Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Meal

  • bean meal
  • blood meal
  • bone meal
  • by-product meal
  • canola meal
  • corn gluten meal
  • corn meal
  • cottonseed meal
  • daily meal
  • defatted soybean meal
  • fat meal
  • feather meal
  • fish meal
  • gluten meal
  • high fat meal
  • high-fat meal
  • kernel meal
  • krill meal
  • leaf meal
  • liquid meal
  • main meal
  • meat meal
  • menhaden fish meal
  • mixed meal
  • pea meal
  • poultry by-product meal
  • rapeseed meal
  • regular meal
  • school meal
  • seed meal
  • single meal
  • solid meal
  • soybean meal
  • squid meal
  • standard meal
  • test meal
  • white fish meal

  • Terms modified by Meal

  • meal containing
  • meal diet
  • meal duration
  • meal extract
  • meal frequency
  • meal ingestion
  • meal intake
  • meal pattern
  • meal program
  • meal protein
  • meal replacement
  • meal sample
  • meal size
  • meal test
  • meal timing
  • meal tolerance test

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT Adding whey protein concentrates or isolates to expanded snack foods would boost their nutritional content; however, adding non-textured whey proteins in amounts larger than 5% interferes with expansion, making the products less crunchy. To counter this effect, whey protein isolate (WPI) was first extruded (texturized) at either 50C (WPI-50) or 90C (WPI-100) before adding to corn meal at 25% (WPI) level, and was extruded again to make the puffed product. Corn meal, corn meal with non-texturized WPI (25%), corn meal with WPI-50, or corn meal with WPI-100 were extruded at high shear conditions (300 rpm) and product temperatures of 125C. All extrudates containing texturized WPI were more expanded, firmer, crispier and easier to break than corn meal or corn meal with non-texturized WPI. Pre-texturizing whey proteins and using them in extruded snacks improves textural properties, making it possible to add large amounts of whey proteins directly into expanded snacks to fortify them. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This study determined that it is better to modify whey protein isolates (WPI) before adding them to the corn meal and extruding them to create crunchy products. The process described shows that modifying the structure of the whey proteins creates a form of WPI that is more compatible with corn meal. This knowledge allows the creation of nutritious high-protein expanded crunchy snacks. [source]


    ABSTRACT Direct quality indicators of cowpea paste and akara produced from traditionally wet-milled peas, and hammer-milled (dry-milled) and freeze-dried (wet-milled) meals were examined in this study. Both meal samples studied were formulated to consist of 65% medium-sized particles and 35% large particles by weight. Particle volume mean diameters (µm) of the three paste samples were not significantly different from one another at the various stages during akara production. Scanning electron micrographs of akara crumb were converted to threshold images and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the amount of air found in the akara samples. Akara produced from both meals was found acceptable by sensory panelists with no significant difference in any of the attributes or overall liking among the three samples. [source]


    ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to investigate consumers' preferences for variations of a visually presented meal. The study was conducted in three middle-sized Danish towns, including 768 respondents who were presented with a computerized questionnaire that initially displayed four consecutive series of photos. The series each consisted of eight unique photos of randomized food dishes arranged around the center square in a 3 × 3 array. Five meal components, each with two levels, were investigated. One level of each component was used for each photo, in total 25 = 32 combinations. The respondents were asked to select the meal they preferred the most, the second most and the least, respectively. Significant interactions were found between meal components and background variables such as, gender, age, geographic variables, purchase store and level of education. The current procedure can be applied to help solve a number of problems involving consumer choices. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This study outlines an approach to use visual images for investigations of food. Our results suggest that rather complex food stimuli of great similarity can be used to subdivide consumers based on sociodemographic background variables. We present an efficient and cheap quick method that provides and captures more information than an ordinary survey that focuses merely on the most preferred option. As a prerequisite for success, stimuli should be well known and appropriately selected. Hence, the present quick method can easily be applied for several practical purposes, such as pretesting, labeling, product flop prevention, and for specific optimization and selection tasks, e.g., convenience meals and institutional meal services in various contexts. The conjoint layout used allows for late-based segmentation. It further allows for estimation on aggregate as well as individual level. The current approach is useful for database and/or online implementation. [source]

    Production of a Laccase and Decrease of the Phenolic Content in Canola Meal during the Growth of the Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus in Solid State Fermentation Processes

    J. Hu
    Abstract Solid state fermentation of canola meal was carried out with the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus DAOM 197961, which is a producer of laccase. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of moisture content, inoculum size, homogenisation of inoculum and particle size of canola meal on the growth of the fungus, the production of a laccase and the decrease of the content of sinapic acid esters (SAE) in a solid state process. The results showed that the optimum moisture content, which was varied in the media between 50% and 75%, for the growth and enzyme production was 60%. The initial rate of SAE content decrease was faster in the media with 70% and 75% moisture than in those with lower moisture levels. In the study of the effects of inoculum concentration in the range of 1.1 mg to 5.5 mg/g of the medium, it was found that larger amounts of biomass and enzyme were produced in the media with inoculum concentrations from 1.1 mg to 3.3 mg/g of the medium than in the media with a higher inoculum concentration. The final and approximately the same concentrations of SAE were reached at the same time regardless of the inoculum concentration. Considering that the fungus formed pellets under the conditions at which it was grown during the inoculum preparation, it was necessary to break them by homogenisation prior to their utilisation as an inoculum. The homogenisation was carried out during a period between 15s and 200s. Although higher biomass concentrations and enzyme activities were obtained in the media which were inoculated with the inoculum homogenised for 15s and 30s, the maximum enzyme activities and biomass concentrations were reached in the media inoculated with the inoculum, which was homogenised for 120s and 200s. The time of inoculum homogenisation did not influence the kinetics of the SAE decrease. When the effects of the particle size of canola meal on the process were studied, it was found that larger particles of the meal in the solid media were more favourable for the production of the biomass and enzyme, and for a faster decrease of the SAE content than those of smaller sizes. From the obtained results it can be concluded that the tested variables have a significant influence on the growth of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus DAOM 197961, the production of laccase and the decrease of the SAE content in canola meal. The data could be useful for the development of a solid state process for the production of laccase and for the decrease of the phenolics content in canola meal. [source]

