum of language regression in childhood is incompletely understood. To describe the features of this disorder more fully, we reviewed the records of 196 consecutive children (143 males and 53 females) with language regression or perceived plateau evaluated between 1988 and 1994 by a child neurologist. Mean age at regression was 21.2 months and the mean interval to referral was 34.8 months. A trigger for the regression was identified in 74 of the children (38%) and was associated with a more rapid regression. Mean age at follow-up was 64 months (SD 55). Seventy per cent of the children became nonverbal, and 75% were cognitively impaired. Language regression was associated with a more global autistic regression in 93% of children. There was a history of seizures in 15% of the children. Some recovery occurred in 61% but only one child recovered fully. Improvement was more likely in the 49% who were entirely developmentally normal before the regression. We conclude that language regression in childhood is a serious disorder with significant long-term morbidity. [source]

    Complementary and alternative medicine use in families of children with cerebral palsy

    Edward A Hurvitz MD
    In order to assess patterns of usage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in families of children with cerebral palsy (CP), 213 families with a child (0 to 18 years) with CP were recruited at the university medical center in Ann Arbor, MI, USA as part of a descriptive survey. Two hundred and thirty-five surveys were distributed. Mean age of the child was 8 years 6 months (SD 4y: 9mo) and 56% of the sample was male with 35% full-time independent ambulators, while the rest used an assistive device or a wheelchair. Fifty-four percent were in special education classrooms. Families were given a survey on functional status of the child with CP, CAM usage of the child and the parent, factors influencing the decision to use CAM, demographics, and clinical information. Of the families, 56%, used one or more CAM techniques. Massage therapy (25%) and aquatherapy (25%) were the most common. Children of families that used CAM were significantly younger (7y: 9mo, SD 4y: 7mo) than non-users (9y: 6mo, SD 4y: 6mo: t -test p < 0.01 two-tailed). Children with quadriplegic CP, with spasticity, and those who could not walk independently were more commonly exposed to CAM (Pearson's X2 [PX2] p=0.01 two-tailed; for mobility, odds ratio [OR] of 2.5 with regression). Mothers with a college degree had a greater tendency to use CAM for their child than those without (PX2p=0.01 two-tailed). Fathers of children who used CAM were older than fathers of those who did not (37y: 9mo versus 33y: 2mo, p=0.04 two-tailed). There was no significant difference between groups for mother's age, father's education, income, or for population of home town. Parents who used CAM for themselves were more likely to try CAM for their child (70% versus 47%, OR 2.1), and were much more likely to be pleased with the outcome (71% versus 42%, OR 3.5). Child's age (younger), lack of independent mobility, and parental use of CAM were the most significant predictive factors identified via logistic regression. [source]

    The changing prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and its associated vascular complications in a large region of the UK*

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 6 2010
    C. L. Morgan
    Diabet. Med. 27, 673,678 (2010) Abstract Aims, To characterize the prevalence of diabetes in a large health district in 2004 and compare it with a previous estimate made in 1996. Methods, The study population comprised the resident population of Cardiff and the Vale of Glamorgan. Routine record linkage was used to identify patients from various sources of hospital and mortality data. Patients with diabetes were identified according to biochemistry test results, coding on routine data or attendance at a diabetes-related clinic. Diabetes-related complications were ascribed according to coding on routine data. Results, It was possible to identify 17 088 people with diabetes alive on 1 January 2005. Of these patients, 9064 (53.0%) were male and 8024 (47.0%) were female. Mean age (± sd) was 59.6 ± 18.9 years for males and 61.2 ± 20.4 years for females. The crude prevalence of diabetes in 2005 was 3.9% (3.4% adjusted) compared with 2.5% in 1996 (2.3% adjusted). With the exception of females aged , 75 years, the prevalence of diabetes increased in all age- and sex-specific subgroups. Within the 2005 cohort, over two-thirds has no recorded complications compared with approximately one half of the 1996 cohort. The prevalence of individual complications decreased, with the exception of renal complications. Conclusions, The prevalence of identified diabetes appears to have increased substantially over a relatively short period of 9 years to 2004. The increase in prevalence was 46%, with an increase in numbers of patients with diabetes of 53%. A number of factors are likely to have contributed to this, including an increase in case ascertainment. [source]

    Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and medial temporal lobe atrophy: the LADIS study

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2 2007
    E. S. C. Korf
    Abstract Hypothesis, Based on recent findings on the association between vascular risk factors and hippocampal atrophy, we hypothesized that hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in subjects without disability, independent of the severity of white matter hyperintensities. Methods, In the Leukoaraiosis And DISability in the elderly (LADIS) study, we investigated the relationships between DM, hypertension, blood pressure and MTA in 582 subjects, stratified by white matter hyperintensity severity, using multinomial logistic regression. MTA was visually scored for the left and right medial temporal lobe (score 0,4), and meaned. Results, Mean age was 73.5 years (sd 5.1), 54% was female. Of the subjects, 15% had DM, and 70% had a history of hypertension. The likelihood of having MTA score 3 was significantly higher in subjects with DM (OR 2.9; 95% CI: 1.1,7.8) compared with an MTA score of 0 (no atrophy). The odds ratio for MTA score 2 was not significantly increased (OR 1.8; CI: 0.9,4). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and a history of hypertension were not associated with MTA. There was no interaction between DM and hypertension. Stratification on white matter hyperintensities (WMH) did not alter the associations. Conclusion Our study strengthens the observation that MTA is associated with DM, independently of the amount of small vessel disease as reflected by WMH. [source]

    The MTHFR C677T polymorphism confers a high risk for stroke in both homozygous and heterozygous T allele carriers with Type 2 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 5 2006
    M. P. Hermans
    Abstract Objective Individuals with Type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of stroke. Plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease. The methylene,tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism (thermolabile variant C677T) is associated with CV risk, partly as a result of increased Hcy, especially in homozygous subjects. Aim To relate the occurrence of the MTHFR polymorphism with stroke prevalence by examining allelic frequency and genotype distribution in 165 subjects with Type 2 diabetes studied for the presence of thermolabile C677T MTHFR mutation. Results Mean age was 67.7 years, and tHcy 18.2 µmol/l. T allele frequency was 38.5%. MTHFR genotypes were: normal (CC) 40%; heterozygous (CT) 43%; homozygous (TT) 17%. Serum levels of folic acid and B12 vitamin were within normal limits. Stroke prevalence was 14%. Sixty-four per cent of stroke-free subjects had the normal C allele vs. 46% in stroke subjects. The frequencies of genotypes (CC-CT-TT) were (%): 44-41-15 in stroke-free vs. 17-57-26 in stroke patients. Coronary (CAD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD) were common in all groups, with no differences according to genotypes. Stroke prevalence was markedly higher in genotypes CT and TT (18 and 21%) compared with CC (6%). Mean tHcy levels were higher in TT subjects. Conclusion The allelic frequency of C677T MTHFR mutation in Type 2 diabetes subjects with stroke is markedly different from that of subjects without stroke. Genotypic characteristics suggest that C677T MTHFR mutation confers a higher risk for stroke to both homozygous and heterozygous T allele carriers that cannot be ascribed solely to raised tHcy and/or lower folate status in CT subjects, nor to phenotypic expression of conventional risk factors for stroke. The impact of the MTHFR polymorphism on stroke may result from T allele-linked deleterious effects, or C allele-linked protection. Confirmatory studies are warranted, as this cohort was not randomly selected, and a type 1 error cannot be ruled out. [source]

    Statin use in Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a delay in starting insulin

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 9 2004
    A. Yee
    Abstract Aims It has been suggested that HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors (,statins') may reduce the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to evaluate whether use of statins would also delay progression to insulin therapy. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study using Saskatchewan Health databases to identify subjects newly started on oral antidiabetic agents from 1991 to 1996. Subjects < 30 years of age or with previous lipid-lowering drug use were excluded. Medications known to influence glycaemic control, co-morbidity, and demographic data were collected. Statin exposure was defined as at least 1 year of use. Primary outcome was starting insulin treatment. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between statin use and starting insulin. Results The final cohort included 10 996 new users of oral antidiabetic agents, of which 484 (4.4%) used statins. Mean age was 64 years and 55% were male. Mean duration of follow-up was 5.1 years; 11.1% (n = 1221) eventually started insulin treatment. Statin users were no less likely than non-users to start insulin treatment eventually (11.6% vs. 11.1%, P = 0.74). After multivariate adjustment, however, statin use was associated with a 10-month delay before newly treated diabetic subjects needed to start insulin treatment (adjusted hazard ratio 0.74; 95% confidence interval 0.56, 0.97, P = 0.028). Conclusion The use of statins is associated with a delay in starting insulin treatment in patients with Type 2 diabetes initially treated with oral antidiabetic agents. Whether this relationship exists for patients at high risk of developing diabetes should be examined in a randomized trial. [source]

