Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Mantle

  • asthenospheric mantle
  • cortical mantle
  • depleted mantle
  • lithospheric mantle
  • lower mantle
  • primitive mantle
  • upper mantle
  • uppermost mantle

  • Terms modified by Mantle

  • mantle boundary
  • mantle cavity
  • mantle cell
  • mantle cell lymphoma
  • mantle component
  • mantle convection
  • mantle depth
  • mantle layer
  • mantle material
  • mantle plume
  • mantle rock
  • mantle source
  • mantle structure
  • mantle wedge

  • Selected Abstracts

    100 Years On: Who are the Inheritors of the ,New Liberal' Mantle?

    The ,great divorce' of progressive politics at the end of the nineteenth century permanently altered British politics. While the philosophies of the Labour movement and the Liberal Party had many common elements, ideologically they diverged on issues of the role of liberty and the state in relation to the individual and the community to the point that they became irreconcilable. New Liberalism was one result of that debate. Contemporary political debate reflects many of the same features as the turmoil present a century ago, and the Labour Party and the Liberal Democrats are again contesting much of the same ground. This article seeks to draw out the salient aspects of this debate to conclude which, if either, party is the inheritor of the New Liberal tradition. [source]

    Precarious Democratization and Local Dynamics in Niger: Micro,Politics in Zinder

    Christian Lund
    Literature on the African state often finds it hard to specify what is state and what is not. The closer one gets to a particular political landscape, the more apparent it becomes that many institutions have something of a twilight character. This article argues that studies of local politics in Africa should focus on how the public authority of institutions waxes and wanes and how political competition among individuals and organizations expresses the notion of state and public authority. This is explored in the context of contemporary political struggles in Niger, played out in three different arenas in the region of Zinder around 1999, as home,town associations, chieftaincies and vigilante groups all take on the mantle of public authority in their dealings with what they consider to be their antithesis, the ,State'. [source]

    Cortical radial glial cells in human fetuses: Depth-correlated transformation into astrocytes

    Leonardo C. deAzevedo
    Abstract In the human brain, the transformation of radial glial cells (RGC) into astrocytes has been studied only rarely. In this work, we were interested in studying the morphologic aspects underlying this transformation during the fetal/perinatal period, particularly emphasizing the region-specific glial fiber anatomy in the medial cortex. We have used carbocyanine dyes (DiI/DiA) to identify the RGC transitional forms and glial fiber morphology. Immunocytochemical markers such as vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were also employed to label the radial cells of glial lineage and to reveal the early pattern of astrocyte distribution. Neuronal markers such as neuronal-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) and microtubule-associated protein (MAP-2) were employed to discern whether or not these radial cells could, in fact, be neurons or neuronal precursors. The main findings concern the beginning of RGC transformation showing loss of the ventricular fixation in most cases, followed by transitional figures and the appearance of mature astrocytes. In addition, diverse fiber morphology related to depth within the cortical mantle was clearly demonstrated. We concluded that during the fetal/perinatal period the cerebral cortex is undergoing the final stages of radial neuronal migration, followed by involution of RGC ventricular processes and transformation into astrocytes. None of the transitional or other radial glia were positive for neuronal markers. Furthermore, the differential morphology of RGC fibers according to depth suggests that factors may act locally in the subplate and could have a role in the process of cortical RGC transformation and astrocyte localization. The early pattern of astrocyte distribution is bilaminar, sparing the cortical plate. Few astrocytes (GFAP+) in the upper band could be found with radial processes at anytime. This suggests that astrocytes in the marginal zone could be derived from different precursors than those that differentiate from RGCs during this period. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 55: 288,298, 2003 [source]

    Therapeutic effects of complex rearing or bFGF after perinatal frontal lesions

    Wendy Comeau
    Abstract We investigated the effects of an enriched environment and/or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on recovery from neonatal frontal injury in rats. Rats received medial frontal lesions, or sham surgery, on postnatal day (P) 2/3. In the first set of experiments (Experiments 1 and 2), rats were housed in enriched environments that consisted of a large enclosure with multiple objects (or standard housing) for 90 days beginning at weaning (P22) or in adulthood (P110). In Experiment 3, the rats either received 7 days of subcutaneous bFGF beginning on the day after surgery or bFGF plus enriched housing beginning at weaning. After the 90-day housing period, the animals were tested on a spatial navigation task and a skilled reaching task. Early lesions of the medial frontal cortex caused severe impairments in spatial learning but this deficit was markedly reduced with enriched housing, bFGF, or a combination of both, with the latter being most effective. The housing effects varied with age, however: the earlier the experience began, the better the outcome. Enriched housing increased dendritic length in cortical pyramidal neurons, an effect that was greater in the lesion than the control animals, and enriched housing reversed the lesion-induced decrease in spine density. Enriched environment increased the thickness of the cortical mantle in both lesion and controls whereas bFGF had no effect. Experience thus can affect functional and anatomical outcome after early brain injury but the effects vary with age at experience and may be facilitated by treatment with bFGF. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 50: 134,146, 2008. [source]

