Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Malignancy

  • aggressive malignancy
  • and neck malignancy
  • b-cell malignancy
  • borderline malignancy
  • bowel malignancy
  • breast malignancy
  • cell malignancy
  • colorectal malignancy
  • common cutaneous malignancy
  • common malignancy
  • cutaneous malignancy
  • de novo malignancy
  • different malignancy
  • epithelial malignancy
  • epithelial ovarian malignancy
  • fatal malignancy
  • frequent malignancy
  • gastric malignancy
  • gastrointestinal malignancy
  • gynaecological malignancy
  • gynecologic malignancy
  • haematological malignancy
  • head and neck malignancy
  • hematologic malignancy
  • hematological malignancy
  • hematopoietic malignancy
  • hepatic malignancy
  • high-grade malignancy
  • human malignancy
  • internal malignancy
  • invasive malignancy
  • lethal malignancy
  • liver malignancy
  • lymphoid malignancy
  • many malignancy
  • metastatic malignancy
  • multiple malignancy
  • myeloid malignancy
  • neck malignancy
  • novo malignancy
  • of malignancy
  • organ malignancy
  • other malignancy
  • ovarian malignancy
  • pediatric malignancy
  • pelvic malignancy
  • possible malignancy
  • posttransplant malignancy
  • primary hepatic malignancy
  • primary malignancy
  • rare malignancy
  • refractory lymphoid malignancy
  • second malignancy
  • second primary malignancy
  • secondary malignancy
  • several human malignancy
  • several malignancy
  • skin malignancy
  • skull base malignancy
  • small bowel malignancy
  • solid malignancy
  • solid organ malignancy
  • suspected malignancy
  • systemic malignancy
  • testicular malignancy
  • thoracic malignancy
  • thyroid malignancy
  • tract malignancy
  • tumor malignancy
  • uncommon malignancy
  • underlying malignancy
  • variety of malignancy
  • various hematological malignancy
  • various malignancy

  • Terms modified by Malignancy

  • malignancy grade
  • malignancy worldwide

  • Selected Abstracts

    Subgrouping and grading of soft-tissue sarcomas by fine-needle aspiration cytology: A histopathologic correlation study

    Hal E. Palmer M.D.
    Abstract To evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of subgrouping and grading soft-tissue sarcomas by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), a blind review was conducted of 84 FNAB specimens from 77 malignant and 7 benign soft-tissue lesions. Cytomorphologic subgroups included 31 spindle-cell, 24 pleomorphic, 11 myxoid, 7 epithelioid/polygonal, 3 small round cell, and 8 nondiagnostic cases. Malignancies included one lymphoma and 41 primary, 15 recurrent, and 20 metastatic soft-tissue sarcomas. Adequacy was defined as a majority of slides with at least 5 clusters of 10 unobscured cells. Five originally false-negative cases were considered nondiagnostic on review. Sarcoma was recognized in 59 of 64 adequate cases (92%) with available histology; however, the specific histopathologic subtype was identified in only 9 cases (14%). Benign myxoid and spindle-cell lesions were difficult to separate from low-grade sarcomas in 4 cases, and a B-cell lymphoma with sclerosis mimicked a low-grade myxoid sarcoma. The assigned cytologic grade accurately reflected the histologic grade in 90% of sarcomas when segregated into high and low grades. Pleomorphic, small round cell, and epithelioid/polygonal subgroups corresponded to high-grade sarcomas in all cases with only minor noncorrelations. Major grading noncorrelations occurred in 50% of myxoid and 9% of spindle-cell sarcomas. Therefore, attention should be given to specimen adequacy, and caution should be exercised when attempting to grade myxoid and spindle-cell sarcomas by FNAB. Diagn. Cytopathol. 24:307,316, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Malignancies in HIV-infected Thai patients,

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 5 2007
    S Kiertiburanakul
    Of 1416 HIV-infected patients seen at Ramathibodi Hospital over a 5-year period (1999,2003), 42 were diagnosed with malignancies, giving a prevalence of 3%. Twenty-one of these patients (50%) were men and their mean age was 40.8 years. The median CD4 cell count was 235 cells/,L. AIDS-related malignancies were found in 26 patients (62%). The most common AIDS-related malignancies were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (33%), cervical cancer (21%) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) (5%). Breast cancer was the most common non-AIDS-related malignancy (10%). Eleven patients (26%) died. The 75% survival time of patients who received treatment for their malignancy was longer than that of patients who received no treatment (18.3 vs 1.2 months; P<0.01). [source]