    Reduction of Aflatoxins by Extrusion-Cooking of Rice Meal

    Miren Castells
    ABSTRACT:, The objective of this work was to determine the reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1), and G2 (AFG2) as a function of initial moisture content of samples (24%, 27%, and 30%), barrel temperature (140, 170, and 200 °C), and residence time (30 to 70 s) when artificially contaminated rice meal was extrusion-cooked. Extruded and unextruded samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Extrusion-cooking was observed to reduce aflatoxin (AF) content, which ranged from 51% to 95% depending on the type of AF and the studied variables. Only in the case of AFG2 was it found that the higher the temperature, the higher the moisture content, and the longer the residence time, the greater the reduction. Moisture content had a significant influence on reducing AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 whereas it was not a significant factor affecting the levels of AFB1. Regardless of the type of AF, the lowest reductions were achieved at a temperature of 140 °C. Even though theoretically greater losses would be expected at highest temperature, AFB1 and AFB2 were more reduced by 170 °C than by 200 °C while AFG1 reductions were not statistically different when processing at 170 °C and 200 °C. The decrease of AF followed 1st-order kinetics; the fastest treatment in reducing AF was that at 200 °C when samples containing AFG2 were wetted to 24% and when samples containing AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1 were hydrated to 27%. By contrast, the slowest treatments were observed at a barrel temperature of 140 °C. [source]

    Evaluation of Alternative Protein Sources to Replace Fish Meal in Practical Diets for Juvenile Tilapia, Oreochromis spp

    Tri N. Nguyen
    Two feeding experiments were conducted to evaluate if methionine is limiting in practical grow-out diets for tilapia, Oreochromis spp. Four diets containing 32% protein and 5% lipid were designed to compare the use of diets high in dehulled solvent-extracted soybean meal (DSESM) and expeller pressed soybean meal (EPSM) compared with a diet containing 6% fish meal (FM). Tilapia (4.78 ± 0.07 g, mean ± SD) were randomly stocked into twelve 600-L flow-through tanks at 20 fish per tank. After 6 wk, there were no notable trends or statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in final mean weight, survival rate, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among the treatments. Because results of this study indicated that DSESM could totally replace FM in practical diets for juvenile tilapia, a second batch of diets were formulated using other protein sources. Typical levels of cottonseed meal (CSM), DSESM, and meat and bone meal (MBM) were used to evaluate whether methionine could be limiting. Two basal diet formulations were tested either without or with methionine supplement (0.06/100 g diet). The first diet contained 15% CSM, 27% DSESM, and 10% MBM and the second diet contained 15% CSM and 37% DSESM. These diets contained 28% protein and 5% lipid. Tilapia (3.90 ± 0.05 g) were randomly stocked into twelve 60-L glass aquaria of a recirculation system at 18 fish per aquarium for 5 wk and then moved to the 600-L flow-through tanks for five more weeks. After 10 wk, there were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in final mean weight, survival rate, and FCR among the four treatments. Results of the present study indicated that DSESM and EPSM could totally replace FM's inclusion rate in commercial diets for juvenile tilapia. Furthermore, methionine did not appear to be limiting in practical diets using typical levels of CSM, DSESM, and MBM as primary protein sources. [source]

    Replacement of Fish Meal with Poultry By-product Meal as a Protein Source in Pond-raised Sunshine Bass, Morone chrysops , × M. saxatlis ,, Diets

    Harvey J. Pine
    Replacement of fish meal (FM) as a protein source with alternative sources of protein in aquaculture diets has been widely explored in aquaculture. The goal of replacement of FM in production diets is to maintain growth, lower production costs, and increase sustainability. Evaluation of the replacement of FM with poultry by-product meal (PBM) in phase II sunshine bass diets, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis, was conducted in ponds over 246 d. Four diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (37%) and isocaloric (4 kcal/g) with different levels of FM replacement with PBM (0, 33, 67, and 100%, Diets 1,4, respectively). Twelve ponds were stocked with 400 phase II sunshine bass (mean weight 5.6 g) and randomly assigned one of the four diets. Fish were fed below satiation based on predicted growth and feed conversion, initially once daily (1700 h) and then twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) as water temperatures and feeding activity increased. Diets were evaluated based on production and performance indicators, body composition, and economic analysis. Production results revealed no significant differences in mean final individual fish weight (511 ± 21 g), net production (4257 ± 247 kg/ha), and survival (85 ± 2%). No significant differences occurred between the performance indicators: mean feed conversion ratio (2.47 ± 0.11), specific growth rate (1.84 ± 0.02), and protein conversion efficiency (23 ± 1.3%). Body composition was statistically similar for mean percent fillet weight (49 ± 0.6%) and percent intraperitoneal fat (9.8 ± 1.0%); however, the hepatosomatic index was significantly different between Diets 3 (3.7 ± 0.1%) and 4 (3.2 ± 0.1%). Mean proximate analysis of whole fish (dry weight basis) was not significantly different among treatments yielding the following: percent protein (46 ± 0.4%), lipid (47 ± 1.3%), and ash (8 ± 0.7%). Mean fillet composition (dry weight basis) also revealed no significant differences: percent protein (72 ± 0.8%), percent lipid (30 ± 1.6%), and percent ash (5 ± 0.2%). Proximate analysis was also performed on the diets and revealed a significantly lower protein content in Diet 3 (34.3 ± 0.5%) compared to the other diets (37.1 ± 0.4%). Amino acid analysis of the diets indicated a possible deficiency in methionine in Diets 3 and 4. Based on production, performance, and body composition, the results indicate that complete replacement of FM with PBM in sunshine bass diets is feasible; however, economic analysis suggests that the replacement of FM with PBM may result in reduced revenue over feed costs. [source]