    Phylogenetic comparison of spicule networks in cryptobranchiate dorid nudibranchs (Gastropoda, Euthyneura, Nudibranchia, Doridina)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 4 2008
    Brian K. Penney
    Abstract Many dorid nudibranchs possess large numbers of calcareous spicules in their mantle, gill, rhinophores and foot. However, the arrangements of these structures and their differences among taxa are poorly known. Spicule networks were stained with Alizarin red and compared among 12 species of cryptobranchiate dorid nudibranchs and four outgroups. Three general types of networks were found: a cobweb-like, unbraced framework of one or few spicules per side; a ramifying system of thick, spiculated tracts; and a lattice-like arrangement of distinct radial and circumferential tracts. The Discodorididae species investigated shared a cobweb-like network and papillae supported by a ring of spicules, while the Porostomata showed consistent characters leading to a lattice-like network with larger spicules in the central notum. The Dorididae studied were not cohesive, but each species shared characters with the aforementioned groups. Therefore, spicule network form may provide new characters to help resolve the phylogeny of Doridina. [source]

    Fine structure of unusual spermatozoa and spermiogenesis of the mite Megisthanus floridanus Banks, 1904 (Acari: Gamasida: Antennophorina)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 4 2002
    Gerd Alberti
    Abstract The aflagellate spermatozoa of the gamasid mite Megisthanus floridanus are characterized by a large vacuole which contains a cytoplasmic column protruding into the vacuole from the region defined as the posterior part of the cell. The membrane of the column and the inner membrane of the posterior part of the cytoplasmic mantle (outer sheath) surrounding the vacuole bear numerous so-called cellular processes. However, most of the outer sheath is reduced and represented solely by a very thin membrane-like envelope. The posterior part of the cell bears extensive folds. The cell, or, more precisely, the column, shows a deep posterior invagination. This invagination contains extracellular material composed of thin filaments or strands. Peripheral folds emerging from the posterior rim of the cell form a thin-walled tube that contains the same material as the invagination. The elongated nucleus is attached to a peculiar acrosomal complex consisting of a flat acrosomal cisterna that parallels most of the cell membrane, an attachment cone, and a short acrosomal filament which is embedded in a narrow canal within the nucleus. The spermatozoa of M. floridanus represent a peculiar version of the vacuolated type of sperm known to be plesiomorphic within the anactinotrichid Acari. Some details of spermiogenesis are described and consequences for phylogenetic and systematic considerations are discussed. [source]

    Histology and biochemical composition of the autotomy mantle of Ficus ficus (Mesogastropoda: Ficidae)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2 2002
    L. L. Liu
    Abstract When the foot of the figsnail Ficus ficus is mechanically stimulated, a portion of the mantle on the side of the inner lip, recognized as the autotomy tissue, swells then autotomizes. Studies of the behaviour and population dynamics of mantle autotomy in F. ficus have previously been reported, but here, a detailed description of the structure of the autotomy tissue is presented for the first time. Whether or not this autotomy tissue has the secondary function of a storage compartment was also investigated through analysis of its biochemical composition. Figsnails were collected from the coast of Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Histological observations indicated that the most obvious feature of the autotomy tissue is the extensive network of muscle fibres and connective tissues. In the swollen autotomy tissue, not only do the epithelia rupture, but the connective tissue expands threefold on the dorsal side and 15-fold on the ventral side. Chemical analysis of body composition indicated that the average contents of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and ash in the foot, mantle and autotomy tissue are in the range of 55.6,76.5%, 0.6,14.1%, 2.0,27.9% and 6.5,13.5%, respectively, with the caloric value ranging from 4.7 to 5.5 kcal g,1 dry wt. The content of carbohydrate in the autotomy tissue is much less than that in the foot and mantle, i.e. 2.0,6.8% vs. 13.0,27.9%. There is no indication that the autotomy tissue serves as an energy reserve. Hence, it is suggested that the autotomy tissue functions only as a defensive weapon. [source]

    Temporal and spatial variations in periglacial soil movements on alpine crest slopes

