Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Magma

  • felsic magma
  • granitoid magma
  • mafic magma
  • parental magma

  • Selected Abstracts

    Synthesis and Characterization of Functionalized Crosslinkable Poly(, -caprolactone),

    Paola Laurienzo
    Abstract Summary: A new and rather simple method to obtain randomly crosslinked PCL is reported. PCL was previously functionalized through radical grafting of MA and GMA in the melt, using a Brabender-like apparatus. GMA was added in order to obtain higher grafting efficiency. The structure of PCL- g -MAGMA was elucidated by 1H NMR spectroscopy, and the content of grafted MA was determined by FT-IR spectroscopy. PCL- g -MAGMA was successively crosslinked through reaction with HMDI. The degree of crosslinking was determined by solvent extractions with chloroform. Thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile tests were performed on plain PCL, on PCL- g -MAGMA and on crosslinked PCL samples. Schematic representation of PCL- g -MAGMA structure. [source]

    Seamount volcanism along the Gakkel Ridge, Arctic Ocean

    James R. Cochran
    SUMMARY The Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic Ocean is the slowest spreading portion of the global mid-ocean ridge system. Total spreading rates vary from 12.8 mm yr,1 near Greenland to 6.5 mm yr,1 at the Siberian margin. Melting models predict a dramatic decrease in magma production and resulting crustal thickness at these low spreading rates. At slow spreading ridges, small volcanic seamounts are a dominant morphologic feature of the rift valley floor and an important mechanism in building the oceanic crust. This study quantitatively investigates the extent, nature and distribution of seamount volcanism at the ultraslow Gakkel Ridge, the manner in which it varies along the ridge axis and the relationship of the volcanoes to the larger scale rift morphology. A numerical algorithm is used to identify and characterize isolated volcanic edifices by searching gridded swath-bathymetry data for closed concentric contours protruding above the surrounding seafloor. A maximum likelihood model is used to estimate the total number of seamounts and the characteristic height within different seamount populations. Both the number and size of constructional volcanic features is greatly reduced at the Gakkel Ridge compared with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The density of seamounts (number/area) on the rift valley floor of the Western Volcanic Zone (WVZ) is ,55% that of the MAR. The observed volcanoes are also much smaller, so, the amount of erupted material is greatly reduced compared with the MAR. However, the WVZ is still able to maintain a MAR-like morphology with axial volcanic ridges, volcanoes scattered on the valley floor and rift valley walls consisting of high-angle faults. Seamount density at the Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) is ,45% that of the WVZ (,25% that of the MAR). Seamounts are clustered at the widely spaced magmatic centres characteristic of the EVZ, although some seamounts are found between magmatic centres. These seamounts tend to be located at the edge of the rift valley or on the valley walls rather than on the valley floor. Seamounts in the Sparsely Magmatic Zone (SMZ) are located almost entirely at the 19°E magmatic centre with none observed within a 185 km-long portion of the rift valley floor. The EVZ and SMZ appear to display a mode of crustal accretion, characterized by extreme focusing of melt to the magmatic centres. Magmas erupted between the magmatic centres appear to have ascended along faults. This is very different from what is observed at the WVZ (or the MAR), and there is a threshold transition between the two modes of crustal accretion. At the Gakkel Ridge, the location of the transition appears to be localized by a boundary in mantle composition. [source]

    Schlieren formation in diatexite migmatite: examples from the St Malo migmatite terrane, France

    I. Milord
    Abstract Schlieren are trains of platy or blocky minerals, typically the ferromagnesian minerals and accessory phases, that occur in granites and melt-rich migmatites, such as diatexites. They have been considered as: (1) unmelted residue from xenoliths or the source region; (2) mineral accumulations formed during magma flow; (3) compositional layering; and (4) sites of melt loss. In order to help identify schlieren-forming processes in the diatexites at St Malo, differences in the size, shape, orientation, distribution and composition of the biotite from schlieren and from their hosts have been investigated. Small biotite grains are much less abundant in the schlieren than in their hosts. Schlieren biotite grains are generally larger, have greater aspect ratios and have, except in hosts with low (< 10%) biotite contents, a much stronger shape preferred orientation than host biotite. The compositional ranges of host and schlieren biotite are similar, but schlieren biotite defines tighter, sharper peaks on composition-frequency plots. Hosts show magmatic textures such as imbricated (tiled), unstrained plagioclase. Some schlieren show only magmatic textures (tiled biotite, no crystal-plastic strain features), but many have textures indicating submagmatic and subsolidus deformation (e.g. kinked grains) and these schlieren show the most extensive evidence for recrystallization. Magmas at St Malo initially contained a significant fraction of residual biotite and plagioclase crystals; smaller biotite grains were separated from the larger plagioclase crystals during magma flow. Since plagioclase was also the major, early crystallizing phase, the plagioclase-rich domains developed rapidly and reached the rigid percolation threshold first, forcing further magma flow to be concentrated into narrowing melt-rich zones where the biotite had accumulated, hence increasing shear strain and the degree of shape preferred orientation in these domains. Schlieren formed in these domains as a result of grain contacts and tiling in the grain inertia-regime. Final amalgamation of the biotite aggregates into schlieren involved volume loss as melt trapped between grains was expelled after the rigid percolation threshold was reached in the biotite-rich layers. [source]

    Crystallization of Silicate Magmas Deciphered Using Crystal Size Distributions

    Bruce D. Marsh
    The remoteness and inhospitable nature of natural silicate magma make it exceedingly difficult to study in its natural setting deep beneath volcanoes. Although laboratory experiments involving molten rock are routinely performed, it is the style and nature of crystallization under natural conditions that is important to understand. This is where the crystal size distributions (CSD) method becomes fundamentally valuable. Just as chemical thermodynamics offers a quantitative macroscopic means of investigating chemical processes that occur at the atomic level, crystal size distribution theory quantitatively relates the overall observed spectrum of crystal sizes to both the kinetics of crystallization and the physical processes affecting the population of crystals themselves. Petrography, which is the qualitative study of rock textures, is the oldest, most comprehensively developed, and perhaps most beautiful aspect of studying magmatic rocks. It is the ultimate link to the kinetics of crystallization and the integrated space,time history of evolution of every magma. CSD analysis offers a quantitative inroad to unlocking and quantifying the observed textures of magmatic rocks. Perhaps the most stunning feature of crystal-rich magmatic rocks is that the constituent crystal populations show smooth and often quasi-linear log-normal distributions of negative slope when plotted as population density against crystal size. These patterns are decipherable using CSD theory, and this method has proven uniquely valuable in deciphering the kinetics of crystallization of magma. The CSD method has been largely developed in chemical engineering by Randolph and Larson,1,2 among many others, for use in understanding industrial crystallization processes, and its introduction to natural magmatic systems began in 1988. The CSD approach is particularly valuable in its ease of application to complex systems. It is an aid to classical kinetic theory by being, in its purest form, free of any atomistic assumptions regarding crystal nucleation and growth. Yet the CSD method provides kinetic information valuable to understanding the connection between crystal nucleation and growth and the overall cooling and dynamics of magma. It offers a means of investigating crystallization in dynamic systems, involving both physical and chemical processes, independent of an exact kinetic theory. The CSD method applied to rocks shows a systematic and detailed history of crystal nucleation and growth that forms the foundation of a comprehensive and general model of magma solidification. [source]