    A pilot randomized trial in primary care to investigate and improve knowledge, awareness and self-management among South Asians with diabetes in Manchester

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 12 2003
    A. Vyas
    Abstract Aims To investigate whether a secondary,primary care partnership education package could improve understanding of diabetes care among South Asians. Methods In a pilot randomized controlled trial, in the setting of eight general practices randomized to intervention or control, patients were invited to four or more rotating visits per year by one of a diabetes specialist nurse, dietician or chiropodist working with general practice staff. Participants were from lists of South Asian patients with known Type 2 diabetes in each (general) practice. Results Patients and practice scores at baseline and 1-year follow-up, from an interview using a questionnaire on knowledge, awareness and self-management of diabetes. Responses were developed into educational packages used during intervention. Of the 411 patients listed at baseline only 211 were traced for interview (refusal only 4%). Mean age was 55.4 years, age of diabetes onset 47.1 years. Fourteen percent were employed and 35% were able to communicate in English fluently. Only 118 could be traced and interviewed at 1 year, although there was no significant difference in demography between those who completed the study and those who did not. Despite a mean of four visits/patient, intervention had no impact on scores for diabetes knowledge, or awareness [score change 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) ,0.20, 0.49] or self-management (,0.05, 95% CI ,0.48, 0.39) between baseline and 1 year. Conclusions This form of secondary/primary care support did not transfer information effectively, and we suspect similar problems would arise in other similar communities. Different methods of clinician/patient information exchange need to be developed for diabetes in this South Asian group. [source]

    Plasma lipids and urinary albumin excretion rate in Type 1 diabetes mellitus: the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 1 2001
    M. B. Mattock
    SUMMARY Aims To examine the relationship between increased urinary albumin excretion rate and fasting plasma lipids among male and female respondents to the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study, and attempt to explain inconsistencies in previous reports. Methods A cross-sectional study of 3250 randomly selected Type 1 diabetic patients from 31 diabetes clinics in 16 European countries was carried out between 1989 and 1990. Plasma lipids and urinary albumin were measured centrally. The present analysis was confined to the subgroup of 2205 patients attending after a 10,12 h overnight fast. Mean age was 33 years (sd 10) and mean duration of Type 1 diabetes mellitus was 15 years (sd 9). Results The prevalence of microalbuminuria (24-h urinary albumin excretion rate 20,200 ,g/min) was 21.7% (95% confidence interval 19.9,23.5) and macroalbuminuria (24-h urinary albumin excretion rate >,200 ,g/min) 7.8% (6.6,9.0). In comparison to patients with normal urinary albumin excretion rate (< 20 ,g/min), and after controlling for age, sex, glycaemic control, duration of diabetes and current smoking, macroalbuminuria was associated with significantly (P < 0.01) increased fasting plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio and, in women, reduced HDL-cholesterol. In men and women with microalbuminuria, the only significant association was with increased plasma triglycerides. Conclusions These data confirm that there is an association between fasting plasma lipids and increasing urinary albumin excretion rate in European Type 1 diabetic patients. In microalbuminuric patients, however, the association was weaker than previously reported and partly explained by confounding factors. [source]