    Malignancies in , -thalassemia patients: a single-center experience and a concise review of the literature

    Summary Thalassemia represents the world's most common monogenic disease, characterized by absence of or decreased globin chain production. The lifespan of thalassemia patients has been extended as a result of current supportive treatment. We report three cases of cancer (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and seminoma) in thalassemic patients. Factors that may contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer seem to be infections and iron overload through mechanisms of oxidative damage; immunomodulation or coexistence of the two diseases may only be coincidental. [source]

    Evaluation of cases where the right kidney is higher than the left kidney

    Abstract Background: Finding the right kidney higher than the left kidney on excretory urography (EXU) is unusual. In the present study, the position of the kidneys was evaluated in patients, and the frequency, causes or attribution were investigated. Methods: Kidney positions were evaluated in 1625 patients. Subsequent evaluations by computed tomography scan were performed for each case where the right kidney was higher than the left. If a patient had right hydronephrosis, bladder evaluations such as ultrasonography and/or cystoscopy were also conducted. Patients with a left contracted kidney were excluded. Results: The right kidney was higher than the left in 81 (5%) of 1625 cases. In 30 cases (37%), the cause or attribution existed in the right urinary tract. Eleven of these cases were due to tumors or cysts in the right kidney, four were due to congenital anomalies, and 15 were due to hydronephrosis. In 10 (12.3%) of the cases, the cause or attribution existed in the left urinary tract. All of them were cysts or tumors of the left kidney. Of the other 13 (16.0%) cases, eight were caused by hepatatrophy and splenomegaly as a result of liver cirrhosis, two were caused by aortic aneurysm, one was caused by visceral inversion, one was caused by a right ovarian tumor, and one was caused by pneumonectomy. Malignancies, including two renal cell carcinomas and three bladder cancers at the right ureteral orifice, were found in five cases (6%). Conclusion: The above results suggest that the right kidney is higher than the left in five percent of all cases undergoing EXU. In cases where the right kidney is higher than the left, and a left contracted kidney cannot be found, further evaluation is recommend. [source]

    Malignancies in organ transplant recipients

    H. Myron Kauffman MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Clinical Evaluation of Gemcitabine in Dogs with Spontaneously Occurring Malignancies

    Carrie E. Kosarek
    We conducted a clinical evaluation of gemcitabine in 19 dogs with spontaneously occurring malignancies. The principal objectives of this study were to characterize toxicity and seek preliminary evidence of antitumor activity of gemcitabine administered every 2 weeks (biweekly) as a 30-minute IV infusion. A total of 64 doses, ranging from 300 mg/m2 to 675 mg/m2, were administered during the initial 8-week evaluation period, and an additional 131 doses were administered during the extended evaluation period. The total cumulative dose for the 10 dogs receiving gemcitabine in the extended evaluation period ranged from 1,500 mg/m2 to 24,300 mg/m2. Clinical evidence of toxicity was minimal. Cumulative myelosuppression was not apparent. Unexplained retinal hemorrhages occurred in 1 dog. No complete or partial remissions were observed during the initial evaluation period; however, objective responses were observed in 2 dogs during the extended evaluation period. Gemcitabine is a promising new chemotherapeutic agent that can be used safely in dogs with cancer. Biweekly administration of doses of 675 mg/m2 IV results in minimal and acceptable toxicity. [source]

    Clinical Evaluation of Methoximorpholino-Doxorubicin (FCE 23762) in Dogs with Spontaneous Malignancies

    Sarah E. Sheafor
    We conducted a clinical evaluation of FCE 23762, a methoxymorpholino analog of doxorubicin, in 48 dogs with metastatic, nonresectable, or chemotherapy-resistant spontaneous malignancies at an initial dosage of 50,60 ,g/kg IV every 3 weeks. Clinical evidence of toxicity was minimal; 6 dogs developed grades I, II, and III hematologic toxicities after the 1st treatment, and 1 dog developed grade II gastrointestinal toxicity. One dog became pancytopenic 4 months after discontinuation of FCE 23762. No other adverse effects were noted. Partial or complete remissions were observed in 32% of the dogs. Responses were observed both in previously untreated dogs and in those that had received prior chemotherapy, including doxorubicin. FCE 23762 is a promising new antineoplastic agent that can be used safely in dogs with cancer; doses higher than those used in this study may be used eventually in practice. [source]

