Management Efforts (management + effort)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Using Interorganizational Information Systems to Support Environmental Management Efforts at ASG

Teresa M. Shaft
Summary We examine use of environmental information systems by ASG AB (hereafter ASG), an international logistics and transport firm headquartered in Stockholm, Sweden, as a case study to illustrate the role of information systems in life-cycle-oriented environmental management. This case provides an example of how a firm can use interorganizational information systems (IOISs) to move toward environmentally sustainable business practices. Through the use of IOISs, ASG has been able to improve its environmental performance and that of its suppliers. Further, this improved environmental performance has been a competitive advantage for ASG and enabled it to attract new business. As such, ASG's experiences illustrate how aggressive practices move environmental management beyond compliance and cost control, at which many firms have been successful, to revenue generation. The case also shows how environmentally sustainable business practices can be integrated into a firm's strategy. In addition to illustrating how ASG has used IOISs to improve environmental performance, we compare their use of environmental ISs with the expected evolution of environmental ISs presented in the Shaft and colleagues (1997) framework. Although some of ASG's experiences verify the expected progression of these types of systems, some developments are not as expected. These differences have implications for the framework. [source]

Development of inland lakes as hubs in an invasion network

Summary 1The ability to predict spatially explicit dispersal by non-indigenous species is a difficult but increasingly important undertaking as it allows management efforts to be focused around areas identified as susceptible to invasion. Lakes may serve as useful models for these studies because the habitats are well defined, and vectors of spread may be readily identified and quantified. In this study, we examined patterns of spread of the non-indigenous spiny waterflea Bythotrephes longimanus to inland lakes in Ontario, Canada, to identify lakes for which management efforts to reduce traffic would be most effective. 2We surveyed people using lakes for recreational purposes to quantify movements of trailered boats and other risky activities, to model relative vector traffic from invaded lakes to non-invaded and other invaded lakes. Non-linear functions were developed to describe the cumulative number of invaded and non-invaded destination lakes visited by people leaving five important lakes already invaded by the spiny waterflea (Huron, Simcoe, Muskoka, Panache and Kashagawigamog). The relative difference in these functions was used to identify which lakes will develop into future invasion hubs and will therefore be most important to future dispersal of the species. 3In the recent past, Lake Muskoka has been an important hub from which the spiny waterflea has invaded other lakes. It is unlikely to continue to be a source for waterflea invasion as most outbound traffic is to previously invaded lakes. Conversely, most outbound traffic from Lakes Kashagawigamog and Simcoe is to non-invaded lakes and, therefore, these lakes are likely to develop into hubs in the future. 4Synthesis and applications. These data on zooplankton in lake systems and associated mechanisms of transport indicate patterns not only of intrinsic value to lake management, but also of potential importance in understanding invasions more generally. Frequency distributions of the number of outbound connections to both invaded and non-invaded destinations from invaded sources follow a power function, consistent with scale-free networks. These networks indicate that small proportions of sources function as hubs. Management efforts targeted to remove developing hubs from the invasion network, rather than equal effort applied to outbound vector traffic from all sources, may reduce the predicted rate of new invasions. [source]

Factors associated with safe patient handling behaviors among critical care nurses

Soo-Jeong Lee RN
Abstract Background Patient handling is a major risk factor for musculoskeletal (MS) injury among nurses. The aims of the study were to describe nurses' work behaviors related to safe patient handling and identify factors influencing their safe work behaviors, including the use of lifting equipment. Methods A cross-sectional study using a mailed questionnaire with a nationwide random sample of 361 critical care nurses. Nurses reported on the physical, psychosocial, and organizational characteristics of their jobs and on their MS symptoms, risk perception, work behaviors, and demographics. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify significant factors. Results More than half of participants had no lifting equipment on their unit, and 74% reported that they performed all patient lift or transfer tasks manually. Significant factors for safer work behavior included better safety climate, higher effort,reward imbalance, less overcommitment, greater social support, and day shift work. Physical workload, personal risk perception, or MS symptom experiences were not associated with safe work behavior. Conclusions Safe work behaviors are best understood as socio-cultural phenomena influenced by organizational, psychosocial, and job factors but, counter to extant theories of health behaviors, do not appear to be related to personal risk perception. Management efforts to improve working conditions and enhance safety culture in hospitals could prove to be crucial in promoting nurses' safe work behavior and reducing risk of MS injury. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:886,897, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Dispersal characteristics and management of a rare damselfly

Bethan V. Purse
Summary 1Coenagrion mercuriale is a rare damselfly in Britain and mainland Europe and has been declining in the last 30 years. It has specialized habitat requirements and has been viewed, traditionally, as a poor disperser. Knowledge of its dispersal ability was considered in its Biodiversity Species Action Plan as essential for the formulation of appropriate conservation management strategies. 2Mark,release,recapture (MRR) studies of C. mercuriale in two large UK heathland populations were undertaken. Mature adults had a low rate of movement within continuous areas of habitat (average < 25 m movement), low emigration rates (1·3,11·4%) and low colonization distances (maximum 1 km), all comparable to similarly sized coenagrionids. 3Movements were more likely within than between patches of suitable habitat over short to medium distances (50,300 m). Between-patch movements were more likely between patches that were close together. Scrub barriers reduced dispersal. 4The probability of dispersal between two recaptures depended on the length of the time interval between them. Coenagrion mercuriale performed considerable between-patch movements within a small fraction (1,2 days) of its mean mature adult life span (7,8 days). 5Qualitative comparison of field colonization distances measured here and distances between UK sites occupied by C. mercuriale revealed that empty sites within large clusters of sites would probably be recolonized rapidly and dispersal events would be frequent. However, such events would occur rarely within small isolated sites or clusters of sites, leaving local populations prone to extinction. 6Synthesis and applications. These data show that management effort should be directed towards maximizing the likelihood of C. mercuriale recolonizing sites naturally within 1,3 km of other populations (particularly within large clusters). Scrub boundaries should be removed between existing populations and empty, but suitable, sites to facilitate stepping-stone dispersal movements. [source]