    Replacement of Fish Meal with Soybean Meal in the Production Diets of Juvenile Red Snapper, Lutjanus campechanus

    D. Allen Davis
    The replacement of fish meal with soybean meal in fish diets has met with varying degrees of success. Quite often, poor responses to high soybean meal diets are either due to shifts in the nutrient profile or a reduced palatability of the diet when fish meal is removed. The present research was designed to evaluate the replacement of menhaden fish meal with solvent-extracted soybean meal in practical diets containing 10% poultry by-product meal and formulated to contain 40% protein, 8% lipid, and a total sulfur amino acid content of > 3.0% of the protein. The response of red snapper (mean initial weight 10.9 g) to diets containing graded levels of fish meal (30,20, 10, 0%) as well as the response to a low fish meal diet (10%) without poultry by-product meal were evaluated over a 6-wk growth period. Significant (P± 0.05) differences in final mean weight, percent weight gain, and feed conversion were observed. Final weights (percent gain) ranged from 30.9 g (185.5%) for fish offered diets with 30% fish meal to 12.6 g (16.3%) for fish offered diets with 0% fish meal. Corresponding feed conversion efficiencies ranged from 60.1% to 7.7%. No significant differences were observed for survival between treatment means. Although there was a clear reduction in performance as the fish meal was replaced with soybean meal, the use of 10% poultry by-product meal or 10% fish meal resulted in similar performance of the fish. This is a good indication that poultry by-product meal does not have palatability problems and could be used as a substitute. The present findings suggest that replacing fish meal with high levels of soybean meal appears to reduce the palatability of the diet. While the cost reducing benefit, with respect to the replacement of fish meal, has been shown with other species, before high levels of inclusion can be efficiently utilized further research is needed to address the palatability problems observed with red snapper. [source]

    Processing and Properties of Biobased Blends from Soy Meal and Natural Rubber

    Qiangxian Wu
    Abstract Vulcanized blends from soy meal and natural rubber were successfully processed through semi-pilot scale extrusion, roll milling and compression-molding. Blends containing about 50 wt.-% of soy meal are elastic and water resistant, compared with the brittle and hydrophilic soy meal. The natural rubber component was well embedded into the soy meal matrix, indicating the existence of an interaction between them. The glass transition temperature of the rubber component in the blends increased due to the existence of this interaction. Calcium sulfate, as a compatibilizer, was a physical cross-linker to the proteins in the soy meal and in the rubber. The morphological analysis of the soy meal and natural rubber blend through scanning electron microscopy revealed a partial compatibility of the blend. The blends containing near 50 wt.-% of inexpensive soy meal have potential for various applications. [source]

    Meal and food preferences of nutritionally at-risk inpatients admitted to two Australian tertiary teaching hospitals

    NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 1 2008
    Angela VIVANTI
    Abstract Aim:, To determine preferences for meals and snack of long-stay patients and hospitalised patients with increased energy and protein requirements. Methods:, Using consistent methodology across two tertiary teaching hospitals, a convenience sample of adult public hospital inpatients with increased energy and protein requirements or longer stays (seven days or more) were interviewed regarding meal and snack preferences. Descriptive reporting of sample representativeness, preferred foods and frequency of meals and between meal snacks. Results:, Of 134 respondents, 55% reported a decreased appetite and 28% rated their appetite as ,poor'. Most felt like eating either nothing (42%) or soup (15%) when unwell. The most desired foods were hot meal items, including eggs (31%), meat dishes (20%) and soup (69%). Of items not routinely available, soft drink (7.6%) and alcohol (6.7%) were most commonly desired during admission. Almost half (49%) reported difficulty opening packaged food and a majority (81%) indicated finger foods were easy to eat. Conclusion:, Appetites during admission were frequently lower than usual. Responses encourage consideration of eggs, meat dishes and soups for long-stayers or those with high-energy, high-protein needs. Easy to consume but not routinely offered, between meal items, such as soup, juice, cake, soft drink or Milo could be explored further to enhance oral intakes. [source]

    Renal Carcinogenicity of Concurrently Administered Fish Meal and Sodium Nitrite in F344 Rats

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2000
    Fumio Furukawa
    The effects of long-term concurrent administration of powdered fish meal and sodium nitrite were examined in F344 rats. A total of 600, 6-week-old rats were divided into 6 male and 6 female groups, each consisting of 50 animals. Rats in groups 1,3 and 7,9 were respectively fed diets supplemented with 64%, 32% and 8% (basal diet) fish meal, and simultaneously given 0.12% sodium nitrite in their drinking water. Groups 4,6 and 10,12 were respectively given 64%, 32% and 8% fish meal and tap water. At the 104th week, all surviving animals were killed and examined histopathologically. Treatment with fish meal dose-dependently increased the incidences and multiplicities of atypical tubules, adenomas and renal cell carcinomas in sodium nitrite-treated males. Females were less susceptible than males for renal tumor induction. In males given the 64% fish meal diet alone, the incidence and multiplicity of atypical tubules were also significantly increased as compared with the 8% fish meal alone case. Nephropathy was apparent in fish meal-treated groups in a clear dose-dependent manner, irrespective of the sodium nitrite treatment, and was more prominent in males than in females. Dimethylnitrosamine was found in the stomach contents after 4-week treatment with 64% fish meal plus 0.12% sodium nitrite, at a level twice that in the 8% fish meal plus 0.12% sodium nitrite group. The results clearly indicate that concurrent administration of fish meal and sodium nitrite induces renal epithelial tumors. Further studies are required to elucidate how nephropathy and nitrosamines produced in stomach contents may contribute to the observed renal tumor induction. [source]