    Genesis and Mixing/Mingling of Mafic and Felsic Magmas of Back-Arc Granite: Miocene Tsushima Pluton, Southwest Japan

    RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Ki-Cheol Shin
    Abstract The Middle Miocene Tsushima granite pluton is composed of leucocratic granites, gray granites and numerous mafic microgranular enclaves (MME). The granites have a metaluminous to slightly peraluminous composition and belong to the calc-alkaline series, as do many other coeval granites of southwestern Japan, all of which formed in relation to the opening of the Sea of Japan. The Tsushima granites are unique in that they occur in the back-arc area of the innermost Inner Zone of Southwest Japan, contain numerous miarolitic cavities, and show shallow crystallization (2,6 km deep), based on hornblende geobarometry. The leucocratic granite has higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7065,0.7085) and lower ,Nd(t) (,7.70 to ,4.35) than the MME of basaltic,dacitic composition (0.7044,0.7061 and ,0.53 to ,5.24), whereas most gray granites have intermediate chemical and Sr,Nd isotopic compositions (0.7061,0.7072 and ,3.75 to ,6.17). Field, petrological, and geochemical data demonstrate that the Tsushima granites formed by the mingling and mixing of mafic and felsic magmas. The Sr,Nd,Pb isotope data strongly suggest that the mafic magma was derived from two mantle components with depleted mantle material and enriched mantle I (EMI) compositions, whereas the felsic magma formed by mixing of upper mantle magma of EMI composition with metabasic rocks in the overlying lower crust. Element data points deviating from the simple mixing line of the two magmas may indicate fractional crystallization of the felsic magma or chemical modification by hydrothermal fluid. The miarolitic cavities and enrichment of alkali elements in the MME suggest rapid cooling of the mingled magma accompanied by elemental transport by hydrothermal fluid. The inferred genesis of this magma,fluid system is as follows: (i) the mafic and felsic magmas were generated in the mantle and lower crust, respectively, by a large heat supply and pressure decrease under back-arc conditions induced by mantle upwelling and crustal thinning; (ii) they mingled and crystallized rapidly at shallow depths in the upper crust without interaction during the ascent of the magmas from the middle to the upper crust, which (iii) led to fluid generation in the shallow crust. The upper mantle in southwest Japan thus has an EMI-like composition, which plays an important role in the genesis of igneous rocks there. [source]

    Volcanic and Tectonic Framework of the Hydrothermal Activity of the Izu,Bonin Arc

    RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Osamu Ishizuka
    Abstract In the Izu,Bonin Arc, hydrothermal activities have been reported from volcanoes along present-day volcanic front, a rear arc volcano and a back-arc rift basin as well as a remnant arc structure now isolated from the Quaternary arc. It is widely known that characteristics of hydrothermal activity (mineralogy, chemistry of fluid etc.) vary depending upon its tectonic setting. The Izu,Bonin Arc has experienced repeated back-arc or intra-arc rifting and spreading and resumption of arc volcanism. These characteristics make this arc system a suitable place to study the tectonic control on hydrothermal activity. The purpose of the present paper is, therefore, to summarize volcanotectonic setting and history of the Izu,Bonin Arc in relation to the hydrothermal activity. The volcanotectonic history of the Izu,Bonin Arc can be divided into five stages: (i) first arc volcanism (boninite, high-Mg andesite), 48,46 Ma; (ii) second arc volcanism (tholeiitic, calc-alkaline), 44,29 Ma; (iii) first spreading of back-arc basin (Shikoku Basin), 25,15 Ma; (iv) third arc volcanism (tholeiitic, calc-alkaline), 13,3 Ma; and (v) rifting in the back-arc and tholeiitic volcanism along the volcanic front, 3,0 Ma. Magmas erupted in each stage of arc evolution show different chemical characteristics from each other, mainly due to the change in composition of slab-derived component and possibly mantle depletion caused by melt extraction during back-arc spreading and prolonged arc volcanism. In the volcanotectonic context summarized here, hydrothermal activity recognized in the Izu,Bonin Arc can be classified into four groups: (i) present-day hydrothermal activity at the volcanic front; (ii) active hydrothermal activity in the back arc; (iii) fossil hydrothermal activity in the back-arc volcanoes; and (iv) fossil hydrothermal activity in the remnant arc. Currently hydrothermal activities occur in three different settings: submarine caldera and stratocones along the volcanic front; a back-arc rift basin; and a rear arc caldera. In contrast, hydrothermal activities found in the back-arc seamount chains were associated with rear arc volcanism in Neogene after cessation of back-arc spreading of the Shikoku Basin. Finally, sulfide mineralization associated with boninitic volcanism in the Eocene presumably took place during forearc spreading in the initial stage of the arc. This type of activity appears to be limited during this stage of arc evolution. [source]

    Carbonate melting and peperite formation at the intrusive contact between large mafic dykes and clastic sediments of the upper Palaeozoic Saint-Jules Formation, New-Carlisle, Quebec

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2006
    P. Jutras
    Abstract The base of an upper Palaeozoic graben-fill in eastern Canada was affected by mafic dyke intrusions shortly after deposition, resulting in the formation of peperite. Complex magma,sediment interactions occurred as the melts mingled with the wet and poorly consolidated clastic material of this sedimentary basin, which is separated from underlying rocks by the Acadian unconformity (Middle Devonian). As a result of these interactions, the mafic rocks are strongly oxidized, albitized and autobrecciated near and above the unconformity, where blocky juvenile clasts of mafic glass and porphyritic basalt have mingled with molten or fluidized sediments of the upper Palaeozoic Saint-Jules Formation, forming a peperite zone several metres thick. In contrast to most peperite occurrences, the New-Carlisle peperites are associated with the tip of dykes rather than with the sides of sills or dykes. We argue that more heat can be concentrated above a dyke than above a sill, as the former provides a more efficient and focused pathway for heated waters to invade the poorly consolidated host sediments. Superheated groundwaters that issued from the sides of the dykes appear to have promoted melting of carbonate components in calcareous sedimentary rock clasts of the Saint-Jules Formation, locally generating carbonate melts that contributed to the mingling of juvenile and sedimentary clasts in the peperite. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    K-Ar age determination, whole-rock and oxygen isotope geochemistry of the post-collisional Bizmi,en and Çalt, plutons, SW Erzincan, eastern Central Anatolia, Turkey