Incorporation of inherent safety principles in process safety management

Paul R. Amyotte
Abstract Process safety management (PSM) deals with the identification, understanding, and control of process hazards to prevent process-related injuries and incidents. Explicit incorporation of the principles of inherent safety in the basic definition and functional operation of the various PSM elements can help to improve the quality of the safety management effort. Numerous inherent safety examples, both technical and nontechnical, are given in this paper. Existing qualitative and quantitative tools that already include, or could incorporate, inherent safety are described. Recently developed inherent safety tools for quantitative hazard identification and assessment are identified from either the literature or the current authors' work. Qualitative protocols for incorporating inherent safety into PSM elements are also presented. The language of inherent safety, although largely unused in PSM documentation, has a key role to play in enhancing the effectiveness of PSM. © 2007 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog 2007 [source]

Managing learning in informal innovation networks: overcoming the Daphne-dilemma

R & D MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2000
Joan E. Van Aken
In this article we discuss the nature and productivity of informal innovation networks, i.e. informal collaborative arrangements between organizations engaged in product or process innovation. Such networks can be used in any phase of the innovation process, but their informal nature makes them especially suited for its fuzzy front end. We explore their potential in technology exchange and learning on the basis of a combination of organization network theory and knowledge management theory. We discuss issues in network governance and network operational management and discuss the basic dilemma , which we named the Daphne-dilemma , facing attempts to improve the productivity of informal innovation networks: too little management effort may lead to under-exploitation of their potential and poor productivity, but too much management effort may destroy their informal nature and hence their creative and explorative potential. [source]

Achieving Integrative, Collaborative Ecosystem Management

beneficios sociales y ecológicos; gestión; participación pública; toma de decisiones cooperativa Abstract:,Although numerous principles have been identified as being important for successfully integrating social and ecological factors in collaborative management, few authors have illustrated how these principles are used and why they are effective. On the basis of a review of the ecosystem management and collaboration literature, we identified eight factors important for integrative, collaborative ecosystem management,integrated and balanced goals, inclusive public involvement, stakeholder influence, consensus group approach, collaborative stewardship, monitoring and adaptive management, multidisciplinary data, and economic incentives. We examined four cases of successful ecosystem management to illustrate how the factors were incorporated and discuss the role they played in each case's success. The cases illustrate that balancing social and ecosystem sustainability goals is possible. Collaborative efforts resulted in part from factors aimed at making plans economically feasible and from meaningful stakeholder participation in ongoing management. It also required participation in monitoring programs to ensure stakeholder interests were protected and management efforts were focused on agreed-upon goals. Data collection efforts were not all-inclusive and systematic; rather, they addressed the ecological, economic, and social aspects of key issues as they emerged over time. Economic considerations appear to be broader than simply providing economic incentives; stakeholders seem willing to trade some economic value for recreational or environmental benefits. The cases demonstrate that it is not idealistic to believe integrative, collaborative ecosystem management is possible in field applications. Resumen:,Aunque numerosos principios han sido identificados como importantes para la integración exitosa de factores sociales y ecológicos en la gestión cooperativa, pocos autores han ilustrado como son utilizados estos principios y porque son efectivos. Con base en una revisión de la literatura sobre gestión de ecosistemas y colaboración, identificamos cinco factores,metas integradas y balanceadas, inclusive participación pública, influencia de grupos de interés, estrategia de consenso en el grupo, gestión cooperativa, gestión adaptativa y monitoreo, datos multidisciplinarios e incentivos económicos,que son importantes para la gestión integradora y cooperativa de ecosistemas. Examinamos cuatro casos de gestión exitosa de ecosistemas para ilustrar como fueron incorporados los factores y discutimos el papel que jugaron en el éxito de cada caso. Los casos ilustran que el balance de metas de sustentabilidad social y ecológica es posible. En parte, los esfuerzos cooperativos resultaron de factores orientados a hacer que los planes fueran económicamente viables y de la participación significativa de grupos de interés en la gestión en curso. También se requirió la participación en programas de monitoreo para asegurar que los intereses de los grupos fueran protegidos y los esfuerzos de gestión se enfocaran en las metas acordadas. No todos los esfuerzos de recolecta de datos fueron incluyentes y sistemáticos, más bien, eran dirigidos a los aspectos ecológicos, económicos y sociales de temas clave a medida que emergían. Las consideraciones económicas parecen ser más amplias que simplemente proporcionar incentivos económicos, los grupos de interés parecen dispuestos a cambiar algo de valor económico por beneficios recreativos o ambientales. Los casos demuestran que no es idealista pensar que es posible aplicar la gestión integradora y cooperativa de ecosistemas en el campo. [source]

Incorporating Uncertainty into Demographic Modeling: Application to Shark Populations and Their Conservation

