Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Appeal

  • fear appeal
  • i appeal
  • intuitive appeal
  • popular appeal
  • threat appeal

  • Selected Abstracts


    Article first published online: 23 JAN 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BIOETHICS, Issue 3 2009
    ABSTRACT Over the past few decades the concept of (human) dignity has deeply pervaded medical ethics. Appeals to dignity, however, are often unclear. As a result some prefer to eliminate the concept from medical ethics, whereas others try to render it useful in this context. We think that appeals to dignity in medical ethics can be clarified by considering the concept from an historical perspective. Firstly, on the basis of historical texts we propose a framework for defining the concept in medical debates. The framework shows that dignity can occur in a relational, an unconditional, a subjective and a Kantian form. Interestingly, all forms relate to one concept since they have four features in common: dignity refers, in a restricted sense, to the ,special status of human beings'; it is based on essential human characteristics; the subject of dignity should live up to it; and it is a vulnerable concept, it can be lost or violated. We argue that being explicit about the meaning of dignity will prevent dignity from becoming a conversation-stopper in moral debate. Secondly, an historical perspective on dignity shows that it is not yet time to dispose of dignity in medical ethics. At least Kantian and relational dignity can be made useful in medical ethics. [source]

    Psychology brings justice: the science of forensic psychology,

    Gisli H. Gudjonsson Professor of Forensic Psychology
    In this paper the focus is on one aspect of forensic psychology: the development of psychological instruments, a social psychological model and assessment procedures for evaluating the credibility of witnesses and police detainees during interviewing. Clinically grounded case work and research has impacted on police interviewing and practice, the admissibility of expert psychological testimony and the outcome of cases of miscarriage of justice. After describing the research that laid the foundations for advancement of scientific knowledge in this area, a brief review is presented of 22 high-profile murder cases where convictions based on confession evidence have been quashed on appeal between 1989 and 2001, often primarily on the basis of psychological evidence. The review of the cases demonstrates that psychological research and expert testimony in cases of disputed confessions have had a profound influence on the practice and ruling of the Court of Appeal for England and Wales and the British House of Lords. The cases presented in this paper show that it is wrong to assume that only persons with learning disability or those who are mentally ill make unreliable or false confessions. Personality factors, such as suggestibility, compliance, high trait anxiety and antisocial personality traits, are often important in rendering a confession unreliable. Future research needs to focus more on the role of personality factors in rendering the evidence of witnesses and suspects potentially unreliable. Copyright © 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    An Appeal to Aid Specialists

    Keith Horton
    The appeal I am making is (roughly speaking) for aid specialists to do more to help those of us who are not aid specialists to arrive at judgments about the effects of the work of (voluntary) aid agencies that we have at least some reason to think accurate. I argue that the fact that it is so difficult for us to arrive at such judgments at present has certain negative consequences, and that this gives those who are in a position to make it easier for us to arrive at such judgments strong reasons to do so. And I argue that (certain) aid specialists are in such a position. Hence my appeal to them to do so. [source]

    Appeal for proper usage of the term ,EGUS': Equine gastric ulcer syndrome

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Hegel's Critique of Pure Mechanism and the Philosophical Appeal of the Logic Project

    James Kreines
    First page of article [source]

    Understanding Remigration and Innovation , An Appeal for a Cultural Economic Geography

    Claudia Klaerding
    The acquisition of new knowledge is a crucial capital of highly skilled remigrants and its utilisation in home countries can play a major role for regional economic development. By reviewing the remigration literature it is shown that remigrants are able to create innovation in their home countries and promote regional development. But also theoretical deficits can be identified regarding the structural conditions of transferring new knowledge across regions which precedes potential innovation processes. Recent theoretical ideas cannot sufficiently explain why remigrants become innovative to varying degrees depending on their home regions. A cultural approach of economic geography is needed to highlight the cultural construction of the economy. It allows for remigrants to be perceived as knowledge brokers, which crucially influences the returnee's capacity to innovate. [source]

