mRNA Expression (mrna + expression)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of mRNA Expression

  • c-fo mrna expression
  • collagen mrna expression
  • cox-2 mrna expression
  • cytokine mrna expression
  • decreased mrna expression
  • foxp3 mrna expression
  • hepatic mrna expression
  • htert mrna expression
  • iNO mrna expression
  • il-18 mrna expression
  • il-4 mrna expression
  • il-6 mrna expression
  • il-8 mrna expression
  • increased mrna expression
  • inducible nitric oxide synthase mrna expression
  • kiss1 mrna expression
  • nitric oxide synthase mrna expression
  • oxide synthase mrna expression
  • rankl mrna expression
  • receptor mrna expression
  • reduced mrna expression
  • relative mrna expression
  • snail mrna expression
  • synthase mrna expression
  • vegf mrna expression

  • Terms modified by mRNA Expression

  • mrna expression analysis
  • mrna expression level
  • mrna expression pattern
  • mrna expression profile

  • Selected Abstracts

    Quantitative Analysis of Cytokine mRNA Expression in Hearts from Patients with Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM)

    Akira Ukimura
    To evaluate the role of cytokines in nonischemic DCM, we analyzed the relative quantity of cytokine mRNA expression in the hearts from DCM patients with refractory heart failure, using the ABI PRISM7700 real-time PCR system. We used heart tissues resected from 32 DCM patients at the time of elective partial ventriculectomy (PLV), and five biopsy specimens with normal histological findings as control. Results and Discussion: Interleukin (IL)-1,, IL-10, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-, mRNA were expressed at low levels in all normal hearts. The number of IL-10-positive DCM cases was significantly smaller than normal controls (P = 0.0036). One (10%) of 10 DCM patients with IL-10 mRNA expression died after PLV, and 10 (45%) of 22 DCM patients without IL-10 mRNA expression died. IL-1, mRNA was overexpressed (over twice the mean of control subjects) in 15 of 32, and TNF-, mRNA in 10 of 32 patients. We propose the classification of DCM patients into subgroups on the basis of cytokine mRNA expression. Anticytokine therapy or cytokine therapy may have potential in improving the condition of heart failure in certain subgroups of DCM patients. Conclusions: We suggest that DCM patients with heart failure deteriorate without IL-10 mRNA expression in the myocardium. The classification of DCM patients into subgroups on the basis of cytokine mRNA expression may have great value in considering the treatment of this heterogeneous disease state. (J CARD SURG 2003;18 (Suppl 2):S101-S108) [source]

    Atrial Fibrillation in the Goat Induces Changes in Monophasic Action Potential and mRNA Expression of Ion Channels Involved in Repolarization

    MAP Changes and Ion Channel Expression in Goat AF. Introduction: Sustained atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by a marked shortening of the atrial effective refractory period (AKRP) and a decrease or reversal of its physiolonic adaptation to heart rate. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the AF-induced changes in AKKP in the goat are associated with changes in the atrial monophasic action potential (MAP) and whether an abnormal expression of specific ion channels underlies such changes. Methods and Results: Following thoracotomy, MAPs were recorded from the free wall of the right atrium hoth before induction of AF (control) and after cardioversion of sustained AF (>2 months) in chronically instrumented goats. In control goats. MAP duration at 80% repolarization (MAPD80) shortened (P < 0.01) from 132 ± 4 msec during slow pacing (400-msec interval) to 86 ± 10 msec during fast pacing (180 msec). After cardioversion of sustained AF, the MAPD80, during slow pacing was as short as 67 ± 5 msec (electrical remodeling). Increasing the pacing rate resulted in prolongation (P = 0.02) of the MAPD80 to 91 ± 6 msec. Also. MAPD20 (20% repolarization) shortened (P = 0.05) from 32 ± 4 msec (400 msec) to 14 ± 7 msec (180 msec) in the control goats, whereas it prolonged (P = 0.03) from 20 ± 3 msec (400 msec) to 33 ± 5 msec (180 msec) in sustained AF, mRNA expression of the L-type Ca2+ channel ,1c gene and Kv1.5 potassium channel gene, which underlie Ica, and Ikur respectively, was reduced in sustained.AF compared with sinus rhythm hy 32% (P = 0.01) and 45% (P < 0.01). respectively. No significant changes were found in the mRNA levels of the rapid Na+ channel, the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, or the Kv4.2/4.3 channels responsible for I10. Conclusion: AF-induced electrical remodeling in the goat comprises shortening of MAPD and reversal of its physiologic rate adaptation. Changes in the time course of reploarization of the action potential are associated with changes in mRNA expression of the , subunit genes of the L.-type Ca2+ channel and the Kvl.5 potassium channel. [source]

    Neonatal Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Delays Puberty and Alters Hypothalamic Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA Expression in the Female Rat

    A. M. I. Knox
    Immunological challenge experienced in early life can have long-term programming effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that permanently influence the stress response. Similarly, neonatal exposure to immunological stress enhances stress-induced suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis in adulthood, but may also affect earlier development, including the timing of puberty. To investigate the timing of the critical window for this programming of the HPG axis, neonatal female rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 ,g/kg i.p.) or saline on postnatal days 3 + 5, 7 + 9, or 14 + 16 and monitored for vaginal opening and first vaginal oestrus as markers of puberty. We also investigated the effects of neonatal programming on the development of the expression patterns of kisspeptin (Kiss1) and its receptor (Kiss1r) in hypothalamic sites known to contain kisspeptin-expressing neuronal populations critical to reproductive function: the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and the arcuate nucleus in neonatally-stressed animals. We determined that the critical period for a significant delay in puberty as a result of neonatal LPS exposure is before 7 days of age in the female rat, and demonstrated that Kiss1, but not Kiss1r mRNA, expression in the mPOA is down-regulated in pre-pubertal females. These data suggest that the mPOA population of kisspeptin neurones play a pivotal role in controlling the onset of puberty, and that their function can be affected by neonatal stress. [source]