Enric Cortés
I used age-structured life tables and Leslie matrices based on a prebreeding survey and a yearly time step applied only to females to model the demography of 41 populations from 38 species of sharks representing four orders and nine families. I used Monte Carlo simulation to reflect uncertainty in the estimates of demographic traits and to calculate population statistics and elasticities for these populations; I used correlation analysis to identify the demographic traits that explained most of the variation in population growth rates ( , ). The populations I examined fell along a continuum of life-history characteristics that can be linked to elasticity patterns. Sharks characterized by early age at maturity, short lifespan, and large litter size had high , values and short generation times, whereas sharks that mature late and have long lifespans and small litters have low , values and long generation times. Sharks at the "fast" end of the spectrum tended to have comparable adult and juvenile survival elasticities, whereas sharks at the "slow" end of the continuum had high juvenile survival elasticity and low age,zero survival ( or fertility ) elasticity. Ratios of adult survival to fertility elasticities and juvenile survival to fertility elasticities suggest that many of the populations studied do not possess the biological attributes necessary to restore , to its original level after moderate levels of exploitation. Elasticity analysis suggests that changes in juvenile survival would have the greatest effect on ,, and correlation analysis indicates that variation in juvenile survival, age at maturity, and reproduction account for most of the variation in ,. In general, combined results from elasticity and correlation analyses suggest that research, conservation, and management efforts should focus on these demographic traits. Resumen: Exploré los efectos de la incertidumbre en los caracteres demográficos en análisis demográficos de tiburones, un método no empleado con anterioridad para este taxón. Utilicé tablas de vida estructuradas por edades y matrices de Leslie basadas en evaluaciones pre-gestación y pasos de tiempo de un año aplicados solo a las hembras para modelar la demografía de 41 poblaciones de 38 especies de tiburones que representan cuatro órdenes y nueve familias. Utilicé la simulación de Monte Carlo para reflejar la incertidumbre en las estimaciones de caracteres demográficos y calcular las estadísticas y elasticidades poblacionales para estas poblaciones y el análisis de correlación para identificar los caracteres demográficos que explican la mayoría de la variación en las tasas de crecimiento poblacional ( , ). Las poblaciones examinadas caen dentro de un continuo de características de historias de vida que pueden estar vinculadas con los patrones de elasticidad. Los tiburones que maduran a temprana edad y tienen corta duración de vida y grupos grandes de crías tuvieron valores altos de , y tiempos generacionales cortos, mientras que los tiburones que maduran tarde y tienen una duración de vida larga y grupos pequeños de crías tienen valores bajos de , y tiempos generacionales largos. Los tiburones que se encuentran en el punto final "rápido" del espectro tendieron a tener elasticidades de supervivencia de adultos y juveniles comparables, mientras que los tiburones en el punto final "lento" del continuo tuvieron una alta elasticidad de supervivencia de juveniles y una baja elasticidad en supervivencia a la edad cero (o fertilidad ). Las proporciones de elasticidades de supervivencia de adultos y fertilidad y de elasticidades de supervivencia de juveniles y fertilidad sugieren que muchas de las poblaciones estudiadas no poseen los atributos biológicos necesarios para restaurar , a su nivel original después de niveles moderados de explotación. El análisis de elasticidad sugiere que en la supervivencia de juveniles se podría tener el efecto mayor de , y el análisis de correlación indica que la variación en la supervivencia de juveniles, la edad de maduración y reproducción explican la mayor parte de la variación en ,. En general, los resultados combinados de los análisis de elasticidad y correlación sugieren que los esfuerzos de investigación, conservación y manejo deberían enfocarse a estas características demográficas. [source]

Local Gradients of Cowbird Abundance and Parasitism Relative to Livestock Grazing in a Western Landscape

Christopher B. Goguen
We predicted that both cowbird abundance and parasitism rates of vireo nests would decrease with increasing distance from active livestock grazing, and that the nesting success of vireos would increase. We measured cowbird abundance and host density and located and monitored vireo nests in pinyon-juniper and mixed-conifer habitats that ranged from actively grazed to isolated from livestock grazing by up to 12 km. Cowbird abundance declined with distance from active livestock grazing and was not related to host density or habitat type. Brood parasitism levels of vireo nests (n = 182) decreased from> 80% in actively grazed habitats to 33% in habitats that were 8,12 km from active grazing but did not vary by habitat type or distance to forest edge. Vireo nesting success was higher in mixed-conifer habitat than in pinyon-juniper but was unrelated to distance from active livestock grazing. Nest losses due to parasitism declined with distance from active livestock grazing. Our results suggest that cowbird abundance and parasitism rates of hosts may be distributed as a declining gradient based on distance from cowbird feeding sites and that isolation from feeding sites can reduce the effects of parasitism on host populations. These findings provide support for management techniques that propose to reduce local cowbird numbers and parasitism levels by manipulating the distribution of cowbird feeding sites. The presence of parasitized nests> 8 km from active livestock grazing suggests that, in some regions, management efforts may need to occur at larger scales than previously realized. Resumen: Estudiamos patrones locales de abundancia del tordo cabeza café (Molothrus ater), las tasas de parasitismo y el éxito de nidada de un hospedero común, el vireo (Vireo plumbeus), en relación con la distribución del pastoreo en una región poco desarrollada del noreste de Nuevo México, entre 1992 y 1997. Pronosticamos que tanto la abundancia del tordo, como las tasas de parasitismo de nidos de vireo disminuirían con un incremento en la distancia a las zonas de pastoreo activo de ganado y el éxito de nidada de vireos incrementaría. Medimos la abundancia de tordos y la densidad de hospederos y localizamos y monitoreamos los nidos de vireos en hábitats de pino-cedro y de coníferas mixtas que variaron desde activamente pastoreadas hasta sitios distanciados del pastoreo hasta por 12 km. La abundancia de los tordos disminuyó con la distancia de las zonas de pastoreo activo de ganado y no estuvo relacionada con la densidad de hospederos o el tipo de hábitat. Los niveles de parasitismo de las nidadas del vireo (n = 182) disminuyeron de> 80% en hábitats activamente pastoreados a 33% en hábitats que estuvieron de 8 a 12 km de distancia de los sitios de pastoreo activo, pero no variaron con el tipo de hábitat ni la distancia al borde del bosque. El éxito de nidada de vireos fue mayor en el hábitat mixto de coníferas que en el hábitat de pino-cedro, pero no estuvo relacionado con la distancia al sitio de pastoreo. Las pérdidas debidas al parasitismo disminuyeron con la distancia al sitio activo de pastoreo. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la abundancia de tordos y las tasas de parasitismo de hospederos podría estar distribuida en forma de un gradiente en descenso basado en la distancia a los sitios de alimentación de los tordos y a que el aislamiento de los sitios de alimentación puede reducir los efectos del parasitismo de las poblaciones de hospederos. Estos resultados apoyan las técnicas de manejo que proponen la reducción local de números de tordos y los niveles de parasitismo al manipular la distribución de sitios de alimentación de tordos. La presencia de nidos parasitados> 8 km de sitios con pastoreo activo sugiere que, en algunas regiones, los esfuerzos de manejo deben ocurrir a escalas mayores a lo que anteriormente se pensaba. [source]