    Kabbalah: A Medieval Tradition and Its Contemporary Appeal

    Hava Tirosh-Samuelson
    Popular culture today is suffused with kabbalah, an elitist, intellectual strand of medieval Judaism that claimed to disclose the esoteric meaning of the rabbinic tradition. While rooted in esoteric speculations in late antiquity, kabbalah emerged in the tenth century as an internal debate among Jewish theologians about the ontological status of divine attributes. At the end of the twelfth century speculations about the nature of God emerged among the Pietists of Germany and the ,masters of kabbalah' in Provence. During the thirteenth century kabbalah flourished in Spain where its self-understanding as redemptive activity was expressed in two paradigms , the ,theosophy-theurgic' and the ,ecstatic-prophetic'. Kabbalah continued to evolve in the early modern period, shaping both Jewish and European cultures. The modern period saw the rise of the academic study of kabbalah, but it was employed in two conflicting manners: in the nineteenth century scholars associated with the Enlightenment used historical analysis of kabbalah to debunk Jewish traditionalism, but in the first half of the twentieth century, the academic study of kabbalah was used to generate a secular, collective Zionist identity. Although scholarship on kabbalah has flourished in the twentieth century, kabbalah has become a variant of New-Age religions, accessible to all, regardless of ethnic identity or spiritual readiness. [source]


    Article first published online: 8 MAR 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Limits of the Appeal to Internet in Accessing Information and Training in the Exercise of Parenting Skills in Quebec

    François Larose
    In this article, we define the concept of digital gap as a multidimensional construct, and account for the contradictory relations stated in the scientific literature concerning the appeal to Internet by the more or less privileged strata of society. We explore the state of the digital gap and analyze diverse policies implemented by federal and provincial governments to support accessibility to digital resources in Quebec. After presenting results of a survey with parents concerning access to information and training in the exercise of parenting skills, we analyze these data in accordance with factors associated with the digital gap. We conclude by underlining the danger of compensation policies for the most vulnerable strata of society when government services are placed online. [source]

    Psychiatric injury in breach of a relationship

    LEGAL STUDIES, Issue 1 2007
    Peter Handford
    The distinction between primary and secondary victims confirmed by Page v Smith has caused major problems in English psychiatric damage law. The House of Lords has suggested that the search for principle has been called off, and that the only sensible strategy is to say ,thus far and no farther'. This paper suggests that one way forward is to recognise that it is not only persons who are physically proximate to an ,accident' who should be put in a special category: any case in which there is some sort of pre-existing relationship between claimant and defendant should be regarded as different from the standard secondary victim scenario. The relationship concept, first recognised in the USA and now adopted by the Court of Appeal, can be found in embryo form in the early cases. [source]

    Sanctity of life , are some lives more sacred than others?

    LEGAL STUDIES, Issue 3 2002
    Sabine Michalowski
    Court decisions concerning the life and death of patients become more and more frequent in the context of medical practice. One of the most controversial decisions in this area in recent years has been the decision of the Court of Appeal in Re A (Conjoined Twins: Medical Treatment),, authorising the separation of conjoined twins. This paper will argue that the decision was flawed both on legal and moral grounds and that its potential implications for future cases are more far-reaching than the judgment itself suggests. [source]

    Seeking the principle: chancels, choices and human rights

    LEGAL STUDIES, Issue 2 2002
    Ian Dawson
    Chancel liability is an ancient property right, enforced by a Parochial Church Council, attaching to certain former rectorial lands. It requires a landowner to bear the cost of repair of the parish church chancel. The right poses particular problems for a purchaser, not least because it is hard to discover and is not limited to the value of the land. A recent decision of the Court of Appeal has found that a Parochial Church Council falls within section 6 of the Human Rights Act 1998 as a public authority, and that chancel liability infringes article I of the First Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights. This paper will dispute the rationale used by the Court of Appeal, and in so doing will argue that whilst chancel liability is outmoded, widely regarded as incongruous and does not bear scrutiny in its modern context, it should nevertheless be removed on a principled basis, avoiding unwanted repercussions elsewhere in the law. [source]

    Transatlantic Appeal: Put Away the Megaphones

    Chris Patten

    Sunburns, Sun Protection and Indoor Tanning Behaviors, and Attitudes Regarding Sun Protection Benefits and Tan Appeal among Parents of U.S. Adolescents,1998 Compared to 2004

    Priti Bandi M.S.
    Data were from the American Cancer Society Sun Surveys I and II, telephone-based random digit dialed cross-sectional surveys of U.S. adolescents and their parents conducted in the summers of 1998 and 2004. Between 1998 and 2004, use of sunscreen, wide-brimmed hats and composite use of three to five behaviors increased significantly; concurrently, indoor tanning use increased significantly and sunburn prevalence changed a little. In 2004, 47% reported summer sunburns and more than half of those received painful sunburns. Parents continued to report low compliance with recommended behaviors; sunscreen use was most frequently reported, but many followed inappropriate application practices. About 13% practiced indoor tanning in the past year. Parents reported high levels of positive attitudes toward sun protection benefit, but at the same time, significant proportions reported positive tan appeal and outdoor sun exposure attitudes. The low rates and mixed progress in safe ultraviolet radiation exposure behaviors demand more attention for primary skin cancer prevention among parents of adolescents that focuses on changing beliefs about tanning appeal and promotes comprehensive ultraviolet radiation exposure protection. [source]