    Characteristics of Emergency Medicine Program Directors

    Michael S. Beeson MD
    Objectives: To characterize emergency medicine (EM) program directors (PDs) and compare the data, where possible, with those from other related published studies. Methods: An online survey was e-mailed in 2002 to all EM PDs of programs that were approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education. The survey included questions concerning demographics, work hours, support staff, potential problems and solutions, salary and expenses, and satisfaction. Results: One hundred nine of 124 (88%) PDs (69.7% university, 27.5% community, and 2.8% military) completed the survey; 85.3% were male. Mean age was 43.6 years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 42.6 to 44.7 yr). The mean time as a PD was 5.7 years (95% CI = 4.9 to 6.5 yr), with 56% serving five years or less. The mean time expected to remain as PD is an additional 6.0 years (95% CI = 5.2 to 6.8). A 1995 study noted that 50% of EM PDs had been in the position for less than three years, and 68% anticipated continuing in their position for less than five years. On a scale of 1 to 10 (with 10 as highest), the mean satisfaction with the position of PD was 8.0 (95% CI = 7.2 to 8.3). Those PDs who stated that the previous PD had mentored them planned to stay a mean of 2.0 years longer than did those who were not mentored (95% CI of difference of means = 0.53 to 3.53). Sixty-five percent of PDs had served previously as an associate PD. Most PDs (92%) have an associate or assistant PD, with 54% reporting one; 25%, two; and 9%, three associate or assistant PDs. A 1995 study noted that 62% had an associate PD. Ninety-two percent have a program coordinator, and 35% stated that they have both a residency secretary and a program coordinator. Program directors worked a median of 195 hours per month: clinical, 75 hours; scholarly activity, 20 hours; administrative, 80 hours; and teaching and residency conferences, 20 hours; compared with a median total hours of 220 previously reported. Lack of adequate time to do the job required, career needs interfering with family needs, and lack of adequate faculty help with residency matters were identified as the most important problems (means of 3.5 [95% CI = 3.2 to 3.7], 3.4 [95% CI = 3.2 to 3.6], and 3.1 [95% CI = 2.9 to 3.3], respectively, on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 as maximum). This study identified multiple resources that were found to be useful by >50% of PDs, including national meetings, lectures, advice from others, and self-study. Conclusions: Emergency medicine PDs generally are very satisfied with the position of PD, perhaps because of increased support and resources. Although PD turnover remains an issue, PDs intend to remain in the position for a longer period of time than noted before this study. This may reflect the overall satisfaction with the position as well as the increased resources and support now available to the PD. PDs have greater satisfaction if they have been mentored for the position. [source]

    Injury and alcohol: a hospital emergency department study

    Abstract A pilot survey was undertaken of injury presentations to a public hospital emergency department to determine patterns of alcohol use in this population. Of the 402 injury presentations in the study period, a total of 236 injury cases were interviewed, of whom 45% (n = 107) and 29% (n = 69) had consumed alcohol 24 and 6 hours prior to injury. Mean age for all injury presentations was 35.1 years, and 32.6 years for alcohol injury cases. For both injury groups, males were significantly younger than females. Recent alcohol ingestion was three times more common among male than female injury presentations, but with females drinking at significantly lower levels. Of males who had consumed alcohol 6 hours prior to injury, nearly 70% were drinking at NHMRC harmful levels and 61% had drunk more than eight standard drinks. Overall, alcohol-involved injury cases commonly occurred among low-income, single males around 30 years of age who were regular heavy drinkers who were drinking heavily in licensed premises prior to their injury, and who sustained injury through intentional harm. In addition, one in five of the alcohol-involved injury cases were aged 15,18 years, i.e. below the legal age of purchase. The high proportion of hazardous and harmful drinkers among those who had consumed alcohol within the last 6 hours, and the injury sample overall, highlights the need for further research to explore the relationship between the occurrence of injury and the drinking patterns and environments associated with injury. Further research is also required to assess the efficacy of early and brief interventions for alcohol and drug use within the emergency ward setting. This information would enable appropriate public health interventions to be initiated. [source]

    The development of the Recovery and Prevention of Psychosis Service in Melbourne, Australia