Predicting the number of ecologically harmful exotic species in an aquatic system

Anthony Ricciardi
ABSTRACT Most introduced species apparently have little impact on native biodiversity, but the proliferation of human vectors that transport species worldwide increases the probability of a region being affected by high-impact invaders , i.e. those that cause severe declines in native species populations. Our study determined whether the number of high-impact invaders can be predicted from the total number of invaders in an area, after controlling for species,area effects. These two variables are positively correlated in a set of 16 invaded freshwater and marine systems from around the world. The relationship is a simple linear function; there is no evidence of synergistic or antagonistic effects of invaders across systems. A similar relationship is found for introduced freshwater fishes across 149 regions. In both data sets, high-impact invaders comprise approximately 10% of the total number of invaders. Although the mechanism driving this correlation is likely a sampling effect, it is not simply the proportional sampling of a constant number of repeat-offenders; in most cases, an invader is not reported to have strong impacts on native species in the majority of regions it invades. These findings link vector activity and the negative impacts of introduced species on biodiversity, and thus justify management efforts to reduce invasion rates even where numerous invasions have already occurred. [source]

Prediction and validation of the potential global distribution of a problematic alien invasive species , the American bullfrog

Gentile Francesco Ficetola
ABSTRACT Predicting the probability of successful establishment and invasion of alien species at global scale, by matching climatic and land use data, is a priority for the risk assessment. Both large- and local-scale factors contribute to the outcome of invasions, and should be integrated to improve the predictions. At global scale, we used climatic and land use layers to evaluate the habitat suitability for the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana, a major invasive species that is among the causes of amphibian decline. Environmental models were built by using Maxent, a machine learning method. Then, we integrated global data with information on richness of native communities and hunting pressure collected at the local scale. Global-scale data allowed us to delineate the areas with the highest suitability for this species. Predicted suitability was significantly related to the invasiveness observed for bullfrog populations historically introduced in Europe, but did not explain a large portion of variability in invasion success. The integration of data at the global and local scales greatly improved the performance of models, and explained > 57% of the variance in introduction success: bullfrogs were more invasive in areas with high suitability and low hunting pressure over frogs. Our study identified the climatic factors entailing the risk of invasion by bullfrogs, and stresses the importance of the integration of biotic and abiotic data collected at different spatial scales, to evaluate the areas where monitoring and management efforts need to be focused. [source]

Predictability of river flow and suspended sediment transport in the Mississippi River basin: a non-linear deterministic approach

Bellie Sivakumar
Abstract As the Mississippi River plays a major role in fulfilling various water demands in North America, accurate prediction of river flow and sediment transport in the basin is crucial for undertaking both short-term emergency measures and long-term management efforts. To this effect, the present study investigates the predictability of river flow and suspended sediment transport in the basin. As most of the existing approaches that link water discharge, suspended sediment concentration and suspended sediment load possess certain limitations (absence of consensus on linkages), this study employs an approach that presents predictions of a variable based on history of the variable alone. The approach, based on non-linear determinism, involves: (1) reconstruction of single-dimensional series in multi-dimensional phase-space for representing the underlying dynamics; and (2) use of the local approximation technique for prediction. For implementation, river flow and suspended sediment transport variables observed at the St. Louis (Missouri) station are studied. Specifically, daily water discharge, suspended sediment concentration and suspended sediment load data are analysed for their predictability and range, by making predictions from one day to ten days ahead. The results lead to the following conclusions: (1) extremely good one-day ahead predictions are possible for all the series; (2) prediction accuracy decreases with increasing lead time for all the series, but the decrease is much more significant for suspended sediment concentration and suspended sediment load; and (3) the number of mechanisms dominantly governing the dynamics is three for each of the series. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Long-term change to fish assemblages and the flow regime in a southeastern U.S. river system after extensive aquatic ecosystem fragmentation

ECOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2008
Christopher M. Taylor
The upper Tombigbee River in northeastern Mississippi now exists as a fragment, confluencing with and fed by an extensively modified aquatic landscape now called the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway (TTW). We examined the changes to fish assemblages and flow regime after waterway construction based on contemporary comparisons to historical fish collections and discharge data. The river's flow regime has changed markedly since TTW construction. Analysis of discharge data from two stations for 15 years, pre- and post-waterway, indicated significant differences in flow regime including increased minimum and base flows, lower spring and higher late summer-autumn flows, and lower high flow durations, post-TTW. These changes corresponded to significantly reduced regional and local species richness, and strong shifts in fish assemblage structure across a 20 yr time span. Post-waterway fish assemblages were related strongly to measured environmental variables characterizing local habitats. Several lentic-adapted species increased their abundances in lower reaches of the river, including a recent invader to the TTW system, the Mississippi silverside Menidia audens. Fragmentation of river ecosystems via disruption to hydrologic regimes is a major threat to aquatic biodiversity worldwide. Because the flow regime of this fragmented river is in part controlled by waterway operations via five minimum flow control structures, adaptive conservation and management efforts could be implemented in order to maintain and potentially restore the natural flow regime and the ecological integrity of the system. [source]