    Enzymatic Introduction of Cyanide into Imine for Constructing Optically Active Compound by (R)-Oxy-nitrilase in Almond Meal.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 12 2003
    Teckheon Lee
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    Heavy Metals in Matrices of Food Interest: Sequential Voltammetric Determination at Trace and Ultratrace Level of Copper, Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, Arsenic, Selenium, Manganese and Iron in Meals

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 18 2004
    Clinio Locatelli
    Abstract The voltammetric methods are very suitable and versatile techniques for the simultaneous metal determination in complex matrices. The present work, regarding the sequential determination of Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV), As(III), Se(IV) by square-wave cathodic stripping voltammetry (SWCSV) and Mn(II), Fe(III) by square-wave voltammetry (SWV) in matrices involved in foods and food chain as wholemeal, wheat and maize meal, are an interesting example of the possibility to sequentially determine each single element in real samples. Besides the set up of the analytical method, particular attention is aimed either at the problem of possible signal interference or to show that, using the peak area Ap as instrumental datum, it is possible to achieve lower limits of detection. The analytical procedure was verified by the analysis of the standard reference materials: Wholemeal BCR-CRM 189, Wheat Flour NIST-SRM 1567a and Rice Flour NIST-SRM 1568a. Precision, as repeatability, and accuracy, expressed as relative standard deviation and relative error, respectively, were lower than 6% in all cases. In the presence of reciprocal interference, the standard addition method considerably improved the resolution of the voltammetric technique. Once set up on the standard reference materials, the analytical procedure was transferred and applied to commercial meals sampled on market for sale. A critical comparison with spectroscopic measurements is also discussed. [source]

    Meal patterns and meal quality in patients with leg ulcers

    U. Wissing
    Background Wound healing is a complex process, which requires adequate energy sources, proteins, and specific minerals and vitamins. If an individual is unable to get or to eat the nutrients required, the wound healing process might be disrupted. The aim of this study was to investigate food-related factors, meal patterns and meal quality in relation to nutritional status in elderly out-patients with leg ulcers. Methods Nutritional status was assessed by use of the Mini Nutritional Assessment in 70 patients living in their own homes. Fifty-six of the patients recorded actual meals and snacks over four consecutive days. Meal patterns and meal quality were evaluated with the help of a qualitative classification system, the Food Based Concept for Classification of Eating Episodes. Results Thirty-six patients were classified as well-nourished, 32 were at risk of malnutrition and two were malnourished. More patients in the risk group for malnutrition did not buy their own food, and usually ate alone. Incomplete Meals and Low Quality Snacks were the most common eating types. The patients at risk of malnutrition had significantly fewer prepared Complete Meals than the well-nourished patients. Conclusion The results show a diet and meal quality which hardly meets the requirements for nutrients that are important in wound healing, especially for those patients assessed at risk of malnutrition. [source]

    Performance of Juvenile Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch Fed Diets Containing Meals from Fish Wastes, Deboned Fish Wastes, or Skin-and-Bone By-Product as the Protein Ingredient

    Cindra K. Rathbone
    The suitability of meals derived from fish processing wastes as the protein fraction in practical diets for hatchery-reared coho salmon was investigated. The study compared the performance of coho salmon fed diets containing three products: a skin-and-bone meal (SB), a deboned meal (DM), and a whole-fish meal (WM) made directly from the fish wastes. A commercial trout diet (CO) was fed to a fourth treatment group. Diets were fed at 3% of body weight per day to juvenile coho salmon for 12 wk. Survival (> 94%) was not significantly different among treatment groups. Average fish weight, feed conversion ratio, whole body proximate and mineral composition, and protein and phosphorus retention were compared. There were no significant differences after 12 wk of feeding in fish weight between WM, DM, and CO, but SB had significantly lower weight and whole body lipid, and significantly higher ash. Compared to WM, DM had a significantly lower feed conversion ratio and higher retention of protein and phosphorus, but these indices were not significantly different from CO. It is concluded that DM is a potentially superior protein ingredient compared to WM, while specific characteristics of SB will limit its use as a protein source in feeds for salmonids. However, SB may prove to be a suitable mineral supplement when added at a low level. Utilization of fish processing wastes in salmonid diets could be a commercially viable alternative to direct disposal of processing wastes. [source]

    Comparison of the effect of a cornstarch thickened formula and strengthened regular formula on regurgitation, gastric emptying and weight gain in infantile regurgitation