    Brendan P. Murphy
    Abstract Aim: To describe the establishment of a multicomponent, phase-specific, early intervention service for young people experiencing psychosis. Methods: The Recovery and Prevention of Psychosis Service commenced streamed clinical service delivery in November 2004, providing comprehensive case management for up to 3 years within Victoria's largest metropolitan health service. It delivers phase-oriented treatment focusing on early detection, recovery and relapse prevention, and minimizing disability and secondary comorbidity. The combined programme covers training and professional development, data collection and evaluation, specialist intervention services, group programme work and community development. Results: Of the first 151 clients, 70.2% were male, the average age at first presentation was 20.9 years, 15% were under 18 at first contact and 67% required inpatient admission at least once. Mean age at first contact was 20.84 years for those requiring inpatient services and 70% admitted were male. The average length of stay was 25.69 days and 23% were secluded, with an average of 2.1 seclusions. A large percentage of Recovery and Prevention of Psychosis Service clients (81%) required involuntary treatment, a significantly greater proportion of admitted patients were on Community Treatment Orders compared to those never admitted (22.5% cf. 4.1%; P = 0.04) and 92% of those admitted subsequently relapsed compared to 8% of those not admitted (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Recovery and Prevention of Psychosis Service is successfully developing a fully integrated first episode service. Recent developments include expanding the period of care up to 5 years for selected patients, the recruitment of a health promotions officer and planning for the development of a youth inpatient unit. [source]

    Disproportionately High Risk of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Indo-Asian Women: A Call for More Studies

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2008
    F.A.C.C., Fahim H. Jafary M.D.
    Objective: Indo-Asians have one of the highest rates of cardiovascular disease worldwide. Estimates and determinants of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in this population are not known. We sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for LVH in Karachi, Pakistan.Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study on 320 randomly selected adults from the general population aged 40 years or above. LVH was defined as increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI) on echocardiogram (>115 g/m2 in men and >95 g/m2 in women) employing the adjusted Devereux equation. Multivariable models were built and logistic regression analysis was done for the primary outcome of LVH.Results: Mean age of subjects was 52.7 (10.4) years, 50% were women. Mean LVMI (SD) was 72.0 (19.2) [median 71.1] g/m2 in men and 75.7 (25.9) [median 72.9] g/m2 in women. The overall prevalence of LVH was 21.9% in women and 2.5% in men (P < 0.001). The factors (odds ratio, 95% CI) independently associated with LVH were women versus men (11.35, 3.79,34.02), systolic blood pressure > versus < 140 mmHg (2.70, 1.23,5.93), waist circumference (1.05, 1.02,1.08 for each cm increase) and illiteracy (2.43, 1.07,5.52).Conclusions: Urban Pakistani women appear to have a disproportionately high risk of LVH compared to men using standard echocardiographic criteria. Further research is needed to verify these results by establishing population-specific reference values for LVH and correlating cut-points for increased LVMI with prognosis. Concerted efforts are needed to reduce the high burden of risk factors in Indo-Asian women. [source]

    Comparison of Topical Anesthetics and Lubricants Prior to Urethral Catheterization in Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    John Siderias DO
    Abstract Although male urethral catheterization in the emergency department (ED) is both common and painful, few studies have evaluated the use of topical anesthesia prior to catheterization. Objectives: To determine whether pretreatment of the urethra with topical lidocaine reduces the pain associated with urethral catheterization. Methods:This was a prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of 36 alert, cooperative male adult patients requiring urethral catheterization, without allergies to the study medications or contraindications to their use, from a suburban university-based ED. Patients in the experimental group had topical lidocaine 2% gel injected in their urethras, whereas control patients received intraurethral lubrication only. Standardized catheterization with a no. 16 Foley was performed followed by pain assessment. The primary outcome measured was pain of catheterization on a 100-mm visual analog scale. Other outcomes included ease of insertion and procedural bleeding. Results: The authors evaluated 36 patients evenly distributed between study groups. Mean age was 62 years (range 22,85). Compared with controls, patients pretreated with lidocaine experienced significantly less pain of catheterization (38 ± 28 mm vs. 58 ± 30 mm; mean difference 20 mm; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.4 to 32; p = 0.04) and less pain of injection (23 ± 17 mm vs. 40 ± 25 mm; mean difference 17 mm; 95% CI = 3 to 32 mm; p = 0.02). There were no differences in the number of attempts and incidence of adverse events between the groups. Conclusions: Use of topical lidocaine gel reduces the pain associated with male urethral catheterization in comparison with topical lubricants only. [source]