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 4 2005
    Ayten Önal
    Abstract Post-collisional granitoid plutons intrude obducted Neo-Tethyan ophiolitic rocks in central and eastern Central Anatolia. The Bizmi,en and Çalt, plutons and the ophiolitic rocks that they intrude are overlain by fossiliferous and flyschoidal sedimentary rocks of the early Miocene Kemah Formation. These sedimentary rocks were deposited in basins that developed at the same time as tectonic unroofing of the plutons along E,W and NW,SE trending faults in Oligo-Miocene time. Mineral separates from the Bizmi,en and Çalt, plutons yield K-Ar ages ranging from 42 to 46,Ma, and from 40 to 49,Ma, respectively. Major, trace, and rare-earth element geochemistry as well as mineralogical and textural evidence reveals that the Bizmi,en pluton crystallized first, followed at shallower depth by the Çalt, pluton from a medium-K calcalkaline, I-type hybrid magma which was generated by magma mixing of coeval mafic and felsic magmas. Delta 18O values of both plutons fall in the field of I-type granitoids, although those of the Çalt, pluton are consistently higher than those of the Bizmi,en pluton. This is in agreement with field observations, petrographic and whole-rock geochemical data, which indicate that the Bizmi,en pluton represents relatively uncontaminated mantle material, whereas the Çalt, pluton has a significant crustal component. Structural data indicating the middle Eocene emplacement age and intrusion into already obducted ophiolitic rocks, suggest a post-collisional extensional origin. However, the pure geochemical discrimination diagrams indicate an arc origin which can be inherited either from the source material or from an upper mantle material modified by an early subduction process during the evolution of the Neo-Tethyan ocean. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Origin, age and petrogenesis of Neoproterozoic composite dikes from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, SW Jordan

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 2 2004
    G. Jarrar
    Abstract The evolution of a Pan-African (c. 900,550,Ma) suite of composite dikes, with latite margins and rhyolite interiors, from southwest Jordan is discussed. The dikes cut the Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline granitoids and high-grade metamorphic rocks (c. 800,600,Ma) of the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield in Jordan and have been dated by the Rb-Sr isochron method at 566±7,Ma. The symmetrically distributed latite margins constitute less than one-quarter of the whole dike thickness. The rhyolite intruded a median fracture within the latite, while the latter was still hot but completely solidified. The dikes are alkaline and bimodal in composition with a gap in SiO2 between 61 and 74,wt%. Both end members display similar chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns. The rhyolites display the compositional signature of A-type granites. The (La/Lu)N values are 6.02 and 4.91 for latites and rhyolites, respectively, and the rhyolites show a pronounced negative Eu anomaly, in contrast to the slight negative Eu anomaly of the latites. The chemical variability (e.g. Zr/Y, Zr/Nb, K/Rb) within and between latites and rhyolites does not support a fractional crystallization relationship between the felsic and mafic members of the dikes. We interpret the magma genesis of the composite dikes as the result of intrusion of mantle-derived mafic magma into the lower crust in an extensional tectonic regime. The mafic magma underwent extensive fractional crystallization, which supplied the necessary heat for melting of the lower crust. The products of the initial stages of partial melting (5,10%) mixed with the fractionating mafic magma and gave rise to the latite melts. Further partial melting of the lower crust (up to 30%) produced a felsic melt, which upon 50% fractional crystallization (hornblende 15%, biotite 5%, feldspars 60%, and quartz 20%) gave rise to the rhyolitic magma. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Near-lithostatic pore pressure at seismogenic depths: a thermoporoelastic model

    Francesca Zencher
    SUMMARY A model is presented for pore pressure migration through a transition layer separating a meteoric aquifer at hydrostatic pressure from a deeper reservoir at lithostatic pressure. This configuration is thought to be pertinent to the South Iceland seismic zone (SISZ) and to other tectonically active regions of recent volcanism, where volatiles are continuously released by ascending magma below the brittle,ductile transition. Poroelastic parameters are computed for basaltic rock. The model is 1-D, the fluid viscosity is temperature dependent and rock permeability is assumed to be pressure dependent according to a dislocation model of a fractured medium. Environment conditions are considered, pertinent to basalt saturated with water at shallow depth (case I) and at mid-crustal depth (case II). If the intrinsic permeability of the rock is high, no significant effects are observed in the pressure field but advective heat transfer shifts the brittle,ductile transition to shallower depths. If the intrinsic permeability is low, the pressure-dependent permeability can propagate near-lithostatic pore pressures throughout most of the transition layer, while the temperature is practically unaffected by advective contributions so that the rock in the transition layer remains in brittle condition. Geometrical parameters characterizing the fracture distribution are important in determining the effective permeability: in particular, if an interconnected system of fractures develops within the transition layer, the effective permeability may increase by several orders of magnitude and near-lithostatic pore pressure propagates upwards. These modelling results have important bearings on our understanding of seismogenic processes in geothermal areas and are consistent with several geophysical observations in the SISZ, in connection with the two 2000 June M= 6.5 earthquakes, including: (i) fluid pressure pulses in deep wells, (ii) low resistivity at the base of the seismogenic layer, (iii) low VP/VS ratio and time-dependent seismic tomography, (iv) heterogeneity of focal mechanisms, (v) shear wave splitting, (vi) high b -value of deep foreshocks, (vii) triggered seismicity and (viii) Radon anomalies. [source]

    Numerical modelling of chemical effects of magma solidification problems in porous rocks

    Chongbin Zhao
    Abstract The solidification of intruded magma in porous rocks can result in the following two consequences: (1) the heat release due to the solidification of the interface between the rock and intruded magma and (2) the mass release of the volatile fluids in the region where the intruded magma is solidified into the rock. Traditionally, the intruded magma solidification problem is treated as a moving interface (i.e. the solidification interface between the rock and intruded magma) problem to consider these consequences in conventional numerical methods. This paper presents an alternative new approach to simulate thermal and chemical consequences/effects of magma intrusion in geological systems, which are composed of porous rocks. In the proposed new approach and algorithm, the original magma solidification problem with a moving boundary between the rock and intruded magma is transformed into a new problem without the moving boundary but with the proposed mass source and physically equivalent heat source. The major advantage in using the proposed equivalent algorithm is that a fixed mesh of finite elements with a variable integration time-step can be employed to simulate the consequences and effects of the intruded magma solidification using the conventional finite element method. The correctness and usefulness of the proposed equivalent algorithm have been demonstrated by a benchmark magma solidification problem. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Dissecting large earthquakes in Japan: Role of arc magma and fluids