    H.-C. Chao
    SUMMARY., The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a specially selected cornstarch-supplemented formula on clinical symptoms, gastric emptying and weight gain in infants with regurgitation. We performed a prospective randomised trial evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of two different formula feedings (cornstarch-thickened formula, group A; 25% strengthened formula, group B) in 81 young infants with regurgitation/vomiting , 3 times/day. A Tc-99 m milk scintigraphy was performed at inclusion and after 2 months to quantify gastric emptying time; all studied infants underwent a 2-month period of clinical follow-up evaluating regurgitation and body weight gain. At inclusion, group A and B had a similar age and weight. After the 2-month period of intervention, regurgitation and vomiting had both greater decrease (both P < 0.001 at 1 and 2 months) in group A (from a score of 4.19 ± 1.71 to 0.93 ± 0.42) than in group B (from a score of 4.15 ± 1.68 to 2.89 ± 1.16). Non-regurgitation symptoms (irritability, cough, choking, night-waking) decreased (P = 0.045 at 1 month and 0.017 at 2 months) in group A (from a score of 18 at baseline to 3 after 8 weeks) as compared to group B (from a score of 18 at baseline to 11 after 8 weeks). Weight increased more in group A (29.1 ± 3.9 g/day over 8 weeks) versus group B (23.6 ± 3.5 g/day over 8 weeks) (P < 0.01 at 1 and 2 months) Gastric emptying improved significantly in group A as compared with group B (all P < 0.001 for T1/2, and residual volume at 60 and 90 min). Ingested feeding volume was significantly larger in the group receiving cornstarch-thickened formula, both at 4 weeks (109.4 ± 24.5 vs. 98.5 ± 23.6 mL/meal) (P: 0.042) and at 8 weeks (137.6 ± 27.9 vs. 115.7 ± 26.5 mL/meal) (P < 0.001). Cornstarch-thickened formula feeding decreases the frequency of regurgitation/vomiting, provides better body weight gain and has an accelerated gastric emptying in comparison to a 25% strengthened regular formula in infants with regurgitation. [source]

    Assessing the Potential Impact of Cane Toads on Australian Snakes

    Anecdotal reports suggest that the invasion of toads into an area is followed by dramatic declines in the abundance of terrestrial native frog-eating predators, but quantitative studies have been restricted to nonpredator taxa or aquatic predators and have generally reported minimal impacts. Will toads substantially affect Australian snakes? Based on geographic distributions and dietary composition, we identified 49 snake taxa as potentially at risk from toads. The impact of these feral prey also depends on the snakes' ability to survive after ingesting toad toxins. Based on decrements in locomotor (swimming) performance after ingesting toxin, we estimate the LD50 of toad toxins for 10 of the at-risk snake species. Most species exhibited a similar low ability to tolerate toad toxins. Based on head widths relative to sizes of toads, we calculate that 7 of the 10 taxa could easily ingest a fatal dose of toxin in a single meal. The exceptions were two colubrid taxa (keelbacks [ Tropidonophis mairii] and slatey-grey snakes [ Stegonotus cucullatus]) with much higher resistance to toad toxins (up to 85-fold) and one elapid (swamp snakes [ Hemiaspis signata]) with low resistance but a small relative head size and thus low maximum prey size. Overall, our analysis suggests that cane toads threaten populations of approximately 30% of terrestrial Australian snake species. Resumen: Los sapos (Bufo marinus) son anuros grandes muy tóxicos que fueron introducidos a Australia en 1937. Reportes anecdóticos sugieren que la invasión de sapos a un área es seguida de declinaciones dramáticas en la abundancia de depredadores terrestres nativos que se alimentan de ranas, pero los estudios cuantitativos se han restringido a taxones no depredadores o a depredadores acuáticos y generalmente han indicado impactos mínimos. ¿Los sapos afectarán sustancialmente a las serpientes australianas? Basado en la distribución geográfica y la composición de la dieta, identificamos 49 taxones de serpientes como potencialmente en riesgo por los sapos. El impacto de estas presas también depende de la habilidad de las serpientes para sobrevivir después de ingerir toxinas, estimamos la LD50 de toxinas de sapo para 10 de las especies de serpientes "en riesgo." La mayoría de las especies presentaron la misma poca habilidad para tolerar toxinas de sapo. Tomando en cuenta la anchura del cráneo en relación al tamaño de los sapos, calculamos que 7 de las 10 especies podrían fácilmente ingerir una dosis letal en una sola comida. Las excepciones fueron dos taxones de colúbridos (Tropidonophis mairii y Stegonotus cucullatus) con mucha más resistencia (hasta 85 veces más) a toxinas de sapos y un elápido (Hemiaspis signata) con resistencia baja pero de tamaño cefálico relativamente pequeño (y por lo tanto, tamaño máximo de presa pequeño). En general, nuestro análisis sugiere que los sapos amenazan a 30% de las poblaciones de especies de serpientes terrestres de Australia aproximadamente. [source]

    Commercializing bycatch can push a fishery beyond economic extinction

    Aaron Savio Lobo
    Abstract Tropical bottom trawling is among the most destructive fishing practices, catching large quantities of bycatch, which are usually discarded. We used questionnaire surveys of trawl fishers to look at changes in catches over the last 30 years (1978,2008) along India's Coromandel Coast. We show that catches and income from target species have declined sharply over the last two decades. Meanwhile, costs of fishing have increased substantially and now almost exceed income from target species. Over the same period, bycatch (which was traditionally discarded) has now become increasingly marketable, being sold for local consumption, and as fish meal to supply the region's rapidly growing poultry industry. Without this income from bycatch, the fishery would scarcely be economically viable. While such a change in the use of bycatch is good news in terms of reducing waste and improving livelihoods, it is also responsible for pushing the Indian bottom trawl fishery beyond the economic extinction of its target species. [source]

    Indirect evidence for increased mechanosensitivity of jejunal secretomotor neurones in patients with idiopathic bile acid malabsorption