    Exploring the Appeal of Product Design: A Grounded, Value-Based Model of Key Design Elements and Relationships,

    Charles H. Noble
    Product design is increasingly being recognized as an important source of sustainable competitive advantage. Until recently, the domain of design has been loosely categorized as "form and function" issues. However, as this paper will explore, product design deals with a much richer range of issues, many of which have not been considered in the marketing literature. To explore the domain and elements of design, the paper begins with two major goals: (1) to elicit the key dimensions of design and to develop an enriched language for the understanding and study of design; and (2) to integrate the design dimensions within a broader model that ties initial design goals to eventual psychological and behavioral responses from consumers. To achieve these ends, grounded theory development is used by conducting an extensive literature review, in-depth interviews, and an interactive object elicitation technique. Drawing from this rich source of qualitative information as well as diverse literature fields, a framework is proposed for the creation of design value in consumer products. This framework not only explores the domain of design but also highlights the important elements of design that go well beyond the clichéd form and function issues. The resulting model reflects specific marketplace and organizational constraints that may help or impede the conversion of designer goals to so-called design levers. These levers are used to convey three types of values to consumers: rational, kinesthetic, and emotional. The framework then explains how and when these different values may be perceived by the consumer. Within this framework, testable research propositions and specific directions for future design-based research are also offered. Beyond its potential to spur marketing and new product development (NPD) management thought, the framework offered here represents a significant contribution to the field of design, which has historically been represented as a highly fragmented body of knowledge. Formalizing this framework should help overcome perhaps the largest obstacle to date to marketing-related and NPD-related research in this area,the lack of a detailed and consistent nomological view of the scope of design dimensions including testable linkages. Design has become an important tool that can be used by managers to develop dominant brands with lasting advantages. This research lends the NPD manager and the marketing manager better insights in into how this increasingly popular focus can be used to influence consumer behavior and firm success. "Design may be our top unexploited competitive edge." Tom Peters, 2004 (cover review of Norman, 2004) "We don't have a good language to talk about [design]. In most people's vocabularies, design means veneer., But to me, nothing could be further from the meaning of design. Design is the fundamental soul of a man-made creation." Steve Jobs, Apple Computers [source]

    The Patentability of Computer Programs in Europe: An Improved Interpretation of Articles 52(2) and (3) of the European Patent Convention

    Sigrid Sterckx
    After the introduction we discuss the European Patent Convention (EPC) provisions that are relevant to the exculsion from patentability of computer programs and the broader relevance of the fact that the European Patent Office's (EPO's) Enlarged Board of Appeal has recently been requested by the EPO President to interpret these provisions. Next, we comment on the relevance of the recent EPC revision, before addressing what a computer program must be taken to mean for the purposes of the exclusion from patentability. After drawing attention to the conflict in case law that has developed in relation to the patentability of the computer programs and briefly summarizing the different approaches the EPO has taken to Article 52 of the EPC, we explain the evolution of these approaches, with particular attention to the EPO's dominant "technical character" approach. Subsequently, we address the questions put to the Enlarged Board and how they might be answered. We set out our proposal for what we believe is the approach the Enlarged Board should adopt. Since this approach might have effects beyond the field of computer programs, we show that the EPO case law outside computer programs would not be altered by our approach. Two alternative approaches are then critically addressed before setting out our conclusion. [source]

    Identifying Miscarriages of Justice: Why Innocence in the UK is Not the Answer

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 5 2007
    Article first published online: 20 AUG 200, Hannah Quirk
    This article examines two contrasting proposals for the reform of criminal appeals: the government's recent proposal that the guilty should no longer have their convictions quashed on ,technicalities'; and calls by campaigners for the Court of Appeal to consider innocence rather than the ,safety of the conviction,' together with their associated attempts to establish Innocence Projects in the UK. Despite the rhetorical power of ,innocence' as a campaigning tool, it is contended that to import such a standard into the legal system would be retrogressive and counter-productive, both as a safeguard against wrongful convictions and in protecting the integrity of the system. In order to be meaningful, due process protections must apply to all. The government's proposals attack this principle directly; innocence campaigners risk unwittingly assisting their endeavours. [source]