    Malignancies in organ transplant recipients

    Yoshihiko Hoshida
    The development of cancer in organ transplant recipients is well known; depressed immunosurveillance induced by the use of immunosuppressive agents for prevention of rejection is a causative factor. The types of malignancies in renal transplant patients vary geographically and are influenced by the type of immunosuppressant used. In the present study in Japan, malignancies had developed in 2.6% of renal transplant recipients; the observed number/expected number ratio was 2.78. For the primary sites, the relative risk in Japan was quite different from that in Western countries, with a lower frequency of skin cancer, an absence of Kaposi's sarcoma and higher frequencies of renal and thyroid cancer in Japan. Epstein,Barr virus is an oncogenic virus causing lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompromised hosts. In renal transplant recipients, who usually receive hemodialysis before transplantation, human T lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-1 is also oncogenic and causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. The HTLV-1 in donor blood might be transmitted to transplant recipients via transfusion during hemodialysis. The epidemiology and characteristics of representative malignancies in transplant recipients are described, with a review of pertinent literature. [source]

    Juvenile Xanthogranuloma Associated with Neurofibromatosis 1: 14 Patients without Evidence of Hematologic Malignancies

    Stefano Cambiaghi M.D.
    Mean follow-up in 11 of these patients was 4.3 years (range 1,10 years). None of the children developed hematologic malignancies during this period. The onset of JXG was in the first 2 years of life in 13 of the patients. In this series, the association between JXG and six or more café au lait spots more than 5 mm in diameter was a good marker for NF1 in the first few years of life. Overall the JXG in these patients did not show any features distinguishable from those of "classical" JXG. [source]

    Perineural Spread of Cutaneous Head and Neck Malignancies: Imaging Manifestations and Therapeutic Management

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue S1 2009
    Kimberly J. Lee M.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Malignancies of the Ear in Irradiated Patients of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 12 2008
    Wu-Chia Lo MD
    Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: To report on the clinical profiles and treatment experiences of patients with second primary ear malignancy after treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Study Design: Retrospective case series. Methods: A retrospective review of the clinical outcomes and pathology of 11 irradiated NPC patients who subsequently had second primary malignancies of the ear at a single institution. Results: Ten tumors were squamous cell carcinoma and one tumor was chondrosarcoma occurring within the radiation field of previous treatment for NPC. The interval between previous radiotherapy and diagnosis of ear malignancy was 3 to 27 years with a median time of 17 years. Six tumors were located in the external auditory canal, two in the middle ear cavity, two in the periauricular region and one in the mastoid cavity. Four patients underwent surgery, and the other seven patients underwent surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy. The 3-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 30.3% and 20%, respectively. Conclusions: Postirradiated malignancy of the ear is extremely rare, but is one of the causes of death for NPC long-term survivors despite curative-intended treatment with surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy is instituted. [source]

    Argon Plasma Coagulation (APC) in Palliative Surgery of Head and Neck Malignancies

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 7 2002
    Ulrich Hauser MD
    Abstract Objectives Surgical reduction of bulky disease is an important treatment option in patients with incurable head and neck malignancies. In general, conventional tumor ablation is associated with significant hemorrhage, and the resulting tumorous wound surface entails aftercare problems. Argon plasma coagulation (APC) represents a novel technique providing effective hemostasis and wound sealing. Thus, APC features requirements of particular interest in palliative surgery of the head and neck. Study Design Using APC, we performed 18 palliative tumor resections in a series of 8 consecutive patients with recurrent head and neck lesions. Five patients received repeated APC treatment up to five times. Methods APC as non-contact, high-frequency electrosurgery under inert argon plasma atmosphere allows dissection, hemostasis, and desiccation of tumor tissue in a one-step procedure. In consideration of the limited and heterogeneous group of patients, results are interpreted descriptively. Results In every case of palliative surgery, APC caused efficient hemostasis, which helped significantly to reduce both time exposure of the operation and intraoperative loss of blood. Only one APC-unrelated complication occurred (transient rhino-liquorrhea), and none of the patients developed postoperative hemorrhage. Finally, APC produced dry and clean wound surfaces facilitating surgical aftercare. The achieved esthetic and functional improvements strengthened the patient's autonomy and social acceptance. Conclusion APC is highly recommended for palliative surgery of head and neck malignancies. [source]

    Is It Time to Develop an ,Ultrastaging System' for Use in Patients With Head and Neck Malignancies?