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2009
    A. Bajor
    Abstract Aim:, The interdigestive motor rhythm, the migrating motor complex (MMC), is accompanied by active secretion of chloride during periods of distally propagating maximal motor activity (MMC phase III). We studied the behaviour of this system in bile acid malabsorption (BAM), a relative common cause of chronic diarrhoea. We measured motor activity and transmucosal potential difference (PD, reflecting active chloride secretion), in the proximal jejunum in healthy controls (n = 18) and in a group of patients with BAM (n = 11). The phase III-generated voltage was related to the degree of BAM quantified by the 75SeHCAT test. Methods:, We used a multi-channel intestinal infusion system to simultaneously measure jejunal pressure and PD. Saline passing calomel half-cells was infused into the jejunum and subcutaneously. Pressure and PD were recorded in the fasting state and after a test meal. Results:, In the absence of motor activity, jejunal PD was not significantly different from zero in either group. During MMC phase III, PD reached significantly higher mean and peak levels in BAM patients. The product of MMC phase III length multiplied by voltage, over 3 h, was also significantly higher in BAM patients (controls: median 307 mV × cm, range 70,398; BAM: median 511, range 274,2271, P < 0.01). This value was also significantly correlated with the degree of BAM as reflected by the 75SeHCAT test (P < 0.05). Conclusion:, Phase III induced jejunal secretion may be upregulated in BAM patients, resulting in overload of colonic reabsorption capacity. [source]

    The ontogeny of postingestive inhibitory stimuli: Examining the role of CCK

    Aron Weller
    Abstract Cholecystokinin (CCK) inhibits food intake in adults. This paper describes research examining the ability of CCK to affect feeding in infant rats and the role of CCK in the developmentally emerging ability of the rat pup to inhibit ingestion in response to sensory characteristics of food. First, data will be described from studies that asked if the CCK system is functional in preweanling rats. Specifically, these studies examined whether exogenous and endogenous CCK can decrease intake of the infant rat during independent ingestion (of a milk diet, away from the dam). In addition, the ability of exogenous CCK to activate central feeding-control areas in the brain stem and hypothalamus in infant rats was examined by C-FOS staining. Next, experiments examining which specific intake-inhibitory sensory aspects of food are mediated by CCK will be described. The volume, hypertonicity, fat, carbohydrate and protein content of a preload were separately manipulated in different studies, followed closely by a 30-min test meal. The selective CCK1 receptor antagonist devazepide was used to assess CCK mediation of the control of intake produced by particular sensory aspects of food, at the earliest age in which this ability to control intake appears. Finally, the pattern of independent ingestion in infant OLETF rats lacking CCK1 receptors was examined. The results suggest that the CCK intake-inhibitory mechanism is potentially available to the young, suckling pup even before it starts to feed on its own. However, it appears to mediate only a portion of the controls of intake during nursing and early stages of weaning. Some aspects of the CCK system (e.g., forebrain-hindbrain connections) and CCK's role in mediating the effects of other stimulus aspects of food apparently undergo a post-weaning maturational process. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 48: 368,379, 2006. [source]

    Effect of raisin consumption on oxidative stress and inflammation in obesity

    J. W. Rankin
    Aim:, Oxidative stress can initiate increased inflammation that elevates risk for cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of daily consumption of raisins on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial activation in response to an acute high-fat meal in overweight individuals. Methods:, Seventeen overweight men and women consumed 90 g raisins or isocaloric placebo (264 kcal/day) for 14 days in a randomized, crossover design while following a low-flavonoid diet. The oxidative [urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2, (8-epi PGF2,) and serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)], inflammatory (serum C-reactive protein and interleukin-6), endothelial (serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, sVCAM-1) and metabolic [free fatty acids (FFAs), triacylglycerol, glucose and insulin] response to four high-fat (53%) meals was tested pre- and postintervention. Results:, Urinary 8-epi PGF2, decreased (,22%) and fasting ORAC increased (+3%) after both interventions combined. Fasting protein-free ORAC was modestly (+3.5%) higher during the raisin than the placebo intervention. Neither the meals nor the raisins consistently induced fasted markers of inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. Gender influenced postprandial metabolic responses in that males responded with higher serum FFAs, sVCAM-1 and glucose compared with females. Conclusions:, Serum antioxidant capacity was modestly increased by daily raisin consumption, but this did not alter fasted or postprandial inflammatory response in these relatively healthy but overweight individuals. Providing all food in regular pattern reduced measures of oxidative stress. [source]

    Differential effects of short and long duration insulinotropic agents on meal-related glucose excursions

    C. J. De Souza
    SUMMARY Aim Abnormal ,-cell function, characterized as the inability of the ,-cell to mount a rapid secretory response to glucose, is a well-established pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. These studies were designed to demonstrate the importance of early insulin release on the control of meal-induced glucose excursions by capitalizing on the significant pharmacodynamic differences between several oral insulin secreting agents. Methods Male Sprague Dawley fitted with indwelling jugular cannulas were used to compare the pharmacodynamic profiles of nateglinide (Nateg), glipizide (Glip) and repaglinide (Repag) through frequent blood samples following the administration of these compounds via oral gavage. In similar animals which were pretrained to consume their daily food intake in two discrete 45-min meals, the effects of compound induced changes in pre-meal, meal and post-meal insulin profiles on glycaemic control were assessed through frequent blood sampling following the administration of these compounds 10 min prior to a 30-min meal. Results There were significant pharmacodynamics differences between the three oral agents tested and the time to elicit peak insulin secretory responses increased from Nateg (4 min) to Repag (10 min) to Glip (45 min). During the meal tolerance test, glibenclamide did not increase pre-meal insulin levels and glucose excursions paralleled those in the control. Conversely, the other three agents, at doses that produced hypoglycaemic responses of similar magnitude, all increased early insulin release (,AUC(-15 to 3 min) = 0.5 ± 0.01, 1.6 ± 0.4, 3.6 ± 0.0, 1.2 ± 0.1 and 1.73 ± 0.4 nmol/min, for control, Nateg at 60 and 120 mg/kg, Glip and Repag, respectively) and curbed glucose excursions during the meal at varying rates and degrees (,AUC(0,30 min) = 39 ± 6, 8 ± 7, 5 ± 7, ,,1 ± 8 and ,,3 ± 8 mmol/min for control, Nateg at 60 and 120 mg/kg, Glip and Repag, respectively). However, unlike Nateg, the longer duration of action of Repag and Glip elicited sustained post-meal relative hypoglycaemia. Conclusion These data support the impact of early and rapid insulin release in the control of prandial and post-meal glycaemia and demonstrate that a short anticipatory burst of insulin, restricted to the beginning of a meal, provides a clear metabolic advantage and prevents post-meal hypoglycaemic episodes when compared to a greater but reactive insulin exposure that follows a meal-induced increase in glucose excursion. [source]