    The Wasted Costs Jurisdiction

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 1 2001
    Hugh Evans
    The wasted costs jurisdiction is flawed for six reasons, based on an analysis of all reported cases in the last nine years and five years of statistics provided by the Bar Mutual Insurance Fund Limited, and despite the guidance laid down by the Court of Appeal in Ridehalgh v Horsefield [1994] Ch 205. First, it is very costly proportionate to the amount recovered. Secondly, judges can initiate a wasted costs enquiry, which is unfair and even more disproportionately costly. Thirdly, it is procedurally complex. Fourthly, it is unpredictable whether the client will waive privilege, and what the consequences will be whether or not privilege is waived. Fifthly, it is not possible for solicitors and barristers to make contribution claims against each other. Sixthly, it is mostly used against lawyers representing legally aided litigants from whom costs cannot be recovered. [source]

    Appeal for Frontispiece Images

    Article first published online: 20 SEP 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Front and Back Covers, Volume 21, Number 6.

    ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY, Issue 6 2005
    December 200
    Front and back cover caption, volume 21 issue 6 Front and back cover POLITICS OF DRESS The front and back covers illustrate Emma Tarlo's narrative in this issue on the politics of Muslim dress in Britain. On the front cover, Muslim women in London protest against the proposed French law banning the wearing of ostentatious religious symbols in state schools. The march was organized by Hizb ut-Tahrir, a radical Islamic political party which responded to the French proposal by promoting various forms of Islamic dress (hijab and jilbab) as a means of combating secularism, resisting integration and submitting to the commands of Allah. The back cover shows press coverage of the story of Shabina Begum, the British Muslim girl from Luton who challenged her school's uniform policy in 2002 by requesting to wear the long-sleeved neck-to-toe jilbab in school, and won her case in the Court of Appeal in 2005. Barely visible, but present in the background, is her brother and legal guardian - a link between the two images through his involvement with Hizb ut-Tahrir, the organizers of the demonstration and Shabina Begum's advisors on issues of religious dress. A further link was made through the trainee journalist whom the Guardian entrusted to write its front-page article on the outcome of the case. When this journalist wrote a piece on the inevitability of Muslim anger one week after the London bombings, it emerged that, unknown to the newspaper, he was a member of Hizb ut-Tahrir. At a time when images of Islamic dress are increasingly used in the media as a visual shorthand for dangerous extremism, and when Muslims all over Europe are suffering from the consequences of such associations, how might anthropologists approach the issue of fundamentalist sartorial activism? Is it possible to expose the complexities of the jilbab case without contributing to the popular and false assumption that all forms of Islamic dress for women are necessarily linked to radical and oppressive ideas or suspect political agendas? The jilbab controversy raises important issues about ethnographic responsibility - a theme discussed in relation to David Mosse's book Cultivating development, and in relation to attempts to rethink guidelines on ethics in anthropology. Do anthropologists have a duty to report on politically and morally uncomfortable issues they encounter in the field or should they remain silent? If so, on what criteria should such judgements be made, and how might we assess the potential distortion generated by our silence on certain issues? [source]

    Beliefs about factors affecting the Reliability of eyewitness testimony: A Comparison of judges, jurors and the general public

    Svein Magnussen
    We surveyed 164 members of the juror pool of the Court of Appeal and a representative sample of 1000 adult Norwegians without juror experience, about their knowledge and beliefs about eyewitness testimony, and compared their answers to a prior survey of Norwegian judges. Although the judges were somewhat more knowledgeable than jurors and the general public, all groups had limited knowledge of eyewitness testimony. Juror experience, in terms of number of times serving as juror, did not correlate with eyewitness knowledge. Consistent with this finding, the knowledge scores of the jurors were similar to the scores of the general public, tested with an abridged seven-item version of the questionnaire. Comparisons with the results of surveys conducted in the US, indicate similar levels of knowledge among law professionals and jurors in the two countries. Increasing the knowledge of eyewitness testimony among the principal participants in the judiciary system may be an important component of the solution to eyewitness error. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Self-Report and Psychophysiological Responses to Fear Appeals