    Diurnal Change of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone mRNA Expression in the Rat Pars Tuberalis

    S. Aizawa
    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-producing cells (TSH cells), which account for a large fraction of the cells in the rat pars tuberalis (PT), have been found to express MT1 melatonin receptor and mammalian clock genes at high densities. Although these findings suggest that TSH production in the rat PT is regulated by melatonin and/or the biological clock, there have been no studies focusing on the diurnal change and regulation mechanism of TSH production in the rat PT. Therefore, in the present study, we examined diurnal changes of in TSH, and ,-glycoprotein subunit (,GSU) mRNA expression and TSH immunoreactivity (-ir) in the rat PT, and also examined the relationship between melatonin and TSH production in vivo. Both TSH, mRNA expression and ,GSU mRNA expression in the PT showed diurnal variations: the expression levels were lowest at the light phase [Zeitgeber time (ZT)4] and high at the dark phase (ZT12 and ZT20). TSH-ir in the PT showed the lowest level at ZT4, as was found for mRNA expression. Interestingly, TSH-ir, which was confined to the Golgi apparatus at ZT4, spread to the cytoplasm, and most of the TSH cells in the PT were uniformly immunostained in the cytoplasm at ZT20. Despite the fact that chronic administration of melatonin suppressed TSH, and ,GSU mRNA expression, TSH-ir in the PT was significantly enhanced. These findings results clearly show that there are diurnal changes in TSH expression and accumulation in rat PT-TSH cells and suggest that these fluctuations are regulated by melatonin. [source]

    Pituitary mRNA Expression of the Growth Hormone Axis in the 1-Year-Old Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rat

    T. Prins
    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is one of the major causes of short stature in childhood. Abnormalities in the growth hormone (GH) axis have frequently been observed in children who are born intrauterine growth restricted and GH treatment is effective to improve final height. However, the way that the GH axis is involved is not fully understood. Previously, when investigating the effect of IUGR on the central somatotrophic axis, a hypothalamic effect was discovered with elevated somatostatin and decreased neuropeptide Y mRNA expression levels, whereas serum GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) were unaltered. These findings were thought to indicate a hypothalamic alteration of the GH axis due to IUGR, probably to compensate pituitary output, thereby normalising peripheral values of GH and IGFI. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of IUGR on the pituitary GH axis in this rat model. Pups from rats that underwent bilateral uterine artery ligation at day 17 of pregnancy were studied. Pituitary glands were collected from 1-year-old offspring for quantitative measurements of GH, GH-receptor (GH-R), GH-releasing hormone receptor (GHRH-R), somatostatin receptor subtype 2 and 5, IGFI and IGFI receptor mRNA levels using a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, liver GH-R and IGFI mRNA expression levels were measured and a radioimmunoassay was performed to determine serum IGFI levels. In the IUGR rat, levels of pituitary GH, GH-R and GHRH-R relative gene expression (RGE) were increased. No differences were found in the RGE level of all other pituitary growth factors, liver GH-R and IGFI, and serum IGFI concentration between IUGR and control rats. The present data show that intrauterine growth failure leads to changes in the pituitary that might counterbalance the effects found previously in the hypothalamus. [source]

    Effect of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide on Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone mRNA Expression in GT1-7 Cells

    J. S. Kinsey-Jones
    Abstract Recent evidence has shown calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) to be a key mediator of stress-induced suppression of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator, although little is known about the neural pathways involved. In the present study, we investigated the potential direct action of CGRP on GnRH neurones using GT1-7 cells, an established GnRH cell line. First, we detected expression of the CGRP receptor subunits, calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein-1 in the GT1-7 cells by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Second, we have shown that CGRP inhibits GnRH mRNA expression in the GT1-7 cells, which was effectively reversed by the CGRP receptor antagonist, CGRP8-37. These results suggest that CGRP down regulates expression of GnRH mRNA, via CGRP receptors in the GT1-7 cell, thus implying that a potential direct action of CGRP may mediate a suppressive effect on the GnRH neural network. [source]

    The Inhibition of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Reverts Arthritic-Induced Decrease in Pituitary Growth Hormone mRNA But Not in Liver Insulin-Like Growth Factor I mRNA Expression

    I. Ibáñez De Cáceres
    Abstract Experimental arthritis induced by Freund-adjuvant administration is a model of chronic inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis associated with a decrease in pituitary growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) gene expression. Excessive nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory illness. Moreover, NO participates in the regulation of GH secretion at both the hypothalamus and the pituitary. We have examined the role of iNOS activation in producing the changes in the GH-IGF-I axis in arthritic rats. Adult male Wistar rats received aminoguanidine or vehicle from day 20, after adjuvant or vehicle injection, until day 28. Two hours and 30 min after the last aminoguanidine injection, all rats were killed by decapitation. Arthritis increased hypothalamic expression of somatostatin mRNA while it decreased pituitary GH mRNA expression, and both effects were prevented by aminoguanidine administration. In arthritic rats, the parallel decrease in serum IGF-I, and in hepatic IGF-I content and mRNA expression, correlates with the decrease in circulating GH concentrations. Aminoguanidine administration to arthritic rats did not modify either serum GH or serum IGF-I concentrations, or hepatic IGF-I mRNA expression. However, aminoguanidine administration to control rats resulted in a decrease in serum GH concentrations and in a decrease in both hepatic IGF-I mRNA expression and serum IGF-I concentrations. These data suggest that NO mediates the arthritis-induced decrease in GH mRNA expression by acting at a hypothalamic level, but it is not involved in the decrease in hepatic IGF-I mRNA expression. [source]