    The relationship of postprandial glucose to HbA1c

    Rüdiger Landgraf
    Abstract The gold standard for the assessment of the overall glycemic control is the determination of HbA1c. There are, however, insufficient data to determine reliably the relative contribution of fasting and postprandial plasma glucose to HbA1c. Increasing evidence suggests that excessive excursions of postprandial glucose might be important for the development of micro- and macroangiopathic complications. With respect to the treatment options, one important question to be answered is whether premeal, postmeal or fasting plasma glucose, alone or in combination, will be necessary in adjusting the therapy to achieve optimal HbA1c levels while minimizing hypoglycemia. HbA1c is difficult to predict from fasting plasma glucose. There are indications that there is a shift in the relative contribution from postprandial glucose at good to fair HbA1c levels (<7.3% to <9.2%) to fasting plasma glucose at high HbA1c (>9.3%). There is also a better correlation of afternoon and evening plasma glucose with HbA1c than with prebreakfast and prelunch plasma glucose values. Since the definition on how to define postprandial glucose is still a matter of debate and since postprandial glucose depends on the premeal blood glucose level and, on the time of the meal, its size and composition and the therapeutic strategy, the data so far available are inconclusive and the best correlation of HbA1c is with the area under the glucose profiles. Continuous glucose monitoring under daily life conditions will be the key to definitely unravel the relationship among HbA1c and fasting, premeal, postprandial and postabsorptive plasma glucose. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Diabetes mellitus and alcohol

    Albert van de Wiel
    Abstract Alcohol influences glucose metabolism in several ways in diabetic patients as well as in non-diabetic patients. Since alcohol inhibits both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, its acute intake without food may provoke hypoglycaemia, especially in cases of depleted glycogen stores and in combination with sulphonylurea. Consumed with a meal including carbohydrates, it is the preferred fuel, which may initially lead to somewhat higher blood glucose levels and hence an insulin response in type 2 diabetic patients. Depending on the nature of the carbohydrates in the meal, this may be followed by reactive hypoglycaemia. Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic disorders. Diabetic patients benefit from this favourable effect as much as non-diabetic patients. Apart from effects on lipid metabolism, haemostatic balance and blood pressure, alcohol improves insulin sensitivity. This improvement of insulin sensitivity may also be responsible for the lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus reported to be associated with light-to-moderate drinking. In case of moderate and sensible use, risks of disturbances in glycaemic control, weight and blood pressure are limited. Excessive intake of alcohol, however, may not only cause loss of metabolic control, but also annihilate the favourable effects on the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion with short-acting insulin analogues or human regular insulin: efficacy, safety, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness

    Régis Pierre Radermecker
    Abstract Portable insulin infusion devices are effective and safe insulin delivery systems for managing diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes. Rapidly absorbed insulin analogues, such as insulin lispro or insulin aspart, may offer an advantage over regular human insulin for insulin pumps. Several open-label randomised crossover trials demonstrated that continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with insulin lispro provided a better control of postprandial hyperglycaemia and a slightly but significantly lower glycated haemoglobin level, with lower daily insulin requirement and similar or even less hypoglycaemic episodes. A CSII study comparing insulin lispro and insulin aspart demonstrated similar results with the two analogues, and better results than those with regular insulin. Because these analogues have a quicker onset and a shorter duration of action than regular insulin, one might expect an earlier and greater metabolic deterioration in case of CSII interruption, but a more rapid correction of metabolic abnormalities after insulin boluses when reactivating the pump. These expectations were confirmed in randomised protocols comparing the metabolic changes occurring during and after CSII interruption of various durations when the pump infused either insulin lispro or regular insulin. The extra cost resulting from the use of CSII and insulin analogues in diabetes management should be compensated for by better metabolic control and quality of life. In conclusion, CSII delivering fast-acting insulin analogues may be considered as one of the best methods to replace insulin in a physiological manner by mimicking meal and basal insulin requirements, without higher risk of hypoglycaemia or ketoacidosis in well-educated diabetic patients. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Insulin analogues: have they changed insulin treatment and improved glycaemic control?

    Sten Madsbad
    Abstract To improve insulin therapy, new insulin analogues have been developed. Two fast-acting analogues with a more rapid onset of effect and a shorter duration of action combined with a low day-to-day variation in absorption rate are now available. Despite this favourable time,action profile most studies have not been able to show any improvement in overall glycaemic control with the fast-acting analogues. A reduced post-prandial increase in blood glucose has been found in all studies, whereas between 3 and 5,h after the meal and during the night an increased blood glucose level is the normal course. This is probably the main explanation for the absence of improvement in overall glycaemic control when compared with regular human insulin. A tendency to a reduction in hypoglycaemic events during treatment with fast-acting analogues has been observed in most studies. Recent studies have indicated that NPH insulin administered several times daily at mealtimes can improve glycaemic control without increasing the risk of hypoglycaemia. The fast-acting analogues are now also available as insulin mixed with NPH. Insulin glargine is a new long-acting insulin which is soluble and precipitates after injection, resulting in a long half-life with a residual activity of about 50% 24,h after injection. Insulin glargine is a peakless insulin and studies in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients indicate that glargine improves fasting blood glucose control and reduces the incidence of nocturnal hypoglycaemia. Surprisingly, the new fast,acting analogues have not achieved the expected commercial success, which emphasises the need for new strategies for basal insulin supplementation, exercise, diet and blood glucose monitoring. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Relationship between mean blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin in Type 2 diabetic patients