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2010
    Dapeng Zhao
    Abstract We synthesized information from recent high-resolution tomographic studies of large crustal earthquakes which occurred in the Japanese Islands during 1995,2008. Prominent anomalies of low-velocity and high Poisson's ratio are revealed in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the mainshock hypocenters, which may reflect arc magma and fluids that are produced by a combination of subducting slab dehydration and corner flow in the mantle wedge. Distribution of 164 crustal earthquakes (M 5.7,8.0) that occurred in Japan during 1885,2008 also shows a correlation with the distribution of low-velocity zones in the crust and uppermost mantle. A qualitative model is proposed to explain the geophysical observations recorded so far in Japan. We consider that the nucleation of a large earthquake is not entirely a mechanical process, but is closely related to the subduction dynamics and physical and chemical properties of materials in the crust and upper mantle; in particular, the arc magma and fluids. [source]

    Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of bimodal volcanism in the Sakoli Mobile Belt, Central Indian shield

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2009
    Talat Ahmad
    Abstract The Sakoli Mobile Belt comprises bimodal volcanic rocks that include metabasalt, rhyolite, tuffs, and epiclastic rocks with metapelites, quartzite, arkose, conglomerate, and banded iron formation (BIF). Mafic volcanic rocks are tholeiitic to quartz-tholeiitic with normative quartz and hypersthene. SiO2 shows a large compositional gap between the basic and acidic volcanics, depicting their bimodal nature. Both the volcanics have distinct geochemical trends but display some similarity in terms of enriched light rare earth element,large ion lithophile element characteristics with positive anomalies for U, Pb, and Th and distinct negative anomalies for Nb, P, and Ti. These characteristics are typical of continental rift volcanism. Both the volcanic rocks show strong negative Sr and Eu anomalies indicating fractionation of plagioclases and K-feldspars, respectively. The high Fe/Mg ratios for the basic rocks indicate their evolved nature. Whole rock Sm,Nd isochrons for the acidic volcanic rocks indicate an age of crystallization for these volcanic rocks at about 1675 ± 180 Ma (initial 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51017 ± 0.00017, mean square weighted deviate [MSWD] = 1.6). The ,Ndt (t = 2000 Ma) varies between ,0.19 and +2.22 for the basic volcanic rock and between ,2.85 and ,4.29 for the acidic volcanic rocks. Depleted mantle model ages vary from 2000 to 2275 Ma for the basic and from 2426 to 2777 Ma for the acidic volcanic rocks, respectively. These model ages indicate that protoliths for the acidic volcanic rocks probably had a much longer crustal residence time. Predominantly basaltic magma erupted during the deposition of the Dhabetekri Formation and part of it pooled at crustal or shallower subcrustal levels that probably triggered partial melting to generate the acidic magma. The influence of basic magma on the genesis of acidic magma is indicated by the higher Ni and Cr abundance at the observed silica levels of the acidic magma. A subsequent pulse of basic magma, which became crustally contaminated, erupted as minor component along with the dominantly acidic volcanics during the deposition of the Bhiwapur Formation. [source]

    Olivine-spinifex basalt from the Tamba Belt, southwest Japan: Evidence for Fe- and high field strength element-rich ultramafic volcanism in Permian Ocean

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2007
    Yuji Ichiyama
    Abstract Permian basalt showing typical spinifex texture with >10 cm-long olivine pseudomorphs was discovered from the Jurassic Tamba accretionary complex in southwest Japan. The spinifex basalt occurs as a river boulder accompanied by many ferropicritic boulders in a Permian chert-greenstone unit. Groundmass of this rock is holocrystalline, suggesting a thick lava or sill for its provenance. Minor kaersutite in the groundmass indicates a hydrous magma. The spinifex basalt, in common with the associated ferropicritic rocks, is characterized by high high field strength element (HFSE) contents (e.g. Nb = 62 ppm and Zr = 254 ppm) and high-HFSE ratios (Al2O3/TiO2 = 3.9, Nb/Zr = 0.24 and Zr/Y = 6.4) unlike typical komatiites. The spinifex basalt and ferropicrite might represent the upper fractionated melt and the lower olivine-rich cumulate, respectively, of a single ultramafic sill (or lava) as reported from the early Proterozoic Pechenga Series in Kola Peninsula. Their parental magma might have been produced by hydrous melting of a mantle plume that was dosed with Fe- and HFSE-rich garnet pyroxenite. The spinifex basalt is an evidence for the Pechenga-type ferropicritic volcanism taken place in a Permian oceanic plateau, which accreted to the Asian continental margin as greenstone slices in Jurassic time. [source]

    Absence of Archean basement in the South Kunlun Block: Nd-Sr-O isotopic evidence from granitoids

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2003
    Chao Yuan
    Abstract The West Kunlun mountain range along the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is crucial in understanding the early tectonic history of the region. It can be divided into the North and South Kunlun Blocks, of which the former is considered to be part of the Tarim Craton, whereas consensus was not reached on the nature and origin of the South Kunlun Block. Samples were collected from the 471 Ma Yirba Pluton, the 405 Ma North Kudi Pluton and the 214 Ma Arkarz Shan Intrusive Complex. These granitoids cover approximately 60% of the Kudi area in the South Kunlun Block. Sr, Nd, and O isotope compositions preclude significant involvement of mantle-derived magma in the genesis of these granitoids; therefore, they can be used to decipher the nature of lower,mid crust in the area. All samples give Mesoproterozoic Nd model ages (1.1,1.5 Ga) similar to those of the exposed metamorphic complex of this block but significantly different from those of the basement of the North Kunlun Block (2.8 Ga). This indicates that the South Kunlun Block does not have an Archean basement, and, thus, does not support the microcontinent model that suggests the South Kunlun Block was a microcontinent once separated from and later collided back with the North Kunlun Block. [source]

    Cooling and inferred exhumation history of the Ryoke metamorphic belt in the Yanai district, south-west Japan: Constraints from Rb,Sr and fission-track ages of gneissose granitoid and numerical modeling