Temporal coherence of aboveground net primary productivity in mesic grasslands

ECOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2008
Jana L. Heisler
Synchrony in ecological variables over wide geographic areas suggests that large-scale environmental factors drive the structure and function of ecosystems and override more local-scale environmental variation. Described also as coherence, this phenomenon has been documented broadly in the ecological literature and has recently received increasing attention as scientists attempt to quantify the impacts of global changes on organisms and their habitats. Using a mesic grassland site in North America, we assessed coherence in ecosystem function by quantifying similarity in aboveground net primary production (ANPP) dynamics in 48 permanent sampling locations (PSLs) over a 16-yr period. Our primary objective was to characterize coherence across a broad geographic region (with similar ecosystem structure and function), and we hypothesized that precipitation and a similar fire frequency would strengthen coherence between PSLs. All 48 PSLs at our site (Konza Prairie Biological Station, Manhattan, KS, USA; KPBS) were exposed to a similar regional driver of ANPP (precipitation); however, local drivers (including differences in fire frequency and soil depth at different topographic positions) varied strongly among individual PSLs. For the purpose of this assessment, the watershed-level experimental design of KPBS was considered a model, which represented different fire management strategies across the Great Plains Region. Our analyses revealed a site-level (KPBS) coherence in ANPP dynamics of 0.53 for the period of 1984,1999. Annual fire enhanced coherence among PSLs to 0.76, whereas less frequent fire (fire exclusion or a 4-yr fire return interval) failed to further increase coherence beyond that of the KPBS site level. Soil depth also strongly influenced coherence among PSLs with shallow soils at upland sites showing strong coherence across fire regimes and annually burned uplands closely linked to annual precipitation dynamics. The lack of coherence in ecosystem function in PSLs with deep soils and low fire frequencies suggests that conservation and management efforts will need to be more location specific in such areas where biotic interactions may be more important than regional abiotic drivers. [source]

Catastrophic incident prevention and proactive risk management in the new biofuels industry,

Judy A. Perry
Abstract This article is directed at assisting bioethanol manufacturers with preventing catastrophic incidents which could impact the entire Biofuels Industry. The biofuels industry has common hazards and potential consequences like other industries, related to the handling of flammables, dust explosion hazards and toxic or corrosive materials handling. This article ensures the reader understands these specific bioethanol manufacturer's process hazards are very real as demonstrated by past incidents and their catastrophic results. Regulatory obligations are discussed, as well as key engineering resources and design practices to ensure adequate safeguards are incorporated into the design of a new bioethanol manufacturing facility. The industry is fairly new, however, the hazards and safeguards to reduce the risk level with the common hazards are not new. Preliminary indications are this industry has yet to establish the proactive risk management efforts that are required to reduce the risks to a tolerable level. This article is to provide the supporting data and direction to the Biofuels Industry to ensure each are headed down a path of preventing a future catastrophe. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2009 [source]

Effects of land use on aquatic macrophyte diversity and water quality of ponds

Summary 1. Aquatic macrophyte diversity and water quality of 55 ponds in western Japan were related to land use and morphometric variables to identify the environmental factors that sustain biodiversity and the spatial extent at which these factors operate. 2. The relevant spatial extent for floating-leaved macrophyte richness (500 m from pond edge) was larger than that for submerged macrophyte occurrence (10, 75 and 100 m), whereas emergent macrophyte richness was best explained at much larger extents (1000 m). Total macrophyte richness was explained at the extent of 500, 750 and 1000 m. The extents relevant for explaining the physicochemical condition of pond water (100 and 250 m) were similar to those for submerged and floating-leaved macrophytes, suggesting that these two growth forms are more sensitive to water quality compared to emergent macrophytes. 3. Diversity of all three growth forms and that of total macrophytes collectively were inversely related to turbidity and nutrient concentration; among the three growth forms, submerged macrophytes were most affected by water quality. 4. Negative relationships were found between the proportion of urban area and the diversity of the three growth forms and that of total macrophytes and water quality. Species richness of emergent, floating-leaved and total macrophytes decreased with depth and increased with surface area up to about 5000 m2, above which it declined. 5. Urbanisation and enlargement of ponds were the two main factors that decreased aquatic macrophyte diversity in irrigation ponds. To alleviate the adverse effects of urban areas on aquatic macrophyte diversity, our results suggest that management efforts should focus on the creation of buffer zones within the relevant spatial extent from the pond edge. [source]

Principles for Public Management Practice: From Dichotomies to Interdependence

GOVERNANCE, Issue 3 2001
Martha S. Feldman
In this essay we explore the relationship between management practices and a basic governance dilemma: how to manage flexibly and accountably. The challenge is both practical and theoretical. Managers must respond flexibly to the changing demands and expectations of the public and the ever-changing nature of public problems, yet they must do so in a manner that provides accountability to the public and political overseers. A dichotomous approach to the study of leadership as management action and the governance structures within which managers operate has inhibited the search for a public management theory that reconciles the dilemma. Emphasis upon managers as leaders typically focuses on the flexible actions managers might take to overcome structural "barriers," while emphasis upon governance structures typically focuses on the essential role of structure in ensuring accountability and restraining or motivating particular management efforts. The practicing manager, however, cannot deal with these aspects of the work separately. Managers must attend to demands for both flexible leadership action and structures that promise accountability. Anecdotal evidence provides illustrations of some of the ways that managers can integrate these demands. We suggest that these efforts point to an alternative theoretical framework that understands action and structure as mutually constitutive, creating a dynamic tension in which attention to one requires attention to the other. [source]

Measurement of management efforts with respect to integration of quality, safety, and ergonomics issues in manufacturing industry

John S. Dzissah
The main objective of this study was to identify critical factors that measure management efforts with regard to quality, safety, and ergonomics issues for their simultaneous improvement. Eleven identified management activity areas have been synthesized from the literature as the most important areas that meet all stakeholders' needs. Factors were then developed to measure the efficiency of these activities through a questionnaire. The overall response rate of the survey questionnaire was 47%. The reliability coefficients ranging from 0.73 to 0.85 indicated that some scales or management activity areas are more reliable in measuring potential for improvements in terms of quality, ergonomics, safety, and efficiency. The proposed instrument for quantifying management efforts with respect to simultaneous improvements in the areas of quality, ergonomics, and safety was found to be valid and reliable. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 15: 213,232, 2005. [source]

Response of small rodents to manipulations of vegetation height in agro-ecosystems