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 1 2001
    Alfio Ferlito MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Increased Incidence of Colorectal Malignancies in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Case Control Study

    J. M. Park
    This study was to evaluate the frequency of colorectal neoplasia in renal transplant recipients and to investigate the association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. We compared the frequency of colorectal neoplasia among renal transplant recipients with that of the healthy subjects. Specimens of colorectal neoplasia were examined for EBV and CMV using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Of 796 renal transplantation cohorts, 315 were enrolled. The frequency of colorectal neoplasia among the patients was 22.9%. Compared with the healthy subjects, the odds ratio (OR) for advanced adenoma was 3.32 (95% CI, 1.81,6.10). The frequency of cancer among the patients was 1.9% (OR, 12.0; 95% CI, 1.45,99.7). A long interval between transplantation and colonoscopy was a significant factor in the development of advanced colorectal neoplasia. EBV positivity was detected in 30.6% of colorectal neoplasia specimens from renal transplant recipients, which was higher than that for the controls (p = 0.002). CMV was not detected in any lesions of patients or controls. In conclusion, renal transplant recipients have a significantly increased risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia. EBV was more frequently found in specimens of advanced colorectal neoplasm obtained from the renal transplant recipients. [source]

    Switch to a Sirolimus-Based Immunosuppression in Long-Term Renal Transplant Recipients: Reduced Rate of (Pre-)Malignancies and Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in a Prospective, Randomized, Assessor-Blinded, Controlled Clinical Trial

    R. Salgo
    Renal transplant recipients (RTR) have a 50,200-fold higher risk for nonmelanoma-skin cancer (NMSC) causing high rates of morbidity and sometimes mortality. Cohort-studies gave evidence that a sirolimus-based immunosuppression may inhibit skin tumor growth. This single-center, prospective, assessor-blinded, randomized trial investigated if switching to sirolimus treatment inhibits the progression of premalignancies and moreover how many new NMSC occur compared to continuation of the original immunosuppressive therapy. Forty-four RTR (mean age 59.9 years, mean duration of immunosuppression 229.5 months) with skin lesions were randomized to sirolimus or continuation of their original immunosuppression. Blinded dermatological assessment at month 6 and 12 by the same dermatologist evaluated the clinical change compared to baseline. Biopsy was performed in suspected malignancy. Already the 6-month-assessment showed significant superiority of sirolimus-therapy: a stop of progression, even regression of preexisting premalignancies (p < 0.0005). This effect was increased at month 12 (p < 0.0001). Nine patients developed histologically confirmed NMSC: one in the sirolimus group, eight in the control group, p = 0.0176. Sirolimus-based immunosuppression in RTR, even when established many years after transplantation, can delay the development of premalignancies, induce regression of preexisting lesions and decelerate the incidence of new NMSC. [source]

    Extensive Surveillance Promotes Early Diagnosis and Improved Survival of De Novo Malignancies in Liver Transplant Recipients

    Armin Finkenstedt
    The aim of our study was to examine whether an extensive surveillance protocol will promote early diagnosis and improved survival in patients with de novo cancer following liver transplantation (LT). Of 779 consecutive LT recipients, 96 (12.3%) developed 105 malignancies. The cumulative risk for the development of de novo cancer was 10%, 24%, 32% and 42% at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years after LT, respectively. The most frequent tumor types were skin (17%), lung (16%), oropharyngeal (11%) and prostate cancer (11%). The overall standard incidence ratio as compared to that of the general population was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.5,2.3). The median survival of patients with de novo non-skin cancers was 3.1 years after diagnosis. Only patients with skin cancers and solid tumors, diagnosed at early stages, showed an excellent outcome. After introducing an intensified surveillance protocol, the detection rate of de novo cancers increased from 4.9% to 13% and more de novo malignancies were diagnosed in earlier stages. For non-skin cancers, the median tumor-related survival significantly improved from 1.2 to 3.3 years as well as the median overall survival post-LT. This study indicates that an extensive tumor surveillance program is highly recommendable in LT recipients. [source]