    APJ Receptor mRNA Expression in the Rat Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus: Regulation By Stress and Glucocorticoids

    A.-M. O'Carroll
    Abstract The apelin receptor (APJ receptor, APJR) has recently come to prominence following the isolation and identification of its endogenous ligand, apelin, from bovine stomach tissue extracts. Investigation of APJR mRNA expression has revealed a hypothalamic distribution similar to that of vasopressin suggesting that the apelin,APJR system may be involved in the regulation of the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) stress axis. To investigate whether APJR is involved in the regulation of hypothalamic function during stress, APJR mRNA expression levels were measured by in situ hybridization in the hypothalamus of rats subjected to acute and repeated restraint stress. Acute stress caused an increase in APJR mRNA expression in the hypothalamic parvocellular paraventricular nucleus (pPVN) while repeated restraint stress induced a sustained up-regulation of pPVN APJR mRNA expression in intact rats. Removal of endogenous glucocorticoids by adrenalectomy also resulted in an increased expression of APJR mRNA in the PVN, suggesting a negative regulation of APJR mRNA expression by glucocorticoids. The role of glucocorticoids in mediating these stress-induced changes was investigated by analysing the effects of acute and repeated restraint stress on APJR mRNA levels in adrenalectomized rats. In these rats, APJR mRNA expression levels did not change above the already elevated levels of adrenalectomized-control rats. These data suggest that acute and repeated stress exert a stimulatory influence on APJR mRNA expression at the hypothalamic level that may be dependent on basal levels of circulating glucocorticoids, and further suggest a role for APJR in the regulation of hypothalamic function. [source]

    The Effects of the Phytoestrogen, Coumestrol, on Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) mRNA Expression in GT1-7 GnRH Neurones

    J. Bowe
    Abstract Phytoestrogens can produce inhibitory effects on gonadotropin secretion in both animals and humans, although little is known about the mechanisms and the role of direct action on oestrogen receptors (ER) in this process. We examined the effect of coumestrol, alone and combined with ER antagonists, on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA expression in GT1-7 cells. Coumestrol was found to have an inhibitory effect compared to controls, which was blocked by R,R -THC, a selective ER, antagonist. These results suggest that ER, is involved in the suppression of GnRH mRNA expression by coumestrol. [source]

    Study of mRNA Expression by Real Time PCR of Cpkk1, Cpkk2 and Cpkk3, three MEKs of Cryphonectria parasitica, in Virus-free and Virus-infected Isogenic Isolates

    Laura Rostagno
    Abstract Cpkk1 and Cpkk2 are two previously characterized Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MEK) from Cryphonectria parasitica. For the characterization of the third MEK, primers designed to a conserved region of the known fungal MEK sequences were used in a PCR reaction to amplify genomic DNA from C. parasitica. The sequence of the resulting amplicon was compared to known sequences in the database using a Blast search. Results of the sequence comparison indicated that the initial fragment obtained encoded for a new MEK from C. parasitica, that had highest homology to Pbs2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By inverse PCR we obtained a genomic fragment spanning the entire coding sequence of this MEK, which was named Cpkk3. The cDNA of Cpkk3 was obtained by compiling the sequences of RT-PCR products resulting from the amplification of purified mRNA. TaqMan® Probes were designed to analyse the expression of Cpkk1, Cpkk2 and Cpkk3 mRNA through RT-Real Time PCR. This protocol allowed the expression of Cpkk3 to be successfully compared to the expression of Cpkk1 and Cpkk2, two previously cloned C. parasitica MEKs. No variation in expression was associated with the presence of a virus after 2 days of growth in standard conditions whereas an increase in the expression level of all the three MEKs was shown after 4 days of growth. [source]

    Electroacupuncture Inhibits Ethanol-Induced Locomotor Sensitization and Alters homer1A mRNA Expression in Mice

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2009
    Jair Guilherme Dos Santos Jr
    Background:, Here we investigated the effects of electroacupuncture over locomotor sensitization induced by ethanol in mice. Methods:, Adult male Swiss mice were daily injected with ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) or saline for 21 days (acquisition phase). After 4 days of withdrawal, all animals were challenged with ethanol (1.4 g/kg, i.p.). The locomotor activity during 30 minutes was accessed just after the ethanol challenge. Electroacupuncture at acquisition, expression, or maintenance phases of locomotor sensitization was provided over ST-36 (Zusanli) or PC-6 (Neiguan) as well as concomitantly over these 2 acupoints. One hour after the challenge with ethanol, the animals were decapitated, the hippocampus, striatum, and prefrontal cortex were dissected, and the expression of homer1A mRNA assessed by PCR. Results:, Electroacupuncture provided simultaneously over ST-36 and PC-6 (but not to ST-36 or PC-6 alone) inhibited the acquisition, expression, and maintenance of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization. In addition, electroacupuncture blocked the diminution of homer1A mRNA expression triggered by ethanol in the acquisition (striatum and prefrontal cortex), expression (hippocampus), and in the maintenance (hippocampus and prefrontal cortex) phases. Conclusion:, Electroacupuncture provided concomitantly over ST-36 and PC-6 prevents the sensitization of the mesocorticolimbic pathway induced by ethanol in mice. In addition, these effects were accompanied by changes in the expression of homer1A. We suggest that electroacupuncture effects over ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization are associated to its ability to modulate homer1A expression and glutamatergic plasticity. [source]

    Epigenetic DNA Hypermethylation of the HERP Gene Promoter Induces Down-regulation of Its mRNA Expression in Patients With Alcohol Dependence