Abstract Some small mammal populations require human interference to conserve rare or threatened species or to minimize adverse effects in plant production. Without a thorough understanding about how small rodents behave in their environment and consideration of how they react to management efforts, management will not be optimal. Social behavior, spatial and temporal activity patterns, predator avoidance and other behavioral responses can affect pest rodent management. Some of these behavioral patterns and their causes have been well studied. However, their impact on pest rodent management, especially for novel management approaches, is not always clear. Habitat manipulation occurs necessarily through land use and intentionally to reduce shelter and food availability and to increase predation pressure on rodents. Rodents often respond to decreased vegetation height with reduced movements and increased risk sensitivity in their feeding behavior. This seems to result mainly from an elevated perceived predation risk. Behavioral responses may lessen the efficacy of the management because the desired effects of predators might be mediated. It remains largely unknown to what extent such responses can compensate at the population level for the expected consequences of habitat manipulation and how population size and crop damage are affected. It is advantageous to understand how target and non-target species react to habitat manipulation to maximize the management effects by appropriate techniques, timing and spatial scale without causing unwanted effects at the system level. [source]

Principal-Agent Problems in Humanitarian Intervention: Moral Hazards, Adverse Selection, and the Commitment Dilemma

Robert W. Rauchhaus
A number of recent studies have concluded that humanitarian intervention can produce unintended consequences that reduce or completely undermine conflict management efforts. Some analysts have argued that the incentive structure produced by third parties is a form of moral hazard. This paper evaluates the utility of moral hazard theory and a second type of principal-agent problem known as adverse selection. Whereas moral hazards occur when an insured party has an opportunity to take hidden action once a contract is in effect, adverse selection is the result of asymmetric information prior to entering into a contract. Failing to distinguish between these two types of principal-agent problems may lead to policy advice that is irrelevant or potentially harmful. Along with introducing the concept of adverse selection to the debate on humanitarian intervention, this study identifies a commitment dilemma that explains why third parties operating in weakly institutionalized environments may be unable to punish groups that take advantage of intervention. [source]

In the Nick of Time: Conflict Management, Mediation Timing, and the Duration of Interstate Disputes

Patrick M. Regan
This paper develops a theoretical argument linking time and the timing of conflict management efforts to dispute duration. We test competing hypotheses on conflict data drawn from disputes in the post-1945 period. Our analysis demonstrates that the effects of mediation vary substantially over the course of a dispute. Specifically, we note that mediation has a curvilinear relationship with time and the ending of disputes. Mediation efforts that occur soon after disputes begin have the best chance of reducing expected future dispute duration. Following this initial period, subsequent mediation efforts lead to longer rather than shorter disputes. After a long period, mediation again leads to shorter rather than longer disputes. We also find that there should be consistency in the mediators used to manage a conflict rather than shifting personnel to interject new ideas. [source]

Predicting spatio-temporal recolonization of large carnivore populations and livestock depredation risk: wolves in the Italian Alps

F. Marucco
Summary 1.,Wolves Canis lupus recently recolonized the Western Alps through dispersal from the Italian Apennines, representing one of several worldwide examples of large carnivores increasing in highly human-dominated landscapes. Understanding and predicting expansion of this population is important for conservation because of its direct impact on livestock and its high level of societal opposition. 2.,We built a predictive, spatially explicit, individual-based model to examine wolf population expansion in this fragmented landscape, and livestock depredation risk. We developed the model based on known demographic processes, social structure, behaviour and habitat selection of wolves collected during a 10-year intensive field study of this wolf population. 3.,During model validation, our model accurately described the recolonization process within the Italian Alps, correctly predicting wolf pack locations, pack numbers and wolf population size, between 1999 and 2008. 4.,We then projected packs and dispersers over the entire Italian Alps for 2013, 2018 and 2023. We predicted 25 packs (95% CI: 19,32) in 2013, 36 (23,47) in 2018 and 49 (29,68) in 2023. The South-Western Alps were the main source for wolves repopulating the Alps from 1999 to 2008. The source area for further successful dispersers will probably shift to the North-Western Alps after 2008, but the large lakes in the Central Alps will probably act as a spatial barrier slowing the wolf expansion. 5.,Using the pack presence forecasts, we estimated spatially explicit wolf depredation risk on livestock, allowing tailored local and regional management actions. 6.,Synthesis and applications. Our predictive model is novel because we follow the spatio-temporal dynamics of packs, not just population size, which have substantially different requirements and impacts on wolf,human conflicts than wandering dispersers. Our approach enables prioritization of management efforts, including minimizing livestock depredations, identifying important corridors and barriers, and locating future source populations for successful wolf recolonization of the Alps. [source]

The effect of habitat management on home-range size and survival of rural Norway rat populations

M. S. Lambert
Summary 1Norway rat Rattus norvegicus populations are usually controlled with toxic baits, but this approach is increasingly recognized as having negative welfare and environmental impacts. An integrated strategy that relies less on rodenticides is therefore required. Here we investigate the possibility of using a resource-based approach to rat population management. 2Structurally complex habitats provide rat populations with nest sites and opportunities to avoid predators; modifying habitats to reduce structural complexity might reduce their potential to support rat populations. As part of an integrated approach, this could be more sustainable than relying exclusively on lethal control. However, in order to target habitat management efforts most effectively with minimum impact on other species, an understanding of habitat utilization by Norway rats is required. 3In this study, rat populations on farms in the north-east of England were monitored by radio-tracking and population counts before and after a single phase of habitat modification. Rats living near farm buildings utilized areas with high levels of cover; habitat modification reduced the survival rate and size of these rat populations. Rats living in field margins also preferred areas with high levels of cover, but they had significantly bigger home ranges than rats living near farm buildings and were largely unaffected by small-scale habitat management. 4Synthesis and applications. Our results indicate that habitat management near farm buildings has the potential to reduce the size of rat populations. As part of an integrated approach, this technique offers a way of reducing reliance on rodenticides. Habitat use by rats within the wider farm landscape suggests that land management practices have the potential to influence the size and distribution of rat populations; many game-rearing practices and environmental policies designed to create habitats for ,desirable' farm wildlife, inadvertently create desirable habitats for rats. [source]