    Malignancies of the external auditory canal and temporal bone: A review

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 2 2002
    P. Yeung
    Background: Malignancies of the external auditory canal and temporal bone are uncommon. A retrospective review was conducted of a large series treated at the Prince of Wales hospital between 1974 and 1995. Methods: Retrospective review of 59 cases of ear canal and temporal bone malignancies. These were analysed according to histopathology, disease extent, surgery, margin status and survival. A TNM-type staging system was applied to 51 cases and Kaplan,Meier survival analysis applied to this group. Results: The 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) for the series was 54%. For stages 1, 2, 3 and 4 disease, the CSS were 90, 45, 40 and 19%, respectively. Survival was significantly higher where clear surgical margins were achieved (80 vs 35%). Conclusions: Carcinoma of the external ear canal is rare and, in Australia, is often related to recurrence of periauricular cutaneous malignancy. Surgical extirpation with clear margins provides the best survival. [source]

    Tumor necrosis factor , blockers and malignancy in children: Forty-eight cases reported to the food and drug administration,

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 8 2010
    Peter Diak
    Objective Malignancies reported in children using tumor necrosis factor , (TNF,) blockers have raised concerns of a potential increased risk. This study was undertaken to investigate postmarketing reports of malignancy in children treated with TNF blockers. Methods The FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System was searched to identify malignancies associated with the use of infliximab, etanercept, and adalimumab in children in whom therapy was initiated between the ages of 0 and 18 years. The reporting rates for infliximab and etanercept were compared with the background rate of malignancy in the general pediatric population. Results Forty-eight reports of malignancy in children were identified: 31 following infliximab use, 15 following etanercept use, and 2 following adalimumab use. Half of the malignancies reported were lymphomas and included both Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The remaining reported cases involved a variety of different malignancies including leukemia, melanoma, and solid organ cancers. The majority of the reported cases (88%) involved the concomitant use of other immunosuppressants. Reporting rates for malignancy showed that infliximab had a consistently higher reporting rate when compared with background rates in the general pediatric population for lymphomas and all malignancies. The reporting rates for etanercept were elevated above background for lymphomas and were on par with background for all malignancies. Conclusion There is evidence that treatment with TNF blockers in children may increase the risk of malignancy. However, the cases were confounded by the potential risk of malignancy associated with underlying illnesses and the use of concomitant immunosuppressants; therefore, a clear causal relationship could not be established. [source]

    Mentoring in the management of hematological malignancies

    Abstract Aim: The Mentoring in Management of Haematological Malignancies (MMHM) project aimed to improve treatment outcomes, coordinate care and provide best practice for patients with hematological cancers, by developing a program of mentoring and multidisciplinary care between a regional and a metropolitan centre. Methods: A regular multidisciplinary meeting conducted by teleconference was established between a tertiary metropolitan site and a regional practice to discuss cases of patients with hematological malignancies. Information from multidisciplinary team meetings was recorded to capture adherence to process and clinician outcomes. An educational program was developed. A gap analysis was performed to identify differences in routine practice between the two centers. Clinician satisfaction with mentoring and educational interventions was assessed by structured survey. Results: The MMHM project developed a formal mentoring system to improve the management of patients by building on established links and developing an innovative model of web-based multidisciplinary care. The project established a novel multidisciplinary meeting between a metropolitan and regional site. Common treatment policies were adopted between the two sites. Development of an educational framework and mentoring for health-care professionals in regional areas was achieved by tutorials and workshops. Most participating clinicians indicated their high level of satisfaction with the mentoring project. Conclusion: The MMHM project was a successful pilot of a mentoring program in hematological cancers between metropolitan and regional centers that resulted in improved referral links, facilitated better care coordination, updated treatment policies and guidelines and increased clinician satisfaction and knowledge. [source]

    Reply to Valproic Acid for the Treatment of Myeloid Malignancies

    CANCER, Issue 10 2008
    Andrea Kuendgen MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Probably benign lesions at breast magnetic resonance imaging