    Juan R. Ordoñana
    This study was designed to assess the relationship between self-report and psychophysiological responses to fear appeals and behavioral changes elicited by these. Ninety-two subjects watched one of four messages that varied in level of threat (high vs. low) and efficacy (high vs. low). Concomitantly, psychophysiological measures (heart rate and skin conductance) were registered. Perceived threat and efficacy varied according to the characteristics of the message. High-threat messages elicited significantly different levels of autonomic arousal than low-threat messages. Following of behavioral recommendation was higher among subjects who were exposed to the high threat / high efficacy stimulus, those who reported high perceived threat, and for those who showed an autonomic response pattern related to the facilitation of attentional processes. Résumé Les auto-évaluations et les réactions psychophysiologiques aux messages véhiculant des peurs Cette étude fut réalisée afin d'évaluer la relation entre les auto-évaluations et les réactions psychophysiologiques à des messages véhiculant des peurs ainsi que les changements suscités par ceux-ci. 92 sujets ont visionné un de quatre messages variant en niveau de danger (élevé ou faible) et d,efficacité (forte ou faible). En même temps, des mesures psychophysiologiques (le rythme cardiaque et la conduction cutanée) furent enregistrées. La perception de danger et d'efficacité variait suivant les caractéristiques du message. Les messages à danger élevé suscitaient des niveaux d,éveil autonome sensiblement différents des messages à faible danger. Le suivi de recommandations comportementales était plus élevé chez les sujets ayant été exposés au stimulus à danger élevé et à forte efficacité, chez ceux ayant déclaré une perception de danger élevé ainsi que chez ceux ayant présenté un schéma de réaction autonome liéà la facilitation des processus attentionnels. Abstract Selbstauskünfte zu und psychophysiologische Reaktionen auf Furchtappelle Ziel dieser Studie war es, die Beziehung zwischen den Aussagen zu und den psychophysiologischen Reaktionen auf Furchtappelle und Verhaltensänderungen zu untersuchen. 92 Teilnehmer sahen eine von vier Botschaften, die nach dem Grad der Gefahr (hoch vs. niedrig) und der Selbstwirksamkeit (hoch vs. niedrig) variierten. Begleitend wurden psychophysiologische Messungen (Herzfrequenz, Hautleitwiderstand) durchgeführt. Die wahrgenommene Bedrohung und Selbstwirksamkeit variierte nach den Charakteristika der Botschaft. Bei Botschaften mit hoher Gefahr zeigten die Teilnehmer einen anderen Grad an autonomer Erregung als bei Botschaften mit geringer Gefahr. Teilnehmer, die den Stimulus mit hoher Gefahr und hoher Selbstwirksamkeit rezipiert hatten, folgten den Verhaltensempfehlungen häufiger als diejenigen, die eine hohe wahrgenommene Gefahr berichteten und jene, die ein autonomes Reaktionsmuster zeigten, welches im Zusammenhang mit Zuwendung und Aufmerksamkeit steht. Resumen Los Auto-Reportes y las Respuestas Psico-Fisiológicas a las Apelaciones al Miedo Este estudio fue designado para evaluar la relación entre los auto-reportes y las respuestas psico-fisiológicas a las apelaciones al miedo y los cambios de comportamiento provocados por estos. 92 sujetos observaron 1 de 4 mensajes que variaron en su nivel de amenaza (alto o bajo) y la eficacia (alta o baja). Concomitantemente, las medidas psico-fisiológicas (pulso cardíaco y conductor de la piel) fueron registradas. La amenaza percibida y la eficacia variaron de acuerdo a las características del mensaje. Los mensajes de amenaza alta provocaron diferentes niveles significativos de excitación nerviosa que los mensajes de amenaza baja. Siguiendo la recomendación de comportamiento fue más alta entre los sujetos que fueron expuestos a la amenaza alta/ eficacia de estímulo alta, aquellos que reportaron una amenaza percibida alta, y para los que mostraron pautas de respuesta nerviosas relacionadas con la facilitación de los procesos de atención. ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]

    Appeals by the elderly against compulsory detention under the Mental Health Act 1983

    Amar Shah
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Self-Referenced Fear and Guilt Appeals: The Moderating Role of Self-Construal

    Lauren G. Block
    Results from 2 studies on advertising to reduce the incidence of drinking and driving show that the effect of self- vs. other-referencing on the persuasiveness of fear and guilt appeals is moderated by definitions of the self (independent vs. interdependent self-construals). For people who hold a predominantly independent self-construal, superiority of self- vs. other-referencing holds for guilt appeals, but the opposite is true for fear appeals. For people who hold a predominantly interdependent self-construal, other-referenced and self-referenced messages are equally recalled and equally favorable for both fear and guilt appeals. [source]