    A Study of 43 Patients with Panayiotopoulos Syndrome, a Common and Benign Childhood Seizure Susceptibility

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2003
    Christina Lada
    Summary: ,Purpose: To determine prevalence, clinical, EEG features, and prognosis of Panayiotopoulos syndrome and to examine the proposition that clinical manifestations are more important than EEG findings. Methods: We analyzed retrospectively the clinical and EEG records of 1,340 children with one or more focal seizures seen in the last 18 years, supplemented with a prospective study from 1998. Panayiotopoulos syndrome was defined by clinical criteria, mainly ictal emesis, irrespective of EEG findings. Results: We analyzed 43 of 90 patients with Panayiotopoulos syndrome who were seizure free >2 years. Girls predominated. Mean age at first seizure was 5 years. Seizures consisted mainly of autonomic manifestations; ictal emesis was often the first symptom, culminating in vomiting in 86%. Of nonautonomic manifestations, lateral eye deviation was the most common; visual symptoms were exceptional. Impairment of consciousness ensued in all seizures, half of which ended with hemi or generalized convulsions. Nearly 46.5% of cases had at least one seizure >30 min, constituting autonomic status epilepticus. Seizures during sleep (84%) were more common than those in wakefulness. EEG showed occipital spikes in 29 patients. Of the other 14 cases, five had extraoccipital abnormalities or brief generalized discharges, and nine had normal awake and sleep EEG. Prognosis was excellent. All 43 children have been free of seizures for ,2 years, 53% having a single seizure, and 47%, an average two to three seizures. Conclusions: Panayiotopoulos syndrome is common and needs wider recognition. EEG shows occipital or extraoccipital abnormalities, is normal in one third of patients, and does not determine clinical manifestations or prognosis, which is excellent despite the high prevalence of lengthy seizures. [source]

    Absence Seizures Aggravated by Valproic Acid

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2001
    Tally Lerman-Sagie
    Summary: ,Purpose: To report on pediatric patients with absence epilepsy who experienced absence seizure aggravation while receiving valproic acid (VPA). Methods: The charts of all children from four pediatric epilepsy clinics receiving VPA for absence epilepsy were reviewed. Patients were evaluated and followed up between 1994 and 2000. Results: Eight cases (six boys) of absence seizure aggravation were detected. Mean age at seizure onset was 5.8 years (range, 3,12 years). Six patients had simple absence seizures, one had myoclonic absences, and one had absences with automatisms. The electroencephalogram in all cases depicted generalized 3-Hz spike-and-wave activities. All eight patients experienced an increase in the frequency of absence seizures within days of VPA introduction. Dose increments resulted in further seizure aggravation. Serum levels of VPA were within therapeutic range in all patients. No case was attributed to VPA-induced encephalopathy. All patients improved on VPA discontinuation. In five children, VPA was reintroduced, resulting in further seizure aggravation. Conclusions: VPA can occasionally provoke absence seizure aggravation in patients with absence epilepsy. [source]

    Penetrance estimation of TTR familial amyloid polyneuropathy (type I) in Brazilian families

    M. A. C. Saporta
    Background and purpose:, Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) type I is a severe autosomal dominant inherited neuropathy associated with mutations in the transthyretin (TTR) gene. Significant phenotypic variability is seen amongst families with distinct geographic origin, especially regarding penetrance and age of onset. The aim of this study was to estimate the penetrance of FAP in Brazilian families. Methods:, Twenty-two distinct families were ascertained through genetically confirmed index cases and included in this study. Genealogical and clinical data were obtained from a total of 623 individuals, including 126 affected by FAP. In 15 families, TTR genotyping was performed in all available relatives (n = 86), after informed written consent. Seven families did not consent for genetic testing, but agreed to provide clinical and genealogical data. Penetrance was estimated using a previously described method based on survival analysis and corrected for ascertainment bias. Results:, Mean age of onset in our sample was 34.5 years, with a significant earlier onset in males (31.1 vs. 35.9, P < 0.0001). The penetrance of FAP in our sample was estimated as 83% (95% CI: 66,99) after 60 years. Conclusion:, Our results provide new information on FAP in Brazilian patients and may be helpful in the genetic counseling of this population. [source]