    CANCER, Issue 2 2003
    Preliminary experience in high-risk women
    Abstract BACKGROUND The purpose of the current study was to determine the frequency of ,probably benign' interpretations at breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging screening of high-risk women and the frequency of subsequent malignancy in these women. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of the records of 367 asymptomatic women with normal mammograms who had a high risk of developing breast cancer and whose first breast MR imaging screening examinations occurred during a 2-year period. The number of "probably benign" interpretations was determined, and follow-up data were obtained. RESULTS A "probably benign" interpretation was given to 89 (24%) of 367 women. Follow-up MR imaging was performed for 70 (79%) of 89 women, with a median follow-up time of 11 months (range, 1,24 months). Twenty women subsequently underwent biopsy at a median of 9 months (range, 1,18 months) after MR imaging, due to progression on follow-up MR imaging (n = 14) or for other reasons (n = 6). Malignancies were found in 9 women, constituting 45% of the 20 women who underwent biopsy and 10% of the 89 women with probably benign lesions. In 6 of the 9 women who developed malignant disease (7% of the 89 women in the study), the malignancy was detected by follow-up MR imaging of an area that previously was interpreted as probably benign. Tumor histology was ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in five patients and infiltrating ductal carcinoma in four. CONCLUSIONS A "probably benign" interpretation was given to 24% of high-risk women at their first breast MR imaging screening examination. In 7,10% of women with "probably benign" interpretations, malignant disease subsequently developed in an area initially judged to be probably benign; of these malignancies, more than half were DCIS, and more than half were detected by MR imaging only. Cancer 2003;98:377,88. © 2003 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.11491 [source]

    Tanning and Cutaneous Malignancy

    BACKGROUND Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) results in a darkening of the skin known as tanning. Recently, it has been shown that tanning is a response to UVR-induced DNA damage and represents the skin's efforts to protect itself against further injury. Despite the link between UVR and cutaneous malignancy, people continue to pursue tanning from natural and artificial sources. This trend is reflected in the exponential rise in skin cancer incidence. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to review our current understanding of the factors controlling the tanning response and the relationship to cutaneous carcinogenesis, as well as the impact that the multibillion dollar tanning industry has had on the practice of dermatology. MATERIALS AND METHODS Extensive literature review was conducted in subjects related to tanning and the relationship to cutaneous malignancy. RESULTS Our knowledge of tanning and its effects on the skin has increased tremendously. It is clear that tanning contributes to the development of skin cancer. Despite this information, the incidence of skin cancer continues to increase exponentially. CONCLUSIONS Skin cancer poses a major public health concern and tanning remains the most modifiable risk factor in its etiology. Social, economic, and legislative issues have become tightly intertwined with the complex nature of human behavior in the continued pursuit of an activity that clearly has detrimental effects on one's health. [source]

    From Melanocytes to Melanoma: The Progression to Malignancy

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The clinical features of dermatomyositis in a South Australian population

    Vidya LIMAYE
    Abstract Aim:, To review the clinical features of dermatomyositis (DM) in a South Australian population. Methods:, Retrospective review of medical records of patients with biopsy-proven DM in South Australia from 1990 to 2005. Results:, There were 21 cases of biopsy-proven DM in SA (62% F, mean age 49.7 ± 18.4 years) and clinical details were available in 20 of these. Malignancy was identified in 9/20 patients; in five this followed the diagnosis of DM, with three malignancies seen within 3 months of disease onset. Three patients had a clearly defined immune insult prior to the diagnosis of DM; one patient had Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection 23 days prior to DM, two had pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations 5 and 14 days prior to the onset of DM, respectively. Two of three patients with anti-Jo-1 antibody experienced thromboembolism within 2 months of DM onset and three patients had interstitial lung disease (2 with anti-Jo-1 antibody). Creatine kinase (CK) was elevated in 15/20 cases and showed strong correlation with transaminases, and notably not with traditional inflammatory markers. Conclusions:, This retrospective review of patients with biopsy-proven DM suggests a role for infection/vaccination in triggering disease onset. A particularly strong association with malignancy was observed and it is suggested that DM may predispose to thrombosis. Transaminases, in addition to CK may be used to monitor disease activity, and traditional inflammatory markers have little role in this. [source]