    Institutional Arrangements and the Dynamics of Agenda Formation in the U.S. Supreme Court and Courts of Appeals

    LAW & POLICY, Issue 3 2006
    The manner in which agenda change occurs demonstrates how institutional arrangements influence agenda priorities in the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeals. A neo-institutional theoretic perspective is employed to examine the dynamics of agenda formation in these courts. The article finds that the Supreme Court's agenda choices influence the decisions of litigants, interest groups, and lawyers to appeal certain cases to the Courts of Appeals. While the Supreme Court's agenda primarily is influenced by internal factors, it is constrained by agenda changes in the appeals courts. Critically, it is shown that these federal appellate courts exist within an endogenous system with respect to agenda formation, as both courts respond to agenda changes made in the other over time. [source]

    Fear Appeals in Political Rhetoric about Terrorism: An Analysis of Speeches by Australian Prime Minister Howard

    Krista De Castella
    This paper explores fear-arousing content in Australian former Prime Minister John Howard's political rhetoric about terrorism. We coded 27 speeches delivered between September 2001 and November 2007 for the presence of statements promoting fear-consistent appraisals (Smith & Lazarus, 1993). Fear-arousing content was present in 24 of these speeches, but the amount of fear-arousing content varied markedly. In particular, rhetoric that raised doubts about the capacity of Australia and its allies to cope with terrorism was most strongly present in the lead-up to the invasion of Iraq and at times of declining support for government policies. Textual analysis of three key speeches confirmed a marked difference between Howard's speech given immediately after the attacks on September 11, 2001, and the second and third speeches presented prior to and after the 2003 invasion of Iraq. These findings indicate that Howard has not consistently employed fear-inducing rhetoric in his speeches about terrorism, but that particular speeches appear to take this form, raising the possibility that fear-arousing rhetoric may have been selectively deployed to support his political purposes at those times. [source]

    Value Words and Lizard Brains: Do Citizens Deliberate About Appeals to Their Core Values?

    Paul R. Brewer
    Political elites often present citizens with frames that define issues in terms of core values. This study tests two competing accounts of how citizens might process such frames. According to the "passive receiver" thesis, citizens process elite frames automatically, without engaging in critical thought. In contrast, the "thoughtful receiver" thesis holds that the impact of frames may depend on how favorably or unfavorably citizens respond to them. An experiment in value framing produced evidence more consistent with the thoughtful receiver thesis: The message that welfare reform is "tough love" influenced opinion only among those it did not anger, whereas the message that welfare reform is "cruel and inhumane" produced an effect only among those who judged it to be strong. More generally, these findings suggest that active processing of frames may limit the power of elite framing. [source]

    How Predictive Appeals Affect Policy Opinions

    Jennifer Jerit
    When political actors debate the merits of a public policy, they often focus on the consequences of a bill or legislative proposal, with supporters and opponents making stark but contradictory predictions about the future. Building upon the framing literature, I examine how rhetoric about a policy's consequences influences public opinion. I show that predictive appeals work largely by altering people's beliefs about the impact of a policy. Following in the tradition of recent framing research, this article also examines how opinions are influenced when people are exposed to opposing predictions. The analysis focuses on two strategies that are common in real-world debates,the direct rebuttal (in which an initial appeal is challenged by a statement making the opposite prediction) and the alternate frame (which counters an initial appeal by shifting the focus to some other consequence). There are important differences in the effectiveness of these two strategies,a finding that has implications for the study of competitive framing and the policymaking process more generally. [source]

    Change over Tenure: Voting, Variance, and Decision Making on the U.S. Courts of Appeals

    Erin B. Kaheny
    Existing scholarship on the voting behavior of U.S. Courts of Appeals judges finds that their decisions are best understood as a function of law, policy preferences, and factors relating to the institutional context of the circuit court. What previous studies have failed to consider, however, is that the ability to predict circuit judge decisions can vary in substantively important ways and that judges, in different stages of their careers, may behave distinctively. This article develops a theoretical framework which conceptualizes career stage to account for variability in voting by circuit judges and tests hypotheses by modeling the error variance in a vote choice model. The findings indicate that judges are more predictable in their voting during their early and late career stages. Case characteristics and institutional features of the circuit also affect voting consistency. [source]