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 2 2001
    Takamoto Okudaira
    Abstract The Ryoke metamorphic belt in south-west Japan consists mainly of I-type granitoids and associated low-pressure/high-temperature metamorphic rocks. In the Yanai district, it has been divided into three structural units: northern, central and southern units. In this study, we measured the Rb,Sr whole-rock,mineral isochron ages and fission-track ages of the gneissose granodiorite in the central structural unit. Four Rb,Sr ages fall in a range of ca 89,87 Ma. The fission-track ages of zircon and apatite are 68.9 ± 2.6 Ma and 57.4 ± 2.5 Ma (1, error), respectively. Combining the newly obtained ages with previously reported (Th,)U,Pb ages from the same unit, thermochronologic study revealed two distinctive cooling stages; 1) a rapid cooling (> 40°C/Myr) for a period (~7 Myr) soon after the peak metamorphism (~ 95 Ma) and 2) the subsequent slow cooling stage (~ 5°C/Myr) after ca 88 Ma. The first rapid cooling stage corresponds to thermal relaxation of the intruded granodiorite magma and its associated metamorphic rocks, and to the uplift by a displacement along low-angle faults which initiated soon after the intrusion of the magma. Uplift by the later stage deformation having formed large-scale upright folds resulted in progress of the exhumation during the first stage. The average exhumation velocity of the stage is , 2 mm/yr. During the second stage, the rocks were not accompanied by ductile deformation and were exhumed with the rate of 0.1,0.2 mm/yr. The difference in the exhumation velocity between the first and second cooling stages resulted from the difference in the thickness of the crust and in the activity of ductile deformation between the early and later stages of the orogenesis. [source]

    The formation of foliated (garnet-bearing) granites in the Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt: partial melting of subducted continental crust during exhumation

    L. ZHANG
    Abstract Foliated (garnet-bearing) (FGB) granites are associated closely with and are usually the major wall rocks of the high-pressure (HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks in the Tongbai-Dabie region, the mid segment of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in central China. These granites appear either as small plutons or as veins, which commonly intrude into or surround the HP and UHP metamorphic eclogites or gneisses. The veins of FGB granites usually penetrate into the retrograded eclogites or gneisses along the foliations. Condensation rims can occasionally be found along the margins of granite veins. These granites are rich in Si and alkali with high Ga/Al ratios, and depleted in Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Sc, V, Ni, Co, Cr and Sr, which are similar to A-type granites. In a chondrite normalized diagram, the samples are light rare earth elements enriched with different extent of negative Eu anomaly. Moreover, Rb, Nb, Ta, Sr, P and Ti show different degrees of negative anomalies, whereas Ba, K, La, Zr and Hf show positive anomalies in the primitive mantle normalized diagram. Negative anomalies of Eu and Sr indicate strong influence of plagioclase. In conventional discrimination diagrams, these FGB granites belong to the A-type granite, with geochemical characteristics affinitive to post-collisional granites. The ,Nd (230 Ma) values (,15.80 to ,2.52) and TDM values (1.02,2.07 Ga) suggest that magma for the FGB granites were derived from a heterogeneous crustal source. Therefore, the FGB granites may provide clues for deciphering the formation of post-collisional granites. It is proposed that the magma of the FGB granites both in the HP and UHP units was formed in an extensional tectonic setting slightly post-dating the HP and UHP metamorphism, most likely as a result of decompressional partial melting of UHP retrograded eclogites during exhumation. [source]

    Polymetamorphism, zircon growth and retention of early assemblages through the dynamic evolution of a continental arc in Fiordland, New Zealand

    J. M. SCOTT
    Abstract The Marguerite Amphibolite and associated rocks in northern Fiordland, New Zealand, contain evidence for retention of Carboniferous metamorphic assemblages through Cretaceous collision of an arc, emplacement of large volumes of mafic magma, high- P metamorphism and then extensional exhumation. The amphibolite occurs as five dismembered aluminous meta-gabbroic xenoliths up to 2 km wide that are enclosed within meta-leucotonalite of the Lake Hankinson Complex. A first metamorphic event (M1) is manifest in the amphibolite as a pervasively lineated pargasite,anorthite,kyanite or corundum ± rutile assemblage, and as diffusion-zoned garnet in pelitic schist xenoliths within the amphibolite. Thin zones of metasomatically Al-enriched leucotonalite directly at the margins of each amphibolite xenolith indicate element redistribution during M1 and equilibration at 6.6 ± 0.8 kbar and 618 ± 25 °C. A second phase of recrystallization (M2) formed patchy and static margarite ± kyanite,staurolite,chlorite,plagioclase,epidote assemblages in the amphibolite, pseudomorphs of coronas in gabbronorite, and thin high-grossular garnet rims in the pelitic schists. Conditions of M2, 8.8 ± 0.6 kbar and 643 ± 27 °C, are recorded from the rims of garnet in the pelitic schists. Cathodoluminescence imaging and simultaneous acquisition of U-Th-Pb isotopes and trace elements by depth-profiling zircon grains from one pelitic schist reveals four stages of growth, two of which are metamorphic. The first metamorphic stage, dated as 340.2 ± 2.2 Ma, is correlated with M1 on the basis that the unusual zircon trace element compositions indicate growth from a metasomatic fluid derived from the surrounding amphibolite during penetrative deformation. A second phase of zircon overgrowth coupled with crosscutting relationships date M2 to between 119 and 117 Ma. The Early Carboniferous event has not previously been recognized in northern Fiordland, whereas the latter event, which has been identified in Early Cretaceous batholiths, their xenoliths, and rocks directly at batholith margins, is here shown to have also affected the country rock. However, the effects of M2 are fragmentary due to limited element mobility, lack of deformation, distance from a heat source and short residence time in the lower crust during peak P and T. It is possible that many parts of the Fiordland continental arc achieved high- P conditions in the Early Cretaceous but retain earlier metamorphic or igneous assemblages. [source]

    Ultrahigh-pressure eclogite transformed from mafic granulite in the Dabie orogen, east-central China

    Y.-C. LIU
    Abstract Although ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks are present in many collisional orogenic belts, almost all exposed UHP metamorphic rocks are subducted upper or felsic lower continental crust with minor mafic boudins. Eclogites formed by subduction of mafic lower continental crust have not been identified yet. Here an eclogite occurrence that formed during subduction of the mafic lower continental crust in the Dabie orogen, east-central China is reported. At least four generations of metamorphic mineral assemblages can be discerned: (i) hypersthene + plagioclase ± garnet; (ii) omphacite + garnet + rutile + quartz; (iii) symplectite stage of garnet + diopside + hypersthene + ilmenite + plagioclase; (iv) amphibole + plagioclase + magnetite, which correspond to four metamorphic stages: (a) an early granulite facies, (b) eclogite facies, (c) retrograde metamorphism of high-pressure granulite facies and (d) retrograde metamorphism of amphibolite facies. Mineral inclusion assemblages and cathodoluminescence images show that zircon is characterized by distinctive domains of core and a thin overgrowth rim. The zircon core domains are classified into two types: the first is igneous with clear oscillatory zonation ± apatite and quartz inclusions; and the second is metamorphic containing a granulite facies mineral assemblage of garnet, hypersthene and plagioclase (andesine). The zircon rims contain garnet, omphacite and rutile inclusions, indicating a metamorphic overgrowth at eclogite facies. The almost identical ages of the two types of core domains (magmatic = 791 ± 9 Ma and granulite facies metamorphic zircon = 794 ± 10 Ma), and the Triassic age (212 ± 10 Ma) of eclogitic facies metamorphic overgrowth zircon rim are interpreted as indicating that the protolith of the eclogite is mafic granulite that originated from underplating of mantle-derived magma onto the base of continental crust during the Neoproterozoic (c. 800 Ma) and then subducted during the Triassic, experiencing UHP eclogite facies metamorphism at mantle depths. The new finding has two-fold significance: (i) voluminous mafic lower continental crust can increase the average density of subducted continental lithosphere, thus promoting its deep subduction; (ii) because of the current absence of mafic lower continental crust in the Dabie orogen, delamination or recycling of subducted mafic lower continental crust can be inferred as the geochemical cause for the mantle heterogeneity and the unusually evolved crustal composition. [source]