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2006
    Stefan Bleich
    Background: Elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations can influence genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation in peripheral blood cells. The aim of this study was to investigate in patients with alcohol dependence, who show chronically elevated homocysteine levels, whether DNA methylation pattern within the HERP (homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum protein) promoter region and expression of HERP mRNA is altered. Methods: The HERP mRNA expression level was measured by quantitative PCR in the blood of 66 male alcoholic patients and 55 nondrinking healthy controls. Epigenetic genomic DNA methylation status and HERP promoter methylation were measured with a nonradioactive elongation assay. Results: We observed a significant increase (7.6%) in the HERP promoter DNA methylation in patients with alcohol dependence (t test, t=,2.45, p<0.02) when compared with healthy controls (80.4%, SD 14.5), which was significantly associated with their elevated homocysteine levels (multiple linear regression, p<0.007). Furthermore, we found a significantly lower HERP mRNA expression in patients with alcohol dependence (t test, ,7.61 ,CT; SD 1.87, p<0.001) when compared with healthy controls (,6.04 ,CT; SD 2.41). The lowered HERP mRNA expression in alcoholic patients was best explained by the hypermethylation of the regulatory HERP gene promoter (regression analysis, p=0.004). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating HERP mRNA expression and its specific gene promoter methylation in alcoholic patients. As hypermethylation of DNA is an important epigenetic factor in the down-regulation of gene expression, and as HERP has been considered to play an essential role within the intracellular defense system, these findings may be useful in the understanding and treatment of different disease conditions associated with alcohol dependence. [source]

    Increased Lipopolysaccharide Sensitivity in Alcoholic Fatty Livers Is Independent of Leptin Deficiency and Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) or TLR2 mRNA Expression

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2005
    Laszlo Romics Jr
    Background: Both alcoholic (AFL) and nonalcoholic (NAFL) fatty livers show increased sensitivity to endotoxin-induced injury. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is recognized by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), whereas lipopeptide triggers TLR2 to induce common downstream activation of nuclear factor (NF)-,B and pro-inflammatory pathways that are activated in AFL and NAFL. Methods: Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-,, and interleukin (IL)-6 levels; hepatic NF-,B activity; and expression of TLR2, TLR4, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNAs were investigated in lean and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice after LPS challenge in combination with acute or chronic alcohol feeding. Results: Increased LPS sensitivity in AFL and NAFL was characterized by elevated serum TNF-, and IL-6 induction. However, there was no difference in TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA levels between lean and ob/ob livers at baseline and after acute or chronic alcohol treatment. LPS increased TLR2, but not TLR4, mRNA levels in all groups. Chronic alcohol feeding and LPS increased serum ALT and TNF-, levels in lean but not in ob/ob mice compared with pair-fed controls. Hepatic NF-,B activation was increased in both ob/ob and lean mice after chronic alcohol feeding compared with pair-fed controls. Expression of iNOS, an inducer of oxidative stress, and HO-1, a cytoprotective protein, were higher in ob/ob compared with lean mice after chronic alcohol feeding. However, LPS-induced HO-1, but not iNOS, expression was attenuated in ob/ob compared with lean mice. Conclusion: These results imply that the increased sensitivity of AFL to LPS occurs without up-regulation of TLR2 or TLR4 genes and may be related to an imbalance of pro-inflammatory/oxidative and cytoprotective mechanisms. [source]

    Chronic Ethanol-Induced Subtype- and Subregion-Specific Decrease in the mRNA Expression of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors in Rat Hippocampus

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2004
    Agnes Simonyi
    Background: Chronic ethanol consumption is known to induce adaptive changes in the hippocampal glutamatergic transmission and alter NMDA receptor binding and subunit expression. Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors have been shown to function as modulators of neuronal excitability and can fine tune glutamatergic transmission. This study was aimed to determine whether chronic ethanol treatment could change the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of mGlu receptors in the hippocampus. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley® rats were fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet with 5% (w/v) ethanol or isocaloric amount of maltose for 2 months. Quantitative in situ hybridization was carried out using coronal brain sections through the hippocampus. Results: The results revealed decreases in mRNA expression of several mGlu receptors in different subregions of the hippocampus. In the dentate gyrus, mGlu3 and mGlu5 receptor mRNA levels were significantly lower in the ethanol-treated rats than in the control rats. In the CA3 region, the mRNA expression of mGlu1, mGlu5, and mGlu7 receptors showed substantial decreases after ethanol exposure. The mGlu7 receptor mRNA levels were also declined in the CA1 region and the polymorph layer of the dentate gyrus. No changes were found in mRNA expression of mGlu2, mGlu4, and mGlu8 receptors. Conclusions: Considering the involvement of hippocampal mGlu receptors in learning and memory processes as well as in neurotoxicity and seizure production, the reduced expression of these receptors might contribute to ethanol withdrawal-induced seizures and also may play a role in cognitive deficits and brain damage caused by long-term ethanol consumption. [source]

    Grape Polyphenols Inhibit Chronic Ethanol-Induced COX-2 mRNA Expression in Rat Brain

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2002
    Agnes Simonyi
    Background: Chronic ethanol has been shown to increase oxidative stress leading to neurodegenerative changes in the brain. Oxidative stress may up-regulate extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK1/2) and, subsequently, the arachidonic acid cascade mediated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Our earlier study showed that grape polyphenols (GP) could ameliorate oxidative damage to synaptic membrane proteins due to chronic ethanol treatment. This study was aimed at examining the effects of GP on mRNA expression of ERK1/2, cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), and COX-2 in different brain regions after chronic ethanol treatment. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet with ethanol or isocaloric amount of maltose, with or without GP for 2 months. In situ hybridization was carried out using coronal brain sections through the hippocampus. Results: Quantitative in situ hybridization showed no changes in ERK1 and cPLA2 mRNA levels in cortical areas and hippocampus after ethanol and/or GP administration. However, a decrease in ERK2 and an increase in COX-2 mRNA level was found in the hippocampus of ethanol-treated animals. GP completely inhibited the increase in COX-2 due to ethanol treatment. Conclusion: Increase in COX-2 expression may be an underlying mechanism for the increase in oxidative stress induced by chronic ethanol administration. Dietary supplementation of GP may have a beneficial role in inhibiting certain alcohol effects. [source]