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2 2008
    K. Makris
    Abstract Aims To correlate the values of MBG to HbA1c in Greek patients with Type 2 diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome. Methods We followed up 140 Greek adult patients: 92 patients with Type 2 diabetes treated with insulin or oral glucose-lowering medication, and 48 patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome not receiving any treatment. MBG was calculated for each patient from self-measurements of blood glucose using a portable glucometer, made six times a day (before eating and 2 h after a meal), three times a week for 1 month. HbA1c was determined by HPLC at 0 and 12 weeks. Results, HbA1c at 0 (x) and 12 weeks (y) correlated strongly (y = 0.790x + 1.115, r = 0.92), confirming that the patient's glycaemic status remained stable during the whole period of follow-up. Linear regression was performed on MBG values; HbA1c at 12 weeks, sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and patient status (Type 2 diabetes treated or not) were used as independent variables. None of the independent variables reached statistical significance in the model, with the exception of HbA1c at 12 weeks. The final model was: MBG (mg/dl) = (34.74 × HbA1c) , 79.21, r = 0.93; or MBG (mmol/l) = 1.91 × HbA1c , 4.36, r = 0.93. Conclusions Our results establish for the first time a strong correlation between MBG and HbA1c in Type 2 diabetic patients and support the idea of expressing HbA1c results as MBG. This will help patients to gain a clearer interpretation of the result, with less confusion. This simplification will allow every person with diabetes using home glucose-monitoring to understand his or her own target level. [source]

    The benefits of oestrogens on postprandial lipid metabolism are lost in post-menopausal women with Type 2 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2006
    M. G. Masding
    Abstract Aims, Women with Type 2 diabetes appear to lose the protection against cardiovascular disease (CVD) afforded by oestrogens. We examined the effects of oestrogen hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on postprandial clearance of dietary fat in non-diabetic and diabetic post-menopausal women. Methods, In a cross-sectional study, fasting subjects [HRT+ and HRT, control and diabetic women; Type 2 diabetes (DM) HRT+n = 8, DM HRT,n = 14, control HRT+n = 7, control HRT,n = 11] consumed a meal containing the stable isotope 1,1,1,[13]C-tripalmitin, with blood and breath sampled for 6 and 24 h, respectively, in the postprandial period. Results, In diabetic women, there were no differences between the HRT+ and HRT, groups for any of these parameters. In contrast, in HRT+ compared with HRT, control women, the triglyceride (TG) area under the curve was lower [AUC; HRT+ median (range) 7.7 (4.1, 12.8) mmol/l per 6 h, HRT, 9.7 (3.9, 18.5) mmol/l per 6 h, P < 0.05] and [13]C-palmitic acid in the TG fraction was also lower [HRT+ 23.2 (10.3, 41.3) ng/ml per 6 h, HRT, 47.7 (12.6, 77.2) ng/ml per 6 h, P < 0.05], suggesting the lower postprandial triglyceridaemia associated with HRT in non-diabetic women is because of better chylomicron clearance. Conclusions, The oestrogen-associated advantage in clearance of dietary lipid we observed in non-diabetic post-menopausal women is not seen in post-menopausal diabetic women. This is likely to promote an atherogenic lipoprotein profile and may contribute to the loss of CVD protection seen in diabetic women. [source]

    Insulin pump therapy vs. multiple daily injections in obese Type 2 diabetic patients

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 8 2005
    J. Wainstein
    Abstract Aims To compare the efficacy of insulin pump treatment with multiple daily injections in the treatment of poorly controlled obese Type 2 diabetic patients already receiving two or more daily injections of insulin plus metformin. Methods Forty obese Type 2 diabetic subjects (using insulin) were randomized to treatment with continuous subcutaneous infusion pump (CSII) (Minimed®) or multiple daily insulin injections (MDI). At the end of the first 18-week treatment period, patients underwent a 12-week washout period during which they were treated with MDI plus metformin. They were then crossed-over to the other treatment for an 18-week follow-up period. Patients performed 4-point daily self blood-glucose monitoring (SBGM) on a regular basis and 7-point monitoring prior to visits 2, 8, 10 and 16. A subset of patients underwent continuous glucose monitoring using the Minimed® continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) at visits 2, 8, 10 and 16. A standard meal test was performed in which serum glucose was tested at fasting and once each hour for 6 h following a test meal. Glucose levels were plotted against time and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. HbA1c, weight, daily insulin dose and hypoglycaemic episodes were recorded. Results In obese Type 2 diabetic patients already treated with insulin, treatment with CSII significantly reduced HbA1c levels compared with treatment with MDI. An additional CSII treatment benefit was demonstrated by reduced meal-test glucose AUC. Initial reduction of daily insulin requirement observed in CSII-treated subjects during the first treatment period was attributable to a period effect and did not persist over time. Conclusions In the intent-to-treat analysis, CSII appeared to be superior to MDI in reducing HbA1c and glucose AUC values without significant change in weight or insulin dose in obese, uncontrolled, insulin-treated Type 2 diabetic subjects. [source]

    Post-prandial administration of insulin lispro with a high fat meal minimizes risk of hypoglycaemia in Type 1 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 8 2004
    V. McAulay
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]