    Norikazu Matsuoka
    Abstract This paper describes up to ten years of continuous monitoring of frost heave, creep and associated parameters on high mountain crest slopes in the Japanese and Swiss Alps, aiming to evaluate spatial and interannual variations in the rates and controls of soil movement. Shallow frost creep re,ecting diurnal frost heave activity dominates the crest slopes that lack a vegetation mat and have a thin debris mantle with good drainage. Seasonal frost heave activity can induce slightly deeper movement where ,ne soil exists below the depth reached by diurnal freeze,thaw penetration, although the shallow bedrock impedes movements below 20 cm depth. As a result, downslope velocity pro,les display strong concavity with surface velocities of 2,50 cm a,1. The frost creep rates vary spatially, depending on the soil texture, slope gradient, frequency of temperature cycling across 0 C and moisture availability during freeze,thaw periods. Soil movements recur in every freeze,thaw period, although with some interannual variations affected by the length of seasonal snow cover and the occurrence of precipitation during freeze,thaw periods. The Swiss Alps encounter more signi,cant interannual variations than the Japanese Alps, re,ecting the large variability of the annual snow regime. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Geochronological evidence for pervasive Miocene weathering, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Isabela de O. Carmo
    Abstract 40Ar/39Ar laser incremental-heating analyses of 22 individual grains of supergene cryptomelane from three weathering pro,les, up to 400 km apart, in the Rio Doce valley and Barbacena regions at Minas Gerais, Brazil, show that the formation of weathering pro,les in these regions is contemporaneous, suggesting a strong weathering event in the Middle to Late Miocene (10,8 Ma). The preservation of these Miocene samples at or near the present surface suggests that either erosion rates have been very low in the region since the Miocene or that a much thicker weathering mantle was present in the region originally. Assuming a constant thickness of weathering pro,les in the region throughout the Tertiary, we may calculate weathering front propagation rates of 4,8 m Myr,1 during the past 10 Ma. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Isoform-specific quantification of metallothionein in the terrestrial gastropod Helix pomatia.


    Abstract The two function-specific metallothionein (MT) isoforms characterized from the midgut gland and mantle tissue of Helix pomatia differ substantially in their metal-binding preferences, as well as molecular and biochemical features. These differences make them potential candidates for biomarker studies based on a differential, isoform-specific approach. To prove this hypothesis, induction experiments with two metals (Cd and Cu) that are normally bound by the two isoforms were compared with a range of organic chemicals and physical stressors under laboratory conditions to test the responsiveness of the two isoforms to the stressors applied. In addition, field studies were conducted with Roman snails and substrate samples collected from different metal-contaminated sites in Austria to test the suitability of the two isoforms as biomarkers under field conditions. The results of these combined laboratory and field studies confirmed the validity of the biomarker approach with the two metal- and tissue-specific isoforms. It is demonstrated that the Cd-binding MT specifically and exclusively responds to Cd exposure by increasing concentrations, whereas the Cu-binding MT isoform decreases in its concentration upon exposure to physical stress (X-ray irradiation and cold). This suggests researchers should adopt, under certain preconditions, a dual biomarker approach by combining the simultaneous quantification of Cd-MT concentrations in the midgut gland as a biomarker for Cd pollution and of Cu-MT concentration in the mantle as a biomarker for the impairment of snails by additional physical stressors. [source]

    Effect of carbon dioxide on uranium bioaccumulation in the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea

    Damien Tran
    Abstract This paper presents the results of a study examining the impact of CO2 variations in water on uranium bioaccumulation in the bivalve Corbicula fluminea. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of CO2 on bivalve behavior (valve activity and ventilation rate) that are related to bioaccumulation and on the bioavailability of uranium carbonate complexes to the bivalve. It was demonstrated that at a total inorganic carbon concentration of CCO2 = 276 ,mol/L, the daily valve opening duration and ventilation rate are significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those obtained at 27.6 ,mol/L (-28 and -47%, respectively). For both CCO2 values, exposure to uranium at 0.25 ,mol/L had no impact on valve activity; however, ventilation decreased significantly compared to the reference condition, down to the same lower level for the two CCO2 conditions. Consequently, the quantity of uranium passing through the bivalve was identical for both CCO2 conditions. Thus, bivalve ventilatory and valve activity could not explain increased bioaccumulation in the gills and mantle measured under the low-CCO2 condition. Consequently, we suggest that the quantity of carbonate bound to the U fraction must be less bioavailable than other U species such as the free-ion UO2+2, which is in accordance with the biotic ligand model. [source]

    Achromatic Plumage Reflectance, Social Dominance and Female Mate Preference in Black-Capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus)

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 10 2005
    Elisabeth A. Woodcock
    Individual variation in achromatic plumage reflectance of male Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) is correlated with social rank and reproductive success, suggesting it may play an important role in sexual signaling. We asked whether female chickadees could assess male quality based on plumage, in the absence of information about relative social dominance. Sexually mature but inexperienced females captured during the pair formation period in late fall and early winter were presented with a choice of two unfamiliar, sexually experienced males in separate compartments of an outdoor mate choice arena. Following each preference trial, we released the males into a single compartment and scored their pairwise dominance interactions. In 10 of 11 trials, females spent significantly more time with the male subsequently identified as dominant, despite not witnessing the males interact. Spectral analysis of male plumage reflectance revealed that UV-chroma of dark body regions (bib, cap and mantle) was significantly greater in dominant, preferred males and that dominant, preferred males had significantly brighter white cheek patches. There were no differences in vocalization rates of preferred and non-preferred males. These results show that female chickadees can rapidly assess unfamiliar males based on visual cues, and suggest that variation in achromatic plumage functions in sexual signaling. [source]