    Uterine Progesterone Receptor and Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor mRNA Expression in Canine Pregnancy

    S Schäfer-Somi
    Contents The study investigated the expression of genes for progesterone receptor (PR) and for the cytokine leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in the uterine tube and uterine horn tissues from pregnant and non-pregnant bitches. The aim was to study whether a relation existed between the likely biological effectiveness of progesterone (P4) and the change in the uterine expression of LIF mRNA during pregnancy, as has been described in primates. For this purpose, 20 pregnant bitches were ovariohysterectomized after being allotted to three groups according to gestational age (pre-implantation: days 10 to 12, n = 7; peri-implantation: days 18 to 25, n = 7; post-placentation: days 28 to 45, n = 7). Tissue samples were obtained from the uterine tubes, one uterine horn (including placentation sites and interplacental sites in bitches that had already implanted) and the corpus uteri, stored at ,80°C, and then analysed by qualitative and quantitative PCR for PR and LIF mRNA expression. From the pre-implantation to the placentation stage, a decrease in the relative expression of PR mRNA in uterine tissue was obvious and significant when expressed relative to ,-actin (11.2 ± 6.8 vs 2.7 ± 1.9; p < 0.05). However, over the same period, the relative expression of LIF mRNA increased (10.1 ± 16.1 vs 50.0 ± 32.3; p < 0.05). In addition, PR mRNA went from being detectable to no longer detectable in the uterine tube, and no longer detectable in interplacental-site uterine tissue. We conclude that LIF is important for the establishment of canine pregnancy; that decreased uterine PR mRNA expression may contribute to the increase in uterine LIF mRNA; and, that the ability of the embryo to preserve PR mRNA expression at implantation and placentation sites while expression is lost in the remainder of the uterus represent an effect important to the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. We additionally propose that canine embryo secretory proteins have a regulatory effect on both PR and LIF before as well as at and after implantation. [source]

    Bovine Endothelial Cells Interact with Fully-luteinized, but Not Luteinizing, Granulosa Cells in the mRNA Expression of Endothelin-1 System in Response to Prostaglandin F2,

    K Shirasuna
    Contents The corpus luteum (CL) undergoes regression by prostaglandin (PG)F2, from uterus and endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays an important role during luteolysis as a local mediator of PGF2, in the cow. Endothelial cells (EC) and luteal cells are main cell types making up the CL and their interactions are vital for CL function. We aimed to examine the relevance of interactions between EC and luteal cells on stimulation of genes which involved ET-1 synthesis by PGF2,. We further focused the impact of maturity of luteal cells on the stimulation of the genes. To make a microenvironment which resembles the CL, we used bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) and luteinizing or fully-luteinized granulosa cells (GC) and evaluated the effect of PGF2, on the expression for mRNA of ET-1 system by using real-time RT-PCR. PGF2, stimulated the expression of preproET-1 and endothelin converting enzyme-1 mRNA only in the co-cultures of BAEC with fully-luteinized GC, but not with luteinizing GC. The data suggest that interactions between BAEC and fully-luteinized GC enhance the capability of BAEC to produce ET-1 in response to PGF2,. This mechanism may contribute to the local induction of luteolytic action of PGF2, which is dependent on the age/maturation of the CL. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Endometrial Osteopontin mRNA Expression and Plasma Osteopontin Levels are Increased in Patients with Endometriosis

    SiHyun Cho
    Problem, The aim of this study was to evaluate osteopontin (OPN) mRNA expression in eutopic endometrium and plasma OPN levels in patients with endometriosis. Method of study, A total of 79 patients with histologically confirmed endometriosis and 43 patients without endometriosis participated in this study. OPN mRNA expression in endometrial tissues was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and plasma concentrations of OPN were quantified using a specific commercial sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Results, Osteopontin mRNA expression in endometrial tissue was significantly higher in women with endometriosis than in controls (P = 0.010). The mean plasma levels of OPN (mean ± S.E.M.) in patients with endometriosis and controls were 407.31 ± 37.80 ng/mL and 165.84 ± 19.29 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for plasma OPN revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.894, with a sensitivity of 93.0%, specificity of 72.4%, positive likelihood ratio of 3.37, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.1 using a cut-off value of 167.68 ng/mL. Conclusion, Osteopontin may be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and plasma OPN may be a useful non-invasive marker for the diagnosis of endometriosis. [source]

    Dominant IL-10 and TGF-, mRNA Expression in ,,T Cells of Human Early Pregnancy Decidua Suggests Immunoregulatory Potential

    PROBLEM:,To examine the cytokine gene expression in ,,T-cells from human early pregnancy decidua. METHOD OF STUDY:,The cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in isolated decidual T-cell receptor (TCR),,+/CD56+ and TCR,, single positive cells was investigated with a panel of cytokine primers and probes selected to distinguish between T helper (Th)1, Th2, Th3 and regulatory T-cells (Tr1) type of immune response using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS:,TCR,,+/CD56+ cells express almost exclusively the immunosuppressive cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-,. The TCR,, single positive cells enhance their transcription of IL-10 and TGF-,, compared with the TCR,,+/CD56+ cells and additionally express mRNA for IL-1, and IL-6. CONCLUSIONS:,The present findings suggest that ,,T cells in normal pregnancy create a cytokine milieu promoting immunotolerance to the fetus. We hypothesize that through the production of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and/or TGF-, the ,,T cells could function directly as regulatory T cells or induce the differentiation of Th0 TCR,,+ cells into regulatory/suppresser cells. [source]