    Vertical extrusion and middle crustal spreading of omphacite granulite: a model of syn-convergent exhumation (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic)

    Abstract The exhumation of eclogite facies granulites (Omp,Plg,Grt,Qtz,Rt) in the Rychleby Mts, eastern Czech Republic, was a localised process initiated by buckling of crustal layers in a thickened orogenic root. Folding and post-buckle flattening was followed by the main stage of exhumation that is characterized by vertical ductile extrusion. This process is documented by structural data, and the vertical ascent of rocks from a depth of c. 70 to c. 35 km is documented by metamorphic petrology. SHRIMP 206Pb/238U and 207Pb/206Pb evaporation zircon ages of 342 ± 5 and 341.4 ± 0.7 Ma date peak metamorphic conditions. The next stage of exhumation was associated with sideways flat thrusting associated with lateral viscous spreading of granulites and surrounding rocks over indenting adjacent continental crust at a depth of c. 35,30 km. This stage was associated with syntectonic intrusion of a granodiorite sill at 345,339 Ma, emplaced at a crustal depth of c. 25 km. The time required for cooling of the sill as well as for heating of the country rocks brackets this event to a maximum of 250 000 years. Therefore, similar ages of crystallization for the granodiorite magma and the peak of eclogite facies metamorphism of the granulite suggest a very short period of exhumation, limited by the analytical errors of the dating methods. Our calculations suggest that the initial exhumation rate during vertical extrusion was 3,15 mm yr,1, followed by an exhumation rate of 24,40 mm yr,1 during further uplift along a magma-lubricated shear zone. The extrusion stage of exhumation was associated with a high cooling rate, which decreased during the stage of lateral spreading. [source]


    Zhijun Jin
    Reservoir rocks at the Tazhong 45 oil pool, central Tarim Basin, consist of fluoritized carbonate strata of Middle - Late Ordovician age. Petrological observations indicate that the fluorite replaces calcite. Several other hydrothermal minerals including pyrite, quartz, sphalerite and chlorite accompany the fluorite. Two generations of fluid inclusions are present in the fluorite. Homogenization temperatures (Th) for primary inclusions are mostly between 260°C and 310°C and represent the temperature of the hydrothermal fluid responsible for fluorite precipitation. Th for secondary inclusions range from 100°C to 130°C, and represent the hydrocarbon charging temperature as shown by the presence of hydrocarbons trapped in some secondary inclusions. The mineral assemblage and the homogenization temperatures of the primary fluid inclusions indicate that the precipitation of fluorite is related to hydrothermal activity in the Tazhong area. Strontium isotope analyses imply that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for fluorite precipitation are related to late-stage magmatic activity, and felsic magmas were generated by mixing of mafic magma and crustal materials during the Permian. Theoretical calculations show that the molecular volume of a carbonate rock decreases by 33.5% when calcite is replaced by fluorite, and the volume shrinkage can greatly enhance reservoir porosity by the formation of abundant intercrystalline pores. Fluoritization has thus greatly enhanced the reservoir quality of Ordovician carbonates in the Tazhong 45 area, so that the fluorite and limestone host rocks have become an efficient hydrocarbon reservoir. According to the modelled burial and thermal history of the Tazhong 45 well, and the homogenization temperatures of secondary fluid inclusions in the fluorite, hydrocarbon charging at the Tazhong 45 reservoir took place in the Tertiary. [source]

    Crystallization of Silicate Magmas Deciphered Using Crystal Size Distributions

    Bruce D. Marsh
    The remoteness and inhospitable nature of natural silicate magma make it exceedingly difficult to study in its natural setting deep beneath volcanoes. Although laboratory experiments involving molten rock are routinely performed, it is the style and nature of crystallization under natural conditions that is important to understand. This is where the crystal size distributions (CSD) method becomes fundamentally valuable. Just as chemical thermodynamics offers a quantitative macroscopic means of investigating chemical processes that occur at the atomic level, crystal size distribution theory quantitatively relates the overall observed spectrum of crystal sizes to both the kinetics of crystallization and the physical processes affecting the population of crystals themselves. Petrography, which is the qualitative study of rock textures, is the oldest, most comprehensively developed, and perhaps most beautiful aspect of studying magmatic rocks. It is the ultimate link to the kinetics of crystallization and the integrated space,time history of evolution of every magma. CSD analysis offers a quantitative inroad to unlocking and quantifying the observed textures of magmatic rocks. Perhaps the most stunning feature of crystal-rich magmatic rocks is that the constituent crystal populations show smooth and often quasi-linear log-normal distributions of negative slope when plotted as population density against crystal size. These patterns are decipherable using CSD theory, and this method has proven uniquely valuable in deciphering the kinetics of crystallization of magma. The CSD method has been largely developed in chemical engineering by Randolph and Larson,1,2 among many others, for use in understanding industrial crystallization processes, and its introduction to natural magmatic systems began in 1988. The CSD approach is particularly valuable in its ease of application to complex systems. It is an aid to classical kinetic theory by being, in its purest form, free of any atomistic assumptions regarding crystal nucleation and growth. Yet the CSD method provides kinetic information valuable to understanding the connection between crystal nucleation and growth and the overall cooling and dynamics of magma. It offers a means of investigating crystallization in dynamic systems, involving both physical and chemical processes, independent of an exact kinetic theory. The CSD method applied to rocks shows a systematic and detailed history of crystal nucleation and growth that forms the foundation of a comprehensive and general model of magma solidification. [source]

    39Ar- 40Ar dating of the Zagami Martian shergottite and implications for magma origin of excess 40Ar