    cDNA cloning and characterization of a novel calmodulin-like protein from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 19 2005
    Shuo Li
    Calcium metabolism in oysters is a very complicated and highly controlled physiological and biochemical process. However, the regulation of calcium metabolism in oyster is poorly understood. Our previous study showed that calmodulin (CaM) seemed to play a regulatory role in the process of oyster calcium metabolism. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding a novel calmodulin-like protein (CaLP) with a long C-terminal sequence was identified from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized in vitro. The oyster CaLP mRNA was expressed in all tissues tested, with the highest levels in the mantle that is a key organ involved in calcium secretion. In situ hybridization analysis reveals that CaLP mRNA is expressed strongly in the outer and inner epithelial cells of the inner fold, the outer epithelial cells of the middle fold, and the dorsal region of the mantle. The oyster CaLP protein, with four putative Ca2+ -binding domains, is highly heat-stable and has a potentially high affinity for calcium. CaLP also displays typical Ca2+ -dependent electrophoretic shift, Ca2+ -binding activity and significant Ca2+ -induced conformational changes. Ca2+ -dependent affinity chromatography analysis demonstrated that oyster CaLP was able to interact with some different target proteins from those of oyster CaM in the mantle and the gill. In summary, our results have demonstrated that the oyster CaLP is a novel member of the CaM superfamily, and suggest that the oyster CaLP protein might play a different role from CaM in the regulation of oyster calcium metabolism. [source]

    Aqueous fluids at elevated pressure and temperature

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1-2 2010
    Abstract The general major component composition of aqueous fluids at elevated pressure and temperature conditions can be represented by H2O, different non-polar gases like CO2 and different dissolved metal halides like NaCl or CaCl2. At high pressure, the mutual solubility of H2O and silicate melts increases and also silicates may form essential components of aqueous fluids. Given the huge range of P,T,x regimes in crust and mantle, aqueous fluids at elevated pressure and temperature are highly variable in composition and exhibit specific physicochemical properties. This paper reviews principal phase relations in one- and two-component fluid systems, phase relations and properties of binary and ternary fluid systems, properties of pure H2O at elevated P,T conditions, and aqueous fluids in H2O,silicate systems at high pressure and temperature. At metamorphic conditions, even the physicochemical properties of pure water substantially differ from those at ambient conditions. Under typical mid- to lower-crustal metamorphic conditions, the density of pure H2O is , the ion product Kw = 10,7.5 to approximately 10,12.5, the dielectric constant , = 8,25, and the viscosity , = 0.0001,0.0002 Pa sec compared to , Kw = 10,14, , = 78 and , = 0.001 Pa sec at ambient conditions. Adding dissolved metal halides and non-polar gases to H2O significantly enlarges the pressure,temperature range, where different aqueous fluids may co-exist and leads to potential two-phase fluid conditions under must mid- to lower-crustal P,T conditions. As a result of the increased mutual solubility between aqueous fluids and silicate melts at high pressure, the differences between fluid and melt vanishes and the distinction between fluid and melt becomes obsolete. Both are completely miscible at pressures above the respective critical curve giving rise to so-called supercritical fluids. These supercritical fluids combine comparably low viscosity with high solute contents and are very effective metasomatising agents within the mantle wedge above subduction zones. [source]

    Chemical and isotopic signatures of Na/HCO3/CO2 -rich geofluids, North Portugal

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 4 2006
    Abstract Geochemical and isotopic studies have been undertaken to assess the origin of CO2 -rich waters issuing in the northern part of Portugal. These solutions are hot (76C) to cold (17C) Na,HCO3 mineral waters. The ,2H and ,18O signatures of the mineral waters reflect the influence of altitude on meteoric recharge. The lack of an 18O-shift indicates there has been no high temperature water,rock interaction at depth, corroborating the results of several chemical geothermometers (reservoir temperature of about 120C). The low 14C activity (up to 9.9 pmC) measured in some of the cold CO2 -rich mineral waters (total dissolved inorganic carbon) is incompatible with the presence of 3H (from 1.7 to 4.1 TU) in those waters, which indicates relatively short subsurface circulation times. The ,13C values of CO2 gas and dissolved inorganic carbon range between ,6, and ,1, versus Vienna-Peedee Belemnite, indicating that the total carbon in the recharge waters is being diluted by larger quantities of CO2 (14C-free) introduced from deep-seated (upper mantle) sources, masking the 14C-dating values. The differences in the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the studied thermal and mineral waters seem to be caused by water,rock interaction with different granitic rocks. Chlorine isotope signatures (,0.4, < ,37Cl < +0.4, versus standard mean ocean chloride) indicate that Cl in these waters could be derived from mixing of a small amount of igneous Cl from leaching of granitic rocks. [source]