    Stochasticity of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase mRNA Expression in Breast Carcinoma Cells by Molecular Beacon Imaging

    CHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 11 2005
    Timothy J. Drake
    Abstract Visual and quantitative monitoring of cell-to-cell variation in the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) mRNA by using novel ratiometric imaging with molecular beacons (MB) reveals a distinct change in patterns following induction of human breast-carcinoma cells with lipopolysaccharide. Interestingly, the pattern of cell-to-cell variation in a cell line stably transfected with a plasmid bearing a cDNA clone of MnSOD and overproducing the enzyme is significantly different from the pattern associated with MnSOD induction. The levels and the patterns of cell-population heterogeneity for ,-actin mRNA expression do not show distinct changes either following induction or in stably transfected cells. These results are significant in light of the reported relationship between this enzyme and malignant phenotype of breast-carcinoma cells. Use of MBs in ratiometric image analyses for cytoplasmic mRNAs represents a novel means of directly examining the stochasticity of transcription of MnSOD and other genes implicated in cellular phenotype regulation. [source]

    Attenuated endothelin-1 mRNA expression with endothelin-1 receptor blockade during hypoxaemia and reoxygenation in newborn piglets

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 6 2000
    S Medbø
    We investigated the cause of decreased plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) during hypoxaemia and reoxygenation in newborn piglets subjected to simultaneous blocking of the ET-1 receptors. Changes in plasma ET-1 and prepro-ET-1 mRNA expression in the main pulmonary artery and the left lower lobe in the lung were studied in 1-2-d-old piglets. Ten minutes prior to hypoxaemia, the hypoxaemia group (n = 10) was given saline, two groups (both n = 9) were given 1 and 5 mg/kg i.v. SB 217242 (an ET-1 receptor antagonist). Two groups served as normoxic controls, with and without SB 217242 5 mg/kg i.v. Hypoxaemia was induced by ventilating with 8% O2 until base excess was 20mmol/l or mean arterial blood pressure was < 20mmHg. Reoxygenation was performed for 2h with room air. During hypoxaemia, plasma ET-1 decreased in the hypoxaemia group, remained unchanged in the 1-mg group and increased in the 5-mg group. At the end of reoxygenation, plasma ET-1 was above baseline in the 1-mg and 5-mg groups. In the pulmonary artery, the hypoxaemia group showed 2- to 5-fold higher prepro-ET-1 mRNA expression compared to all the other groups (p < 0.05). There were trends for higher prepro-ET-1 mRNA expression in pulmonary tissue in the hypoxaemia group compared to the two receptor-blocking groups (p < 0.07). Conclusions: We conclude that hypoxaemia and reoxygenation increase prepro-ET-1 mRNA expression in the pulmonary artery in newborn piglets. These observations suggest that the half-life of ET-1 is decreased during hypoxaemia and reoxygenation in newborn piglets. [source]

    Downregulation of oxytocin receptors in right ventricle of rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2010
    T. L. Broderick
    Abstract Aim:, Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in the rat leads to right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy, inflammation and increased natriuretic peptide (NP) levels in plasma and RV. Because the release of nitric oxide (NO) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a function of the oxytocin receptor (OTR), we examined the effect of PH on gene and protein expression of OTR, NP (A, atrial; B, brain) and receptors (NPRs), nitric oxide synthases (NOS), interleukin (IL)-1,, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-, in the hypertrophied RV in a model of PH. Methods:, RV hypertrophy was induced in male Sprague,Dawley rats with monocrotaline (MCT; 60 mg kg,1) and was confirmed by the presence of an increased RV weight and RV-to-[left ventricle (LV) and septum] ratio. Results:, In the RV of MCT-treated rats, a ,40% reduction in OTR mRNA and protein was observed compared with the RV of control rats. This reduction was associated with increased transcripts of ANP and BNP in both ventricles and a corresponding increase in NP receptor mRNA expression for receptors A, B and C. Protein expression of inducible NOS was increased in the RV, whereas endothelial NOS transcripts were increased only in the LV of MCT-treated rats. In the RV of MCT-treated rats, downregulation of OTR was also associated with increased mRNA expression of IL-1, and IL-6. Conclusion:, Our results show that downregulation of the OTR in the RV of MCT-treated rats is associated with increased expression of NP and their receptors as well as IL-1, and IL-6. This reduction in OTR in RV myocardium may have an impact on cardiac function in the MCT-induced model of PH. [source]

    TRAF6 knockdown promotes survival and inhibits inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharides in rat primary renal proximal tubule cells

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    S. Liu
    Abstract Aim:, TRAF6 is a unique adaptor protein of the tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor family that mediates both tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) and interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1R/TLR) signalling. Activation of IL-1R/TLR and TNFR pathways in renal tubular cells contributes to renal injury. This study aimed to investigate if blockade of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered TLR4 signalling by small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting TRAF6 protects survival and inhibits inflammatory response in isolated rat renal proximal tubular cells (PTCs). Methods:, PTCs isolated from F344 rat kidneys were transfected with chemically synthesized siRNA targeting TRAF6 mRNA. Real-time quantitative PCR was applied to measure mRNA level of TRAF6, TNF-,, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Protein levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, caspase 3 and cleaved caspase 3 were evaluated by Western blotting. Cell viability was analysed with XTT reagents. Results:, We found that the TRAF6 gene was effectively silenced in PTCs using siRNA. TRAF6 knockdown resulted in reduced TNF-, and IL-6 mRNA expression upon LPS challenge. LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 was attenuated in TRAF6 siRNA-transfected cells while the change in the phosphorylation of ERK was not remarkable. TRAF6 knockdown was associated with increased cell viability and reduced protein level of cleaved caspase-3, both, in the absence and presence of LPS. Conclusion:, Our studies suggest that TRAF6 knockdown may inhibit inflammatory response and promote cell survival upon LPS challenge in primary rat proximal renal tubular cells. [source]