    Characteristics of image-detected solid renal masses: Implication for optimal treatment

    Abstract Background:, Solid renal masses are found increasingly. Further analysis of the characteristics of solid renal masses is useful for optimal treatment. Methods:, A retrospective analysis of all solid renal masses was conducted from December 1998 to May 2003 at the Urology Department, Central University Hospital of Saint-Etienne, France. A total of 162 solid renal masses were treated. The preoperative imaging diagnosis of ultrasound and computed tomography, and final pathological results were reviewed. Results:, One hundred and forty-five tumors were pathologically confirmed to be renal cell carcinomas (RCC); 17 tumors (10.5%) were benign. There were eight renal oncocytomas, eight renal angiomyolipomas and one benign mixed epithelial/stroma tumor. Three oncocytomas and five angiomyolipomas were strongly suspected before surgery. The majority of the benign tumors were ,4 cm. The percentage of small benign tumors (,4 cm) was significantly higher than large benign tumors (>4 cm). Although it is possible to use imaging to detect some benign tumors, the majority of benign tumors cannot be diagnosed definitively by imaging before surgery. Conclusions:, Malignancy in solid renal masses is tumor-size related. Benign solid renal tumors appear mainly as small-sized tumors. The preoperative differentiation between an RCC and a benign tumor can be difficult. Our data suggest that a biopsy is necessary in selected patients to achieve the maximum accuracy in order to provide optimal treatment. [source]

    Physical Performance and Subsequent Disability and Survival in Older Adults with Malignancy: Results from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    Heidi D. Klepin MD
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate objective physical performance measures as predictors of survival and subsequent disability in older patients with cancer. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred twenty-nine individuals diagnosed with cancer during the first 6 years of follow-up of the Health ABC Study. MEASUREMENTS: The associations between precancer measures of physical performance (20-m usual gait speed, 400-m long-distance corridor walk (LDCW), and grip strength) and overall survival and a short-term outcome of 2-year progression to disability or death were evaluated. Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models, stratified for metastatic disease, respectively, were used for outcomes. RESULTS: Mean age was 77.2, 36.1% were women, and 45.7% were black. Faster 20-m usual walking speed was associated with a lower risk of death in the metastatic group (hazard ratio=0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.79,0.99) and lower 2-year progression to disability or death in the nonmetastatic group (odds ratio (OR)=0.77, 95% CI=0.64,0.94). Ability to complete the 400-m LDCW was associated with lower 2-year progression to disability or death in the nonmetastatic group (OR=0.24, 95% CI=0.10,0.62). There were no associations between grip strength and disability or death. CONCLUSION: Lower extremity physical performance tests (usual gait speed and 400-m LDCW) were associated with survival and 2-year progression to disability or death. Objective physical performance measures may help inform pretreatment evaluations in older adults with cancer. [source]

    Malignancy after Heart Transplantation: Analysis of 24-Year Experience at a Single Center

    Tahir Yagdi M.D.
    The incidence, spectrum, risk factors, and clinical impact of posttransplant malignancy were investigated in a cohort of patients with long-term follow-up at a single center. Methods: Data for 835 patients who underwent heart transplantation between 1979 and 2002 and survived beyond one month were retrospectively evaluated for posttransplant skin cancer, solid organ tumors, and lymphoma. Results: One hundred thirty-nine malignancies developed in 126 patients (15.1%). Skin cancer, solid organ tumors, and lymphoma represented 49%, 27%, and 24% of the malignancies, respectively. Mean patient age at transplantation for patients developing skin cancer, solid organ tumor, and lymphoma were 50 years, 51 years, and 46 years, respectively (p = 0.024). Risk factors for skin cancer were: age greater than 40 at transplantation, number of treated rejection episodes in the first year after transplantation, and smoking history. Variables associated with solid organ malignancy development were age and smoking history. There was no variable related to the development of posttransplant lymphoma. Median survival after diagnosis of skin cancer, solid organ tumor, and lymphoma were 5.0 years, 0.3 years, and 0.7 years, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Posttransplant malignancies have different risk factors and variable clinical impact. Older age at transplantation, smoking history, and more episodes of treated rejection were related to increased incidence of nonlymphoid malignancy incidence after heart transplantation, whereas no variable was associated with lymphoid malignancy. Skin cancers have a benign course, while solid organ malignancies and lymphomas carry an unfavorable prognosis. [source]

    Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Patients with Malignancy: A Single-Center Study with Comparison to Patients Without Malignancy

    Nezihi Kucukarslan M.D.
    In this study, we compared the outcome of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in such patients with those without malignancy. Methods: The patients were selected from those who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery in the last decade. The study group (group I) included the patients with malignancy in remission. The control group comprised those patients who were selected randomly from those without any malignancy. The patients were retospectively examined with regard to preoperative, operative, and postoperative data from personal files, computerized recording system, and operation reports. Results: Group I included 48 patients (age 48 to 69; 29 male) while group II included 50 patients (age = 38 to 73; 35 male). In group I, comorbidity rates were: renal dysfunction in 12 (25%), obstructive lung disease 10 (21%), congestive failure in four (8%) patients. The malignancy rates were: lung in 15 (31%), breast in 10 (21%), stomach in five (10%), colon in four (8%), renal in one (2%), Hodgkin's lyphoma in three (6%), leukemia in two (4%), ovarian in three (6%), and prostate in five (10%) patients. In group II, the comorbidity rates were: diabetes mellitus 18 (36%), renal dysfunction in five (10%) and obstructive lung disease in 13 (26%) patients. In group I, chemotherapy and radiotherapy were performed in 38 and 34 patients, respectively. In groups I and II, the CABG was elective in 47 (98%) and in 45 patients (90%); the off-pump surgery was performed in 27 (56%) and 12 (24%) patients, respectively. The total duration of bypass was 37 ± 6 minutes and 44 ± 5 minutes; the duration of aortic clamp was 26 ± 4 and 29 ± 7 minutes, respectively, in groups I and II. Posoperative complication rates were: infection in 12 (25%), bleeding in eight (17%), acute renal insufficiency in eight (17%), prolonged air escape in five (10%), and prolonged entubation in 17 (35%) patients in group I and atrial fibrillation in 11 (22%) patients in group II. Mortality rates in both groups were two (4%). Conclusion: CABG in patients with comorbid malignancy is as safe as the other patients. In patients with full remission of malignancy, the surgeons should be encouraged about the safety of CABG. [source]

    Hidradenocarcinoma: Criteria for Malignancy and Hypothesis of an Apoeccrine Origin

    C. Ko
    The immunohistochemical profile of hidradenocarcinoma, defined here as the malignant counterpart of hidradenoma, has not been well characterised. We evaluated the staining pattern of six cases of hidradenocarcinoma using antibodies to gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), S-100 protein, keratin AE1/3, cytokeratin 5/6, p53, bcl-1, bcl-2, and Ki67. All tumours were poorly circumscribed with clefting between tumour and stroma, evidence of poroid cells and cuticular cells, decapitation secretion, and increased mitoses with cords of tumour infiltrating through the adjacent desmoplastic stroma. The tumours stained with antibodies to CEA, S-100 protein, GCDFP-15, and EMA in no consistent pattern. All tumours studied stained positively for keratin AE1/3 and cytokeratin 5/6. Ki67 and p53 staining were strongly positive in 5 of 6 tumours. Bcl-1 and bcl-2 staining were variable. Our study demonstrates that hidradenocarcinomas may have both apocrine and eccrine features within the same tumour and suggests that it may be most accurate to consider that these tumours originate from apoeccrine structures or stem cells with the capacity for pluripotential differentiation. [source]

    The Delphi approach to Attain consensus in methodology of local regional therapy for peritoneal surface malignancy,,

    Shigeki Kusamura MD
    Abstract At the Fifth International Workshop on Peritoneal Surface Malignancy (PSM), held in Milan, December 2006, the consensus on technical aspects of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) was obtained through the Delphi process. The following topics were discussed: pre-operative workup; eligibility to CRS,+,HIPEC; intra-operative staging system; technical aspects of surgery; residual disease classification systems; HIPEC: nomenclature and modalities; drugs, carrier solution and optimal temperature; morbidity grading systems. Conflicting points regarding above-mentioned topics were elaborated and voted in two rounds by a panel of international experts in local-regional therapy. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the organization and the methodology of the consensus statements and to interpret and discuss the implications of the most striking results. J. Surg. Oncol. 2008;98:217,219. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]