    Grain-scale permeabilities of faceted polycrystalline aggregates

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 4 2006
    J. D. PRICE
    Abstract Porous synthetic quartzites and amphibolites, each with faceted pore walls, were synthesized and evaluated to examine the permeability of pore networks similar to those of the lower crust and mantle. Quartzite with a fluid in equilibrium with an Mg,clinopyroxene contained connected networks of pores with a dihedral angle of 30 bounded by walls that were 10,50% faceted. The relationship of their permeability (k) to porosity (,) is approximated by the previously determined relationship for relatively nonfaceted synthetic quartzite Amphibolite with an HF fluid contained fluorotremolite and a connected network of pores bounded by walls exhibiting 78,90% faceting. These materials showed much lower k for a given ,, with an apparent permeability threshold at ,c = 0.04. A curve fit to these data yields The results suggest that moderate faceting has little effect on the transmission of fluids through rocks, but extensive faceting significantly alters permeability. This difference is most likely produced through isolation of the fluid to the grain corners at low , with extensive faceting. Rocks with pores that tend toward faceting may impede the flow of fluids and melt. [source]


    ABSTRACT. Long-term observations of partly debris-covered glaciers have allowed us to assess the impact of supra-glacial debris on volumetric changes. In this paper, the behaviour of the partially debris-covered, 3.6 km2 tongue of Pasterze Glacier (4705,N, 1244,E) was studied in the context of ongoing climate changes. The right part of the glacier tongue is covered by a continuous supra-glacial debris mantle with variable thicknesses (a few centimetres to about 1 m). For the period 1964,2000 three digital elevation models (1964, 1981, 2000) and related debris-cover distributions were analysed. These datasets were compared with long-term series of glaciological field data (displacement, elevation change, glacier terminus behaviour) from the 1960s to 2006. Differences between the debriscovered and the clean ice parts were emphasised. Results show that volumetric losses increased by 2.3 times between the periods 1964,1981 and 1981,2000 with significant regional variations at the glacier tongue. Such variations are controlled by the glacier emergence velocity pattern, existence and thickness of supra-glacial debris, direct solar radiation, counter-radiation from the valley sides and their changes over time. The downward-increasing debris thickness is counteracting to a compensational stage against the common decrease of ablation with elevation. A continuous debris cover not less than 15 cm in thickness reduces ablation rates by 30,35%. No relationship exists between glacier retreat rates and summer air temperatures. Substantial and varying differences of the two different terminus parts occurred. Our findings clearly underline the importance of supra-glacial debris on mass balance and glacier tongue morphology. [source]

    Mantle-derived and crustal melts dichotomy in northern Greece: spatiotemporal and geodynamic implications

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2004
    Diego Perugini
    Abstract Two distinct groups of subduction-related (orogenic) granitoid rocks, one Jurassic and the other Tertiary, occur in the area between the Vardar (Axios) Zone and the Rhodope Massif in northern Greece. The two groups of granitoids differ in many respects. The first group shows evolved geochemical characters, it is not associated with mafic facies, and evidence of magmatic interaction between mantle- and crustal-derived melts is lacking. The second group has less evolved geochemical characters, it is associated with larger amount of mafic facies, and magmatic interaction processes between mantle-derived and crustal melts are ubiquitous as evidenced by mafic microgranular enclaves and synplutonic dykes showing different enrichment in K2O, Ti, and incompatible elements. This kind of magmatism can be attributed to the complex geodynamic evolution of the area. In particular, we suggest that two successive subduction events related to the closure of the Vardar and the Pindos oceans, respectively, occurred in the investigated area from Late Jurassic to Tertiary. We relate the genesis of Jurassic granitoids to the first subduction event, whereas Tertiary granitoids are associated with the second subduction. Fluids released by the two subducted slabs induced metasomatic processes generating a ,leopard skin' mantle wedge able to produce mafic melts ranging from typical calc-alkaline to ultra-potassic. Such melts interacted in various amounts with crustal calc-alkaline anatectic melts to generate the wide spectrum of Tertiary granitoids occurring in the study area. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Pre-Variscan metagabbro from NW Sardinia, Italy: evidence of an enriched asthenospheric mantle source for continental alkali basalts

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 2 2003
    Marcello Franceschelli
    Abstract Small metagabbro bodies are enclosed in the metasedimentary sequence of NW Sardinia. The metagabbros represent the last magmatic episode before the continent,continent collision that built up the Variscan chain of north Sardinia. The metagabbros are composed of variable proportions of plagioclase and pyroxene igneous relics and metamorphic minerals. Major and trace element data, specifically high TiO2 and P2O5 and low K and Rb contents, as well as light rare-earth elements, Nb and Ta enrichment, suggest an alkaline affinity for the gabbro and emplacement in a within-plate tectonic setting. The gabbro was derived from an ocean island alkali basalt-like asthenospheric mantle source enriched with incompatible elements and uncontaminated by crustal or subducted materials. Non-modal modelling indicates a 5,7% partial melting of the asthenospheric mantle. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Uplift at lithospheric swells,I: seismic and gravity constraints on the crust and uppermost mantle structure of the Cape Verde mid-plate swell