Ecological correlates of vulnerability to fragmentation in Neotropical bats

Christoph F. J. Meyer
Summary 1In the face of widespread human-induced habitat fragmentation, identification of those ecological characteristics that render some species more vulnerable to fragmentation than others is vital for understanding, predicting and mitigating the effects of habitat alteration on biodiversity. We compare hypotheses on the causes of interspecific differences in fragmentation sensitivity using distribution and abundance data collected on 23 species of Neotropical bats. 2Bats were captured over a 2-year period on 11 land-bridge islands in Gatún Lake, Panama, and on the adjacent mainland. We derived a series of explanatory variables from our capture data and from the literature: (1) natural abundance in continuous forest, (2) body mass, (3) trophic level, (4) dietary specialization, (5) vertical stratification, (6) edge-sensitivity, (7) mobility, (8) wing morphology (aspect ratio and relative wing loading) and (9) ecologically scaled landscape indices (ESLIs). After phylogenetic correction, these variables were used separately and in combination to assess their association with two indices of fragmentation sensitivity, species prevalence (proportion of islands occupied) as well as an index of change in abundance. 3Model selection based on Akaike's information criterion identified edge-sensitivity as the best correlate of vulnerability to fragmentation. Natural abundance and mobility or traits linked to mobility (relative wing loading and ESLI) received limited support as predictors. Vulnerability of gleaning animalivorous bats is probably caused by a combination of these traits. 4Synthesis and applications. Our findings emphasize the importance of a local-scale approach in developing predictive models of species fragmentation sensitivity and indicate that risk assessments of Neotropical bats could be based on species tolerance to habitat edges and mobility-related traits. We suggest that, in order to be effective, management efforts should aim to minimize the amount of edge-habitat and reduce the degree of fragment-matrix contrast. Moreover, if high bat diversity is to be preserved in fragmented Neotropical landscapes, conservation measures regarding reserve design should assure spatial proximity to source populations in larger tracts of continuous forest and a low degree of remnant isolation. [source]

Grassland-breeding waders: identifying key habitat requirements for management

Summary 1Habitat loss and degradation of wetland ecosystems, principally through large-scale drainage and conversion to arable farmland, have been implicated in the widespread, dramatic declines of breeding waders across Europe. Managing the remaining wetlands to reverse these declines will require a detailed understanding of their habitat requirements. 2In the UK, grazing marshes are key components of the remaining wetlands in both coastal and inland sites, and the structure of grazing marsh habitat can differ between these locations. Redshank Tringa totanus is a declining wader species that breeds in both marsh types. We quantified the habitat features that influence redshank selection of breeding and nest site locations, across coastal and inland marshes, in eastern England. 3On both marsh types, breeding location and breeding densities within fields were positively related to the lengths of pool edge and all wet features, respectively. Nest site location was principally influenced by vegetation characteristics, with soil penetrability also important on inland sites but proximity to wet features and vegetation type at the nest important on coastal sites. Hatching probability was higher when the surrounding soils were more penetrable. 4Synthesis and applications. The wet features of critical importance for breeding redshank are common on coastal marshes and can be deliberately established on inland sites. Coastal marshes are often rare and frequently threatened by dynamic coastal processes, whereas inland marshes are more abundant but largely unsuitable for breeding waders at present. These analyses highlight the scope for improving the management of inland marshes for breeding redshank. As habitat suitable for breeding redshank frequently supports a range of other wader species, this information can also direct management efforts to improve breeding wader populations in the wider countryside. [source]

Development of inland lakes as hubs in an invasion network

Summary 1The ability to predict spatially explicit dispersal by non-indigenous species is a difficult but increasingly important undertaking as it allows management efforts to be focused around areas identified as susceptible to invasion. Lakes may serve as useful models for these studies because the habitats are well defined, and vectors of spread may be readily identified and quantified. In this study, we examined patterns of spread of the non-indigenous spiny waterflea Bythotrephes longimanus to inland lakes in Ontario, Canada, to identify lakes for which management efforts to reduce traffic would be most effective. 2We surveyed people using lakes for recreational purposes to quantify movements of trailered boats and other risky activities, to model relative vector traffic from invaded lakes to non-invaded and other invaded lakes. Non-linear functions were developed to describe the cumulative number of invaded and non-invaded destination lakes visited by people leaving five important lakes already invaded by the spiny waterflea (Huron, Simcoe, Muskoka, Panache and Kashagawigamog). The relative difference in these functions was used to identify which lakes will develop into future invasion hubs and will therefore be most important to future dispersal of the species. 3In the recent past, Lake Muskoka has been an important hub from which the spiny waterflea has invaded other lakes. It is unlikely to continue to be a source for waterflea invasion as most outbound traffic is to previously invaded lakes. Conversely, most outbound traffic from Lakes Kashagawigamog and Simcoe is to non-invaded lakes and, therefore, these lakes are likely to develop into hubs in the future. 4Synthesis and applications. These data on zooplankton in lake systems and associated mechanisms of transport indicate patterns not only of intrinsic value to lake management, but also of potential importance in understanding invasions more generally. Frequency distributions of the number of outbound connections to both invaded and non-invaded destinations from invaded sources follow a power function, consistent with scale-free networks. These networks indicate that small proportions of sources function as hubs. Management efforts targeted to remove developing hubs from the invasion network, rather than equal effort applied to outbound vector traffic from all sources, may reduce the predicted rate of new invasions. [source]