    Parents and Practitioners Are Poor Judges of Young Children's Pain Severity

    Adam J. Singer MD
    Objective: Visual analog pain scales are reliable measures in older children and adults; however, pain studies that include young children often rely on parental or practitioner assessments for measuring pain severity. The authors correlated patient, parental, and practitioner pain assessments for young children with acute pain. Methods: This was a prospective, descriptive study of a convenience sample of 63 emergency department patients aged 4-7 years, with acute pain resulting from acute illness or painful invasive procedures. A trained research assistant administered a structured pain survey containing demographic and historical features to all parents/guardians. Children assessed their pain severity using a validated ordinal scale that uses five different faces with varying degrees of frowning (severe pain) or smiling (no pain). Each face was converted to a numeric value from 0 (no pain) to 4 (severe pain). Parents and practitioners independently assessed their child's pain using a validated 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) marked "most pain" at the high end. Pairwise correlations between child, parent, and practitioner pain assessments were performed using Spearman's or Pearson's test as appropriate. The association between categorical data was assessed using ,2 tests. Results: Sixty-three children ranging in age from 4 to 7 were included. Mean age (±SD) was 5.7 (±1.1); 42% were female. Fifty-seven successfully completed the face scale. The distribution of the children's scores was 0-17%, 1-9%, 2-30%, 3-14%, and 4-30%. Mean parental and practitioner scores (±SD) on the VAS were 61 (±26) mm and 37 (±26) mm, respectively (maximal = 100 mm). Correlation between child and parent scores was 0.47 (p < 0.001). Correlation between child and practitioner scores was 0.08 (p = 0.54). Correlation between parent and practitioner scores was 0.04 (p = 0.001). Conclusions: There is poor agreement between pain ratings by children, parents, and practitioners. It is unclear which assessment best approximates the true degree of pain the child is experiencing. [source]

    Posterior circulation ischemic stroke in Korean population

    J.-H. Lee
    To understand the characteristics of posterior circulation ischemic stroke (PCS) in the Korean population better, we retrospectively reviewed the data from the Hallym Stroke Registry (HSR). We analyzed the demographic features, risk factors, stroke subtypes, lesion distributions and clinical outcomes of 591 consecutive patients with PCS, enrolled in HSR between January 1996 and July 2002. PCS was 39.8% of all ischemic strokes. Mean age of PCS patients was 63.4 years and 55.7% were men. Hypertension was the most common risk factor (69.9%). However, potential cardioembolic sources were found only in 11.0%. The most frequent stroke subtype was large artery disease (50.0%), followed by small vessel disease (33.8%). Only 5.2% of patients were classified as affected with cardioembolism. The most common location of infarcts was in the middle territory (36.5%), followed by distal (28.1%), proximal (19.0%), and multiple territories (16.4%). The hospital mortality rate (4.1%) and discharge outcome of PCS were comparable with those of the anterior circulation stroke (ACS). In conclusion, the etiology and lesion topography of PCS in the Korean population appeared to be different from those of the Caucasians. [source]

    Hematology and coagulation parameters predict outcome in Taiwanese patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    H.-Y. Fang
    Volume of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, peripheral edema around the hematoma, and hydrocephalus are good predictors of mortality in patients with spontaneous ICH from western countries. However, the significance of hematologic and biochemical parameters associated with spontaneous ICH has not been extensively studied. This study was designed to determine prognostic factors for spontaneous ICH in Taiwanese patients. We prospectively studied 109 consecutive patients with spontaneous ICH admitted to Changhua Christian Medical Center. Clinical and laboratory data were collected and analyzed. Mean age was 62.3 years. There were 63 men (58%) and 46 women (42%). Differences in GCS score, ICH score, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score between the survival and non-survival groups were statistically significant. Laboratory data were statistically different using multivariate analysis for platelet count, prothrombin time, and white cell count. This is the first study providing information on predictors of spontaneous ICH mortality in Taiwanese patients. The prothrombin time and platelet count on the first day were good early predictors of mortality. This finding in ethnically Chinese patients appears to be different from the profile for patients from western countries. [source]