    D. J. Wilson
    SUMMARY Wide-angle seismic data have been used to determine the velocity and density structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Cape Verdes mid-plate swell. Seismic modelling reveals a ,standard' oceanic crust, ,8 km in thickness, with no direct evidence for low-density bodies at the base of the crust. Gravity anomaly modelling within the constraints and resolution provided by the seismic model, does not preclude, however, a layer of crustal underplate up to 3 km thick beneath the swell crest. The modelling shows that while the seismically constrained crustal structure accounts for the short-wavelength free-air gravity anomaly, it fails to fully explain the long-wavelength anomaly. The main discrepancy is over the swell crest where the gravity anomaly, after correcting for crustal structure, is higher by about 30 mGal than it is over its flanks. The higher gravity can be explained if the top 100 km of the mantle beneath the swell crest is less dense than its surroundings by 30 kg m,3. The lack of evidence for low densities and velocities in the uppermost mantle, and high densities and velocities in the lower crust, suggests that neither a depleted swell root or crustal underplate are the origin of the observed shallower-than-predicted bathymetry and that, instead, the swell is most likely supported by dynamic uplift associated with an anomalously low density asthenospheric mantle. [source]

    The bright spot in the West Carpathian upper mantle: a trace of the Tertiary plate collision,and a caveat for a seismologist

    SUMMARY The 2-D full waveform modelling of the mantle arrivals from the CELEBRATION 2000 profiles crossing the Carpathian orogen suggests two possible tectonic models for the collision of ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) and the European Plate in the West Carpathians in southern Poland and Slovakia. Due to an oblique (NE-SW) convergence of plates, the character of the collision may change along the zone of contact of the plates: in the western part of the area an earlier collision might have caused substantial crustal shortening and formation of a crocodile-type structure, with the delaminated lower crust of ,100 km length acting as a north-dipping reflecting discontinuity in the uppermost mantle. In the eastern part, a less advanced collision only involved the verticalization of the subducted slab remnant after a slab break-off. The lower crustal remnant of ,10 km size in the uppermost mantle acts as a pseudo-diffractor generating observable mantle arrivals. Due to the similarity of synthetic data generated by both models, the question of the non-uniqueness of seismic data interpretation, that may lead to disparate tectonic inferences, is also discussed. [source]

    Improved imaging with phase-weighted common conversion point stacks of receiver functions

    A. Frassetto
    SUMMARY Broad-band array studies frequently stack receiver functions to improve their signal-to-noise ratio while mapping structures in the crust and upper mantle. Noise may produce spurious secondary arrivals that obscure or mimic arrivals produced by P -to- S conversions at large contrasts in seismic impedance such as the Moho. We use a Hilbert transform to calculate phase-weights, which minimize the constructive stacking of erroneous signal in receiver function data sets. We outline this approach and demonstrate its application through synthetic data combined with different types of noise, a previously published example of signal-generated noise, and a large data set from the Sierra Nevada EarthScope Project. These examples show that phase-weighting reduces the presence of signal-generated noise in receiver functions and improves stacked data sets. [source]

    Subducted slabs and lateral viscosity variations: effects on the long-wavelength geoid

    Nicola Tosi
    SUMMARY The characteristic broad local maxima exhibited by the long-wavelength geoid over subduction zones are investigated with a numerical model of mantle flow. In a spherical axisymmetric geometry, a synthetic model of buoyancy driven subduction is used to test the effects on the geoid caused by the depth of penetration of the lithosphere into the mantle, by the viscosity stratification and by lateral viscosity variations (LVV) in the lithosphere, upper and lower mantle. The presence of anomalous slab density in the lower mantle guarantees geoid amplitudes comparable with the observations, favouring the picture of slabs that penetrate the transition zone and sink into the deep mantle. The viscosity of the lower mantle controls the long-wavelength geoid to the first order, ensuring a clear positive signal when it is at least 30-times greater than the upper-mantle viscosity. The presence of LVV in the lithosphere, in the form of weak plate margins, helps to increase the contribution of the surface topography, causing a pronounced reduction of the geoid. Localized LVV associated with the cold slab play a secondary role if they are in the upper mantle. On the other hand, highly viscous slabs in the lower mantle exert a large influence on the geoid. They cause its amplitude to increase dramatically, way beyond the values typically observed over subduction zones. Long-wavelength flow becomes less vigorous as the slab viscosity increases. Deformation in the upper mantle becomes more localized and power is transferred to short wavelengths, causing the long-wavelength surface topography to diminish and the total geoid to increase. Slabs may be then weakened in the lower mantle or retain their high viscosity while other mechanisms act to lower the geoid. It is shown that a phase change from perovskite to post-perovskite above the core,mantle boundary can cause the geoid to reduce significantly, thereby helping to reconcile models and observations. [source]