    Contraction-induced changes in skeletal muscle Na+,K+ pump mRNA expression , importance of exercise intensity and Ca2+ -mediated signalling

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2010
    N. B. Nordsborg
    Abstract Aim:, To investigate if exercise intensity and Ca2+ signalling regulate Na+,K+ pump mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. Methods:, The importance of exercise intensity was evaluated by having trained and untrained humans perform intense intermittent and prolonged exercise. The importance of Ca2+ signalling was investigated by electrical stimulation of rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles in combination with studies of cell cultures. Results:, Intermittent cycling exercise at ,85% of VO2peak increased (P < 0.05) ,1 and ,1 mRNA expression ,2-fold in untrained and trained subjects. In trained subjects, intermittent exercise at ,70% of VO2peak resulted in a less (P < 0.05) pronounced increase (,1.4-fold; P < 0.05) for ,1 and no change in ,1 mRNA. Prolonged low intensity exercise increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of ,1 ,3.0-fold and ,2 ,1.8-fold in untrained but not in trained subjects. Electrical stimulation of rat soleus, but not EDL, muscle increased (P < 0.05) ,1 mRNA expression, but not when combined with KN62 and cyclosporin A incubation. Ionomycin incubation of cultured primary rat skeletal muscle cells increased (P < 0.05) ,1 and reduced (P < 0.001) ,2 mRNA expression and these responses were abolished (P < 0.05) by co-incubation with cyclosporin A or KN62. Conclusion:, (1) Exercise-induced increases in Na+,K+ pump ,1 and ,1 mRNA expression in trained subjects are more pronounced after high- than after moderate- and low-intensity exercise. (2) Both prolonged low and short-duration high-intensity exercise increase ,1 mRNA expression in untrained subjects. (3) Ca2+i regulates ,1 mRNA expression in oxidative muscles via Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) and calcineurin signalling pathways. [source]

    Hypocretin/orexin in fish physiology with emphasis on zebrafish

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    P. Panula
    Abstract One hypocretin/orexin (hcrt) gene has been identified in several fish species. The first pufferfish gene was identified in 2002 and the zebrafish gene was cloned in 2004. Its structure is very similar to that of mammals, and it encodes for two active peptides with C-termini similar to those of mammals. The gene is expressed in the brain in only one hypothalamic nucleus, which sends projections to the telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon. The terminal fibres are found in close contact with many aminergic cell groups, including those of raphe serotonergic, locus coeruleus noradrenergic, several dopaminergic cell groups and the sole histaminergic hypothalamic cluster. One receptor corresponding to mammalian hcrt 2 receptor has been identified in fish. Overexpression of hcrt in zebrafish has been reported to consolidate wakefulness and inhibit rest. On the other hand, fish lacking the hcrt receptor show short and fragmented sleep instead of sleepiness and cataplexy. Food deprivation increases hcrt mRNA expression in zebrafish brain, and intracerebroventricular hcrt peptides stimulate food consumption and feeding behaviour in goldfish. Hcrt peptides thus have important roles in fish physiology. Many genetic and functional methods available render fish, especially zebrafish, a suitable organism to study new aspects of hcrt physiology in vertebrates. [source]

    Training response of mitochondrial transcription factors in human skeletal muscle

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2010
    J. Norrbom
    Abstract Aim:, Mitochondrial function is essential for physical performance and health. Aerobic fitness is positively associated with mitochondrial (mt) biogenesis in muscle cells through partly unknown regulatory mechanisms. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of exercise and training status on key mt transcription factors in relation to oxidative capacity in human skeletal muscle. Methods:, The basal mRNA and protein levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), mitochondrial transcription factors B1 (TFB1M) or B2 (TFB2M), and mRNA levels of mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF), were measured in a cross-sectional study with elite athletes (EA) and moderately active (MA) and the basal mRNA levels of these factors were measured during a 10-day endurance training programme with (R-leg) and without (NR-leg) restricted blood flow to the working leg. Results:, TFAM protein expression was significantly higher in the EA than in the MA, while protein levels of TFB1M and TFB2M were not different between the groups. There was no difference between EA and MA, or any effect with training on TFAM mRNA levels. However, the mRNA levels of TFB1M, TFB2M and mTERF were higher in EA compared with MA. For TFB1M and TFB2M, the mRNA expression was increased in the R-leg after 10 days of training, but not in the NR-leg. mTERF mRNA levels were higher in EA compared with MA. Conclusion:, This study further establishes that TFAM protein levels are higher in conditions with enhanced oxidative capacity. The mRNA levels of TFB1M and TFB2M are influenced by endurance training, possibly suggesting a role for these factors in the regulation of exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. [source]

    Overload-induced skeletal muscle extracellular matrix remodelling and myofibre growth in mice lacking IL-6

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2009
    J. P. White
    Abstract Aim:, Overloading healthy skeletal muscle produces myofibre hypertrophy and extracellular matrix remodelling, and these processes are thought to be interdependent for producing muscle growth. Inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression is induced in overloaded skeletal muscle, and the loss of this IL-6 induction can attenuate the hypertrophic response to overload (OV). Although the OV induction of IL-6 in skeletal muscle may be an important regulator of inflammatory processes and satellite cell proliferation, less is known about its role in the regulation of extracellular matrix remodelling. The purpose of the current study was to examine if OV-induced extracellular matrix remodelling, muscle growth, and associated gene expression were altered in mice that lack IL-6, when compared with wild-type mice. Methods:, Male C57/BL6 (WT) and C57/BL6 × IL-6,/, (IL-6,/,) mice (10 weeks of age) were assigned to either a sham control or synergist ablation OV treatments for 3, 21 or 56 days. Result:, Plantaris muscle mass increased 59% in WT and 116% in IL-6,/, mice after 21 day OV. Myofibre CSA was also increased by 21 day OV in both WT and IL-6,/, mice. OV induced a twofold greater increase in the volume of non-contractile tissue in IL-6,/, muscle compared to WT. OV also induced a significantly greater accumulation of hydroxyproline and procollagen-1 mRNA in IL-6,/, muscle, when compared with WT muscle after 21 day OV. Transforming growth factor-, and insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA expression were also induced to a greater extent in IL-6,/, muscle when compared with WT muscle after 21 day OV. There was no effect of IL-6 loss on the induction of myogenin, and cyclin D1 mRNA expression after 3 day OV. However, MyoD mRNA expression in 3 day OV IL-6,/, muscle was attenuated when compared with WT OV mice. Conclusion:, IL-6 appears to be necessary for the normal regulation of extracellular matrix remodelling during OV-induced growth. [source]