Duiker demography and dispersal under hunting in Northern Congo

Miranda H. Mockrin
Abstract Duikers are the most heavily hunted species across forested Central and West Africa. Although these species form a vital food resource for people, little is known about their ecology and demography. The information available to date was collected from populations protected from hunting. However, hunting can profoundly alter demography and behaviour, such as dispersal, which in turn determine the sustainability of harvest. To address this research gap, I used radiotelemetry to examine duiker demography under hunting in Congo-Brazzaville. Among blue duikers (Philantoba monticola, n = 17) I found annual survival rates (0.94), immature dispersal rates (0.25), and average home ranges (5.5 ha) that largely coincided with previous research from unhunted regions. Neighbouring animals all showed some home range overlap, in contrast to previous studies which found blue duikers to be strictly territorial. Although limited by sample size, immature animals' dispersal distances were relatively high (1.5 km, n = 2). Animals' dispersal rates do not appear to be greatly increased by hunting pressure, although source-sink theory depends upon high rates of dispersal to maintain the elevated and localized hunting offtakes observed around settlements. Building a fuller understanding of duiker demography under hunting, including dispersal, will be essential for conservation and management efforts. Résumé Les céphalophes sont les espèces les plus chassées dans les forêts d'Afrique centrale et de l'Ouest. Bien que ces espèces constituent une source de nourriture vitale pour les populations, on sait peu de choses de leur écologie et de leur démographie. Les informations disponibles à ce jour ont été récoltées chez des populations protégées contre la chasse, or la chasse peut modifier considérablement la démographie et le comportement, comme la dispersion, qui à leur tour déterminent la durabilité de la chasse. Pour combler ce manque de données, j'ai eu recours à la radio-télémétrie pour étudier la démographie des céphalophes soumis à la pression de la chasse au Congo Brazzaville. Chez les céphalophes bleus (P. monticola, n = 17), j'ai trouvé un taux de survie annuel (0.94), un taux de dispersion des immatures (0.25) et un domaine vital moyen (5.5 ha) qui coïncidaient en grande partie avec des études antérieures portant sur des régions sans chasse. Les animaux voisins présentaient tous un certain degré de recouvrement des domaines vitaux, contrairement aux études précédentes qui avaient trouvé que les céphalophes bleus étaient strictement territoriaux. Bien que la taille de l'échantillon soit limitée, les distances de dispersion des animaux immatures étaient relativement grandes (1.5 km, n = 2). Le taux de dispersion des animaux ne semble pas être fort accru par la pression de la chasse bien que la théorie source-sink dépende de taux de dispersion élevés pour pouvoir maintenir les prélèvements locaux importants constatés autour des installations. Il sera essentiel d'arriver à une compréhension plus complète de la démographie des céphalophes soumis à la chasse, y compris de leur dispersion, pour orienter les efforts de conservation et de gestion. [source]

From Cradle to Grave: Extended Producer Responsibility for Household Hazardous Wastes in British Columbia

Ronald J. Driedger
Summary Household hazardous wastes (HHWs), the discarded pesticides, solvents, paints, lubricating oil, and similar products common to residences throughout the industrial world, create problems for governments charged with managing solid waste. When disposed of improperly in landfills or incinerators or if dumped illegally, HHW may contribute to soil and water contamination. A most common management tool for HHW is a special collection effort that segregates HHW from normal trash and disposes of it in an approved manner, all at a higher cost to the governmental jurisdiction. The Canadian province of British Columbia (BC) has undertaken a different approach, based on the use of extended producer responsibility (EPR). BC's efforts began in 1992 with adoption of a regulation on used lubricating oil (lube oil). More than 40 million liters (L) of used lube oil have been collected annually through the EPR system established under this regulation. A regulation establishing producer responsibility for postconsumer paints followed in 1994. BC enacted an additional regulation establishing EPR in 1997 for solvents/flammable liquids, domestic pesticides, gasoline, and pharmaceuticals. As a result of the application of EPR to HHW, local government costs for managing HHW and the amount of HHW identified in municipal waste have declined. Although the regulations appear to have mixed success in prompting consumers to avoid products that result in HHW, there are indications that they may be more effective than conventional management efforts. Based on BC's experience with EPR, key factors for successful implementation include maintaining flexibility in program design, creating viable funding alternatives, aggressive enforcement to provide a level playing field, and adopting policies that maximize diversion of HHW from landfills, while minimizing waste generation, setting targets for reuse and recycling, promoting consumer awareness and convenience, involving local government jurisdictions, and monitoring outcomes. [source]

Crossing national boundaries: A typology of qualified immigrants' career orientations

Jelena Zikic
Abstract This qualitative study examines objective,subjective career interdependencies within a sample of 45 qualified immigrants (QIs) in Canada, Spain and France. The particular challenges in this type of self-initiated international careers arise from the power of institutions and local gatekeepers, the lack of recognition for QIs' foreign career capital, and the need for proactivity. Resulting from primary data analysis, we identify six major themes in QIs' subjective interpretations of objective barriers: Maintaining motivation, managing identity, developing new credentials, developing local know-how, building a new social network and evaluating career success. Secondary data analysis distinguishes three QI career orientations,embracing, adaptive and resisting orientations,with each portraying distinct patterns of motivation, identity and coping. This study extends the boundaryless career perspective by providing a more fine-grained understanding of how qualified migrants manage both physical and psychological mobility during self-initiated international career transitions. With regards to the interdependence between objective and subjective career aspects, it illustrates the importance of avoiding preference to one side at the neglect of the other, or treating the two sides as independent of one another. Practical implications are proposed for career management efforts and receiving economies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Systematic objective setting for effective issue management

Tony Jaques
While a great deal of academic and practitioner effort has been devoted to understanding and formalizing objective setting in corporate strategic planning and in strategic communication, far less effort has been committed to objective setting for issue management. Within this context, setting a proper objective is sometimes swept aside in the ,rush for results' and, as a consequence, issue management efforts can be misdirected, misapplied and poorly evaluated. Objective setting for issue management has unique requirements which distinguish it from broader corporate planning processes, and this paper develops a rationale and proposes specific guidelines to help to establish strategic objectives for effective issue management. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]