    Controls of mantle plumes and lithospheric folding on modes of intraplate continental tectonics: differences and similarities

    Evgueni Burov
    SUMMARY Mantle plume activity and lithospheric folding by far-field stresses exerted from plate boundaries are two important end-members as mechanisms for continental intraplate deformation. The topographic expression of mantle plume impingement on continental lithosphere and lithospheric folding has some striking similarities. Observations from a number of areas in Europe's intraplate lithosphere demonstrate that these mechanisms commonly interact in space and time. We present the results of thermomechanical modelling addressing the role of factors such as the presence of a hot upper mantle, the spatial dimensions of the plume and the time constants involved in the temporal succession of plume activity and lithospheric folding by stress accumulation in intraplate continental lithosphere. The results demonstrate that both the processes, plume,lithosphere interactions and folding may interact resulting either in strong amplification, attenuation or modification of their surface expression. These inferences are compatible with a number of key observations on the nature and the temporal succession of topography evolution in the Alpine foreland, the Pannonian Basin, the Scandinavian continental margin and the Iberian Peninsula. [source]

    The preservation of seismic anisotropy in the Earth's mantle during diffusion creep

    J. Wheeler
    SUMMARY Seismic anisotropy in the Earth, particularly in the mantle, is commonly interpreted as the result of solid-state deformation by dislocation creep that induces a lattice preferred orientation (LPO). Diffusion creep operates where stress levels are lower and/or grain sizes smaller. It is often assumed that diffusion creep induces grain rotations that eventually destroy any existing LPO. A new numerical test of this assumption shows that it is not necessarily the case: diffusion creep will create some relative grain rotations, but rotation rates decrease through time. Hence, when microstructural change due to diffusion creep dominates that due to grain growth, defined here as ,type P' behaviour (the converse being ,type O' behaviour), the model indicates that LPO will be weakened but preserved (for a variety of strain paths including both pure and simple shear). One measure of anisotropy is the proportional difference in shear wave velocities for different polarization vectors (AVs). A model olivine microstructure with equant grains and initial maximum AVs of 10.0 percent has this value reduced to 6.7 per cent when ,rotational steady state' is attained. Other models with different initial maximum AVs values exhibit final maximum AVs values more than half the initial values. If the grains are initially elongate by a factor of 2, maximum AVs is reduced just slightly, to 8.5 per cent. Thus, when grain growth plays a subordinate role to the deformation, diffusion creep weakens seismic anisotropy by a factor of less than 2 (using maximum AVs as a measure and olivine as an example). Consequently, the link between seismic anisotropy and deformation mechanism in the mantle requires reappraisal: regions with LPO may comprise material which once deformed by dislocation creep, but is now deforming by diffusion creep in a rotational steady state. [source]

    Imaging the lowermost mantle (D,) and the core,mantle boundary with SKKS coda waves

    Ping Wang
    SUMMARY In our previous studies we developed a method for imaging heterogeneity at and near the core,mantle boundary (CMB) with a generalized Radon transform (GRT) of (transverse component, broad-band) ScS data, and we developed a statistical model for producing images of the D, discontinuity with variable confidence levels. In these applications, the background is smooth and perturbations are represented as contrasts. Here we extend the theory to allow (known) discontinuities, such as the CMB, in the background model. The resulting imaging operator, which is formally not a GRT, can be used, either alone or along with ScS, for the imaging of lowermost mantle structure and, in particular, the D, discontinuity with the scattered SKKS wavefield. Synthetic seismograms calculated with the WKBJ method are used to test the performance of our approach. As a proof of concept, we transform ,38 000 radial component SKKS waveforms into image gathers of a CMB patch beneath Central America. The SKKS image gathers and image traces are in good agreement with the image traces obtained from the GRT transform of ScS data. [source]

    Radial profiles of seismic attenuation in the upper mantle based on physical models