    Oestradiol and SERM treatments influence oestrogen receptor coregulator gene expression in human skeletal muscle cells

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
    C. M. Dieli-Conwright
    Abstract Aim:, Oestrogen receptors (ER) are present in human skeletal muscle (hSkM) cells; however, the function of the receptor is currently unknown. We investigated the influence of oestradiol and selective ER modulators [tamoxifen (TAM), raloxifene (RAL)] on ER coregulator mRNA expression in hSkM. Methods:, Human skeletal muscle cells were treated with 10 nm oestradiol, 5 ,m TAM and 10 ,m RAL over a 24-h period. Following the treatment period, mRNA expression was quantified using real-time PCR to detect changes in ER-,, ER-,, steroid receptor coactivator (SRC), silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT), MyoD, GLUT4 and c-fos. Results:, ER-, mRNA expression increased with all three drug treatments (P < 0.05) while there was no change in mRNA expression of ER-, in hSkM cells. mRNA expression of SRC increased and SMRT decreased with oestradiol, TAM and RAL in hSkM cells (P < 0.05). Importantly, mRNA expression of MyoD increased with oestradiol and decreased with TAM and RAL in hSkM cells (P < 0.05). mRNA expression of GLUT4 increased with oestradiol and RAL and decreased with TAM in hSkM cells (P < 0.05). Conclusions:, These findings are novel in that they provide the first evidence that oestradiol and selective ER modulators influence ER-, function in hSkM cells. This demonstrates the importance of the ER and alterations in its coregulators, to potentially prevent sarcopenia and promote muscle growth in postmenopausal women using these forms of hormone replacement therapy. [source]

    Evidence against a sexual dimorphism in glucose and fatty acid metabolism in skeletal muscle cultures from age-matched men and post-menopausal women

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
    A. Rune
    Abstract Aim:,In vivo whole body differences in glucose/lipid metabolism exist between men and women. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that intrinsic sex differences exist in skeletal muscle gene expression and glucose/lipid metabolism using cultured myotubes. Methods:, Myotube cultures were prepared for gene expression and metabolic studies from vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from age-matched men (n = 11; 59 ± 2 years) and post-menopausal women (n = 10; 60 ± 1 years). Results:, mRNA expression of several genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism was higher in skeletal muscle biopsies from female vs. male donors, but unaltered between the sexes in cultured myotubes. Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, as well as glucose incorporation into glycogen, was similar in myotube cultures derived from male vs. female donors. In males vs. females, insulin increased glucose uptake (1.3 ± 0.1 vs. 1.5 ± 0.1-fold respectively) and incorporation into glycogen (2.3 ± 0.3 vs. 2.0 ± 0.3-fold respectively) to the same extent. Basal fatty acid oxidation and rate of uptake/accumulation was similar between sexes. In response to the 5,AMP-activated protein kinase activator AICAR, lipid oxidation was increased to the same extent in myotubes established from male vs. female donors (1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.0 ± 0.3-fold respectively). Moreover, the AICAR-induced rate of uptake/accumulation was similar between sexes. Conclusion:, Differences in metabolic parameters and gene expression profiles between age-matched men and post-menopausal women noted in vivo are not observed in cultured human skeletal muscle cells. Thus, the sexual dimorphism in glucose and lipid metabolism is likely a consequence of systemic whole body factors, rather than intrinsic differences in the skeletal muscle proper. [source]

    Protective effects of exercise preconditioning on hindlimb unloading-induced atrophy of rat soleus muscle

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    H. Fujino
    Abstract Aim:, A chronic decrease in the activation and loading levels of skeletal muscles as occurs with hindlimb unloading (HU) results in a number of detrimental changes. Several proteolytic pathways are involved with an increase in myofibrillar protein degradation associated with HU. Exercise can be used to counter this increase in proteolytic activity and, thus, may be able to protect against some of the detrimental changes associated with chronic decreased use. The purpose of the present study was to determine the potential of a single bout of preconditioning endurance exercise in attenuating the effects of 2 weeks of HU on the mass, phenotype and force-related properties of the soleus muscle in adult rats. Methods:, Male Wistar rats were subjected to HU for 2 weeks. One half of the rats performed a single bout of treadmill exercise for 25 min immediately prior to the 2 weeks of HU. Results:, Soleus mass, maximum tetanic tension, myofibrillar protein content, fatigue resistance and percentage of type I (slow) myosin heavy chain were decreased in HU rats. In addition, markers for the cathepsin, calpain, caspase and ATP-ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathways were increased. The preconditioning endurance exercise bout attenuated all of the detrimental changes associated with HU, and increased HSP72 mRNA expression and protein levels. Conclusion:, These findings indicate that exercise preconditioning may be an effective countermeasure to the detrimental effects of chronic decreases in activation and loading levels on skeletal muscles and that an elevation in HSP72 may be one of the mechanisms associated with these responses. [source]