    Donald D. BOGARD
    1992, 1999). Like several shergottites, Zagami contains excess 40Ar relative to its formation age. To understand the origin of this excess 40Ar, we made 39Ar- 40Ar analyses on plagioclase and pyroxene minerals from two phases representing different stages in the magma evolution. Surprisingly, all these separates show similar concentrations of excess 40Ar, ,1 × 10,6 cm3/g. We present arguments against this excess 40Ar having been introduced from the Martian atmosphere as impact glass. We also present evidence against excess 40Ar being a partially degassed residue from a basalt that actually formed ,4 Gyr ago. We utilize our experimental data on Ar diffusion in Zagami and evidence that it was shock-heated to only ,70 °C, and we assume this heating occurred during an ejection from Mars ,3 Myr ago. With these constraints, thermal considerations necessitates either that its ejected mass was impossibly large, or that its shock-heating temperature was an order of magnitude higher than that measured. We suggest that this excess 40Ar was inherited from the Zagami magma, and that it was introduced into the magma either by degassing of a larger volume of material or by early assimilation of old, K-rich crustal material. Similar concentrations of excess 40Ar in the analyzed separates imply that this magma maintained a relatively constant 40Ar concentration throughout its crystallization. This likely occurred through volatile degassing as the magma rose toward the surface and lithostatic pressure was released. These concepts have implications for excess 40Ar in other shergottites. [source]

    Petrology of Martian meteorite Northwest Africa 998

    Allan H. TREIMAN
    This 456-gram, partially fusion-crusted meteorite consists of (by volume) ,75% augite (core composition Wo39En39Fs22), ,9% olivine (Fo35), ,7% plagioclase (Ab61An35) as anhedra among augite and olivine, ,3.5% low-calcium pyroxenes (pigeonite and orthopyroxene) replacing or forming overgrowths on olivine and augite, ,1% titanomagnetite, and other phases including potassium feldspar, apatite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, ilmenite, and fine-grained mesostasis material. Minor secondary alteration materials include "iddingsite" associated with olivine (probably Martian), calcite crack fillings, and iron oxide/hydroxide staining (both probably terrestrial). Shock effects are limited to minor cataclasis and twinning in augite. In comparison to other nakhlites, NWA 998 contains more low-calcium pyroxenes and its plagioclase crystals are blockier. The large size of the intercumulus feldspars and the chemical homogeneity of the olivine imply relatively slow cooling and chemical equilibration in the late- and post-igneous history of this specimen, and mineral thermometers give subsolidus temperatures near 730 °C. Oxidation state was near that of the QFM buffer, from about QFM-2 in earliest crystallization to near QFM in late crystallization, and to about QFM + 1.5 in some magmatic inclusions. The replacement or overgrowth of olivine by pigeonite and orthopyroxene (with or without titanomagnetite), and the marginal replacement of augite by pigeonite, are interpreted to result from late-stage reactions with residual melts (consistent with experimental phase equilibrium relationships). Apatite is concentrated in planar zones separating apatite-free domains, which suggests that residual magma (rich in P and REE) was concentrated in planar (fracture?) zones and possibly migrated through them. Loss of late magma through these zones is consistent with the low bulk REE content of NWA 998 compared with the calculated REE content of its parent magma. [source]

    Petrology of the Miller Range 03346 nakhlite in comparison with the Yamato-000593 nakhlite

    N. IMAE
    The main-phase modal abundances are 67.7 vol% augite, 0.8 vol% olivine, and 31.5 vol% mesostasis. Among all known nakhlites, MIL 03346's modal abundance of olivine is the smallest and of mesostasis is the largest. Augite occurs as cumulus phenocrysts having a homogeneous core composition (En36,38Fs24,22Wo40), which is identical with other nakhlites. They accompany thin ferroan rims divided into inner and outer rims with a compositional gap at the boundary between the two rims. Olivine grains have magnesian cores (Fa , 55) and show normal zoning toward ferroan rims (Fa , 84). Mesostasis consists mostly of glass (26.0 vol%) with minor skeletal fayalites, skeletal titanomagnetites, acicular phosphate, massive cristobalite, and sulfides. We conclude that MIL 03346 is the most rapidly cooled nakhlite among all known nakhlites based on the petrography. We obtain the intercumulus melt composition for MIL 03346 from the mass balance calculation using the modal abundances and discuss the crystallization sequence of MIL 03346 in comparison with that of Yamato (Y-) 000593. Although magnesian olivines of Y-000593 are phenocrystic, magnesian olivine grains of MIL 03346 seem to have texturally crystallized from the intercumulus melt. After the MIL 03346 magma intruded upward to the Martian surficial zone, the magnesian olivine crystallized, and then the ferroan inner rim formed on phenocrystic core augite. The outer rim of phenocrystic augites formed after the crystallization of skeletal fayalites and skeletal titanomagnetites, resulting in a compositional gap between the inner and outer rims. Finally, glassy mesostasis formed from the residual melt. This crystallization sequence of MIL 03346 is different from those of other nakhlites, including Y-000593. [source]

    Major element and primary sulfur concentrations in Apollo 12 mare basalts: The view from melt inclusions

    These lunar basalts are likely to be genetically related by olivine accumulation (Walker et al. 1976a, b). Our results show that major element compositions of melt inclusions from samples 12009, 12075, and 12020 follow model crystallization trends from a parental liquid similar in composition to whole rock sample 12009, thereby partially confirming the olivine accumulation hypothesis. In contrast, the compositions of melt inclusions from samples 12018, 12040, and 12035 fall away from model crystallization trends, suggesting that these samples crystallized from melts compositionally distinct from the 12009 parent liquid and therefore may not be strictly cogenetic with other members of the Apollo 12 picritic basalt suite. Sulfur concentrations in melt inclusions hosted in early crystallized olivine (Fo75) are consistent with a primary magmatic composition of 1050 ppm S, or about a factor of 2 greater than whole rock compositions with 400,600 ppm S. The Apollo 12 picritic basalt parental magma apparently experienced outgassing and loss of S during transport and eruption on the lunar surface. Even with the higher estimates of primary magmatic sulfur concentrations provided by the melt inclusions, the Apollo 12 picritic basalt magmas would have been undersaturated in sulfide in their mantle source regions and capable of transporting chalcophile elements from the lunar mantle to the surface. Therefore, the measured low concentration of chalcophile elements (e.g., Cu, Au, PGEs) in these lavas must be a primary feature of the lunar mantle and is not related to residual sulfide remaining in the mantle during melting. We estimate the sulfur concentration of the Apollo 12 mare basalt source regions to be ,75 ppm, which is significantly lower than that of the terrestrial mantle. [source]