    Fabio Cammarano
    SUMMARY Thermally activated, viscoelastic relaxation of the Earth's materials is responsible for intrinsic attenuation of seismic waves. Seismic observations have been used to define layered radially symmetric attenuation models, independent of any constraints on temperature and composition. Here, we interpret free-oscillation and surface wave attenuation measurements in terms of physical structures, by using the available knowledge on the physical mechanisms that govern attenuation at upper-mantle (<400 km) conditions. We find that observations can be explained by relatively simple thermal and grain-size structures. The 1-D attenuation models obtained do not have any sharp gradients below 100 km, but fit the data equally well as the seismic models. The sharp gradients which characterize these models are therefore not required by the data. In spite of the large sensitivity of seismic observations to temperature, a definitive interpretation is limited by the unknown effects of pressure on anelasticity. Frequency dependence of anelasticity, as well as trade-offs with deeper attenuation structure and dependence on the elastic background model, are less important. Effects of water and dislocations can play an important role as well and further complicate the interpretation. Independent constraints on temperature and grain size expected around 100 km depth, help to constrain better the thermal and grain-size profiles at greater depth. For example, starting from a temperature of 1550 K at 100 km and assuming that the seismic attenuation is governed by the Faul & Jackson's (2005) mechanism, we found that negative thermal gradients associated with several cm grain sizes (assuming low activation volume) or an adiabatic gradient associated with ,1 cm grain size, can explain the data. A full waveform analysis, combining the effects on phase and amplitude of, respectively, elasticity and anelasticity, holds promise for further improving our knowledge on the average composition and thermal structure of the upper mantle. [source]

    Seismic evidence for a sharp lithospheric base persisting to the lowermost mantle beneath the Caribbean

    Tadashi Kito
    SUMMARY Broad-band data from South American earthquakes recorded by Californian seismic networks are analysed using a newly developed seismic wave migration method,the slowness backazimuth weighted migration (SBWM). Using the SBWM, out-of-plane seismic P -wave reflections have been observed. The reflection locations extend throughout the Earth's lower mantle, down to the core,mantle boundary (CMB) and coincide with the edges of tomographically mapped high seismic velocities. Modelling using synthetic seismograms suggests that a narrow (10,15 km) low- or high-velocity lamella with about 2 per cent velocity contrast can reproduce the observed reflected waveforms, but other explanations may exist. Considering the reflection locations and synthetic modelling, the observed out-of-plane energy is well explained by underside reflections off a sharp reflector at the base of the subducted lithosphere. We also detect weaker reflections corresponding to the tomographically mapped top of the slab, which may arise from the boundary between the Nazca plate and the overlying former basaltic oceanic crust. The joint interpretation of the waveform modelling and geodynamic considerations indicate mass flux of the former oceanic lithosphere and basaltic crust across the 660 km discontinuity, linking processes and structure at the top and bottom of the Earth's mantle, supporting the idea of whole mantle convection. [source]

    Inference of mantle viscosity from GRACE and relative sea level data

    Archie Paulson
    SUMMARY Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite observations of secular changes in gravity near Hudson Bay, and geological measurements of relative sea level (RSL) changes over the last 10 000 yr in the same region, are used in a Monte Carlo inversion to infer-mantle viscosity structure. The GRACE secular change in gravity shows a significant positive anomaly over a broad region (>3000 km) near Hudson Bay with a maximum of ,2.5 ,Gal yr,1 slightly west of Hudson Bay. The pattern of this anomaly is remarkably consistent with that predicted for postglacial rebound using the ICE-5G deglaciation history, strongly suggesting a postglacial rebound origin for the gravity change. We find that the GRACE and RSL data are insensitive to mantle viscosity below 1800 km depth, a conclusion similar to that from previous studies that used only RSL data. For a mantle with homogeneous viscosity, the GRACE and RSL data require a viscosity between 1.4 1021 and 2.3 1021 Pa s. An inversion for two mantle viscosity layers separated at a depth of 670 km, shows an ensemble of viscosity structures compatible with the data. While the lowest misfit occurs for upper- and lower-mantle viscosities of 5.3 1020 and 2.3 1021 Pa s, respectively, a weaker upper mantle may be compensated by a stronger lower mantle, such that there exist other models that also provide a reasonable fit to the data. We find that the GRACE and RSL data used in this study cannot resolve more than two layers in the upper 1800 km of the mantle. [source]

    Radial resolving power of far-field differential sea-level highstands in the inference of mantle viscosity

    Roblyn A. Kendall
    SUMMARY For two decades leading to the late 1980s, the prevailing view from studies of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) data was that the viscosity of the Earth's mantle increased moderately, if at all, from the base of the lithosphere to the core,mantle boundary. This view was first questioned by Nakada & Lambeck, who argued that differential sea-level (DSL) highstands between pairs of sites in the Australian region preferred an increase of approximately two orders of magnitude from the mean viscosity of the upper to the lower mantle, in accord with independent inferences from observables related to mantle convection. We use non-linear Bayesian inference to provide the first formal resolving power analysis of the Australian DSL data set. We identify three radial regions, two within the upper mantle (110,270 km and 320,570 km depth) and one in the lower mantle (1225,2265 km depth), over which the average of viscosity is well constrained by the data. We conclude that: (1) the DSL data provide a resolution in the inference of upper mantle viscosity that is better than implied by forward analyses based on isoviscous regions above and below the 670 km depth discontinuity and (2) the data do not strongly constrain viscosity at either the base or top of the lower mantle. Finally, our inversions also quantify the significant bias that may be introduced in inversions of the DSL highstands that do not simultaneously estimate the thickness of the elastic lithosphere. [source]