    Lunar regolith breccia Dhofar 287B: A record of lunar volcanism

    S. I. Demidova
    The present study is directed mainly at the breccia portion of this meteorite. This breccia consists of a variety of lithic clasts and mineral fragments set in a fine-grained matrix and minor impact melt. The majority of clasts and minerals appear to have been mainly derived from the low-Ti basalt suite, similar to that of Dho 287A. Very low-Ti (VLT) basalts are a minor lithology of the breccia. These are significantly lower in Mg# and slightly higher in Ti compared to Luna 24 and Apollo 17 VLT basalts. Picritic glasses constitute another minor component of the breccia and are compositionally similar to Apollo 15 green glasses. Dho 287B also contains abundant fragments of Mg-rich pyroxene and anorthite-rich plagioclase grains that are absent in the lithic clasts. Such fragments appear to have been derived from a coarse-grained, Mg#-rich, Na-poor lithology. A KREEP component is apparent in chemistry, but no highlands lithologies were identified. The Dho 287 basaltic lithologies cannot be explained by near-surface fractionation of a single parental magma. Instead, magma compositions are represented by a picritic glass; a low-Ti, Na-poor glass; and a low-Ti, Na-enriched source (similar to the Dho 287A parental melt). Compositional differences among parent melts could reflect inhomogeneity of the lunar mantle. Alternatively, the low-Ti, Na-poor, and Dho 287A parent melts could be of hybrid compositions, resulting from assimilation of KREEP by picritic magma. Thus, the Dho 287B breccia contains lithologies from multiple magmatic eruptions, which differed in composition, formational conditions, and cooling histories. Based on this study, the Dho 287 is inferred to have been ejected from a region located distal to highlands terrains, possibly from the western limb of the lunar nearside, dominated by mare basalts and KREEP-rich lithologies. [source]

    A petrologic and trace element study of Dar al Gani 476 and Dar al Gani 489: Twin meteorites with affinities to basaltic and lherzolitic shergottites

    Having resided in a hot desert environment for an extended time, DaG 476 and DaG 489 were subjected to terrestrial weathering that significantly altered their chemical composition. In particular, analyses of some of the silicates show light rare earth element (LREE)-enrichment resulting from terrestrial alteration. In situ measurement of trace element abundances in minerals allows us to identify areas unaffected by this contamination and, thereby, to infer the petrogenesis of these meteorites. No significant compositional differences between DaG 476 and DaG 489 were found, supporting the hypothesis that they belong to the same fall. These meteorites have characteristics in common with both basaltic and lherzolitic shergottites, possibly suggesting spatial and petrogenetic associations of these two types of lithologies on Mars. However, the compositions of Fe-Ti oxides and the size of Eu anomalies in the earliest-formed pyroxenes indicate that the two Saharan meteorites probably experienced more reducing crystallization conditions than other shergottites (with the exception of Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 94201). As is the case for other shergottites, trace element microdistributions in minerals of the DaG martian meteorites indicate that closed-system crystal fractionation from a LREE-depleted parent magma dominated their crystallization history. Furthermore, rare earth element abundances in the orthopyroxene megacrysts are consistent with their origin as xenocrysts rather than phenocrysts. [source]

    The Ashele VMS-type Cu-Zn Deposit in Xinjiang, NW China Formed in a Rifted Arc Setting

    RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Bo Wan
    Abstract The Ashele Cu-Zn deposit is a typical VMS deposit in Chinese Altay located in the southern margin of the Altaid orogen. The deposit occurred in the polyphase fold system, and the main orebody is located at the hinge of the syncline. All orebodies show lenticular form, and are stratabound by a suite of early to middle Devonian bimodal volcanic rocks. The hosting basalt is low K tholeiite and characterized with high Mg, Fe, Ca and low K, Ti. These basalts show flat REE pattern with Ce negative anomaly (Ce/Ce* 0.73,0.76). Niobium, Ta, Zr, Hf are depleted and Rb, Ba, Th, U, Sr, Pb are enriched with respect to the N-MORB. Both the Sr and Nd isotopes show depleted properties, while the (87Sr/86Sr)i and the ,Nd(t) range from 0.70469 to 0.70488 and 4.6 to 5.3, respectively. All geochemical and isotopic data from the hosting basalt show that it originates from an island arc source. We also report the S isotope data from the massive orebody, and ,34S, change from 1.8, to 5.6,. The S isotope data provide evidence that the sulfur originates from a mixing source between magma and seawater sulfate. We propose that the mafic magma provides the ore-forming metal and some percentage of sulfur, while it also acts as a heat engine which makes the fluids leach the metal from the underlying volcanic rocks. Combining the geological characteristics of the Ashele and geochemical data, and comparing with other Cu-Zn VMS deposits in the world, we propose that Ashele formed in a rifted arc setting. [source]

    REE, Mn, Fe, Mg and C, O Isotopic Geochemistry of Calcites from Furong Tin Deposit, South China: Evidence for the Genesis of the Hydrothermal Ore-forming Fluids

    RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Yan Shuang
    Abstract The Furong tin deposit in the central Nanling region, South China, consists of three main types of mineralization ores, i.e. skarn-, altered granite- and greisen-type ores, hosted in Carboniferous and Permian strata and Mesozoic granitic intrusions. Calcite is the dominant gangue mineral intergrown with ore bodies in the orefield. We have carried out REE, Mn, Fe, and Mg geochemical and C, and O isotopic studies on calcites to constrain the source and evolution of the ore-forming fluids. The calcites from the Furong deposit exhibit middle negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*= 0.311,0.921), except for one which has an Eu/Eu* of 1.10, with the total REE content of 5.49,133 ppm. The results show that the calcites are characterized by two types of REE distribution patterns: a LREE-enriched pattern and a flat REE pattern. The LREE-enriched pattern of calcites accompanying greisen-type ore and skarn-type ore are similar to those of Qitianling granite. The REE, Mn, Fe, and Mg abundances of calcites exhibit a decreasing tendency from granite rock mass to wall rock, i.e. these abundances of calcites associated with altered granite-type and greisen-type ores are higher than those associated with skarn-type ores. The calcites from primary ores in the Furong deposit show large variation in carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions. The ,13C and ,18O of calcites are ,0.4 to ,12.7, and 2.8 to 16.4,, respectively, and mainly fall within the range between mantle or magmatic carbon and marine carbonate. The calcites from greisen and altered granite ores in the Furong deposit display a negative correlation in the diagram of ,13C versus ,18O, probably owing to the CO2 -degassing of the ore-forming fluids. From the intrusion to wall-rock, the calcites display an increasing tendency with respect to ,13C values. This implies that the carbon isotopic compositions of the ore-bearing fluids have progressively changed from domination by magmatic carbon to sedimentary carbonate carbon. In combination with other geological and geochemical data, we suggest that the ore-forming fluids represent magmatic origin. We believe that the fluids exsolved from fractionation of the granitic magma, accompanying magmatism of the Qitianling granite complex, were involved in the mineralization of the Furong tin polymetallic deposit. [source]