Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Lower

  • being lower
  • elective lower
  • far lower
  • fold lower
  • level lower
  • magnitude lower
  • point lower
  • significant lower
  • time lower
  • value lower

  • Terms modified by Lower

  • lower abdomen
  • lower abdominal
  • lower abdominal pain
  • lower abdominal surgery
  • lower ability
  • lower abundance
  • lower accuracy
  • lower activation energy
  • lower activity
  • lower activity level
  • lower affinity
  • lower age
  • lower age limit
  • lower airway
  • lower airway inflammation
  • lower airway obstruction
  • lower altitude
  • lower amount
  • lower amplitude
  • lower apgar score
  • lower area
  • lower arm
  • lower austria
  • lower availability
  • lower back pain
  • lower basin
  • lower binding affinity
  • lower biomass
  • lower birth weight
  • lower birthweight
  • lower blood pressure
  • lower bmd
  • lower bmi
  • lower body
  • lower body fat
  • lower body mass
  • lower body mass index
  • lower body negative pressure
  • lower body weight
  • lower bond strength
  • lower border
  • lower bound
  • lower boundary
  • lower boundary condition
  • lower brainstem
  • lower burden
  • lower c
  • lower cambrian
  • lower canine
  • lower canopy
  • lower capacity
  • lower carboniferous
  • lower caste
  • lower cd4 cell count
  • lower chamber
  • lower chance
  • lower cholesterol
  • lower cognitive performance
  • lower common bile duct
  • lower complexity
  • lower complication rate
  • lower concentration
  • lower confidence limit
  • lower consumption
  • lower content
  • lower continental crust
  • lower contribution
  • lower conversion
  • lower correlation
  • lower cortisol level
  • lower cost
  • lower count
  • lower cretaceous
  • lower critical solution temperature
  • lower crust
  • lower crystallinity
  • lower cytotoxicity
  • lower decrease
  • lower degree
  • lower density
  • lower dentition
  • lower depth
  • lower dermis
  • lower detection limit
  • lower devonian
  • lower dielectric constant
  • lower diversity
  • lower dosage
  • lower dose
  • lower earning
  • lower edge
  • lower education
  • lower education level
  • lower educational attainment
  • lower educational level
  • lower efficacy
  • lower efficiency
  • lower ejection fraction
  • lower elevation
  • lower end
  • lower energy
  • lower eocene
  • lower epidermis
  • lower esophageal sphincter
  • lower esophageal sphincter pressure
  • lower estimate
  • lower eukaryote
  • lower expectation
  • lower experimental temperature
  • lower exposure
  • lower expression
  • lower expression level
  • lower extent
  • lower extremity
  • lower extremity function
  • lower extremity pain
  • lower extremity surgery
  • lower extremity wound
  • lower eyelid
  • lower fa
  • lower face
  • lower fat content
  • lower fecundity
  • lower fee
  • lower feed conversion ratio
  • lower fertility
  • lower fev1
  • lower first molar
  • lower flow rate
  • lower fraction
  • lower frequency
  • lower functioning
  • lower gastrointestinal
  • lower gastrointestinal bleeding
  • lower gastrointestinal symptom
  • lower gastrointestinal tract
  • lower genetic diversity
  • lower genital tract
  • lower gestational age
  • lower grade
  • lower growth
  • lower growth rate
  • lower half
  • lower hba1c
  • lower heart rate
  • lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
  • lower hrqol
  • lower ifn
  • lower incidence
  • lower incisor
  • lower income
  • lower income level
  • lower increase
  • lower insulin sensitivity
  • lower intake
  • lower intensity
  • lower intention
  • lower iq
  • lower jaw
  • lower jurassic
  • lower km
  • lower l
  • lower latitude
  • lower layer
  • lower leaf
  • lower leg
  • lower level
  • lower lid
  • lower likelihood
  • lower limb
  • lower limb amputation
  • lower limb muscle
  • lower limb surgery
  • lower limit
  • lower lip
  • lower lipid content
  • lower lobe
  • lower lobectomy
  • lower loss
  • lower lung field
  • lower magnitude
  • lower mantle
  • lower mass
  • lower mean
  • lower mean age
  • lower mean level
  • lower mean score
  • lower mean value
  • lower melting point
  • lower melting temperature
  • lower miocene
  • lower mmse score
  • lower mobility
  • lower moisture content
  • lower molar
  • lower molecular weight
  • lower morbidity
  • lower mortality
  • lower mortality rate
  • lower motor neuron
  • lower neck
  • lower number
  • lower occurrence
  • lower odds
  • lower oesophageal sphincter
  • lower oesophageal sphincter pressure
  • lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation
  • lower oesophagus
  • lower order
  • lower ordovician
  • lower organism
  • lower os
  • lower output
  • lower pain score
  • lower part
  • lower percent
  • lower percentage
  • lower performance
  • lower permeability
  • lower ph
  • lower ph value
  • lower ph.
  • lower physical functioning
  • lower pi
  • lower plate
  • lower platelet count
  • lower polarity
  • lower pole
  • lower porosity
  • lower portion
  • lower position
  • lower potency
  • lower potential
  • lower precision
  • lower predation risk
  • lower pressure
  • lower pressure drop
  • lower prevalence
  • lower price
  • lower priority
  • lower probability
  • lower production
  • lower productivity
  • lower propensity
  • lower proportion
  • lower qol
  • lower quadrant
  • lower quality
  • lower quantity
  • lower quartile
  • lower r
  • lower range
  • lower rate
  • lower rating
  • lower ratio
  • lower reach
  • lower reactivity
  • lower rectal cancer
  • lower rectum
  • lower recurrence rate
  • lower redshift
  • lower relative abundance
  • lower reproductive success
  • lower resistance
  • lower resolution
  • lower respiratory infection
  • lower respiratory tract
  • lower respiratory tract disease
  • lower respiratory tract infection
  • lower respiratory tract infections
  • lower response
  • lower response rate
  • lower result
  • lower retention
  • lower return
  • lower right
  • lower rim
  • lower risk
  • lower river
  • lower salinity
  • lower satisfaction
  • lower score
  • lower se
  • lower section
  • lower segment
  • lower self-esteem
  • lower sensitivity
  • lower serum
  • lower serum concentration
  • lower serum level
  • lower severity
  • lower share
  • lower side
  • lower sintering temperature
  • lower slope
  • lower social class
  • lower socio-economic status
  • lower socioeconomic background
  • lower socioeconomic status
  • lower solubility
  • lower species richness
  • lower specific growth rate
  • lower specificity
  • lower speed
  • lower stability
  • lower stage
  • lower stratosphere
  • lower strength
  • lower stress
  • lower success rate
  • lower surface
  • lower survival
  • lower survival rate
  • lower susceptibility
  • lower systolic blood pressure
  • lower tan
  • lower tana river
  • lower tax
  • lower temperature
  • lower temperature range
  • lower tensile strength
  • lower termite
  • lower thermal conductivity
  • lower thermal stability
  • lower third
  • lower threshold
  • lower tooth
  • lower total
  • lower toxicity
  • lower transaction cost
  • lower trophic level
  • lower troposphere
  • lower urinary tract
  • lower urinary tract dysfunction
  • lower urinary tract function
  • lower urinary tract infections
  • lower urinary tract obstruction
  • lower urinary tract symptom
  • lower urinary tract symptom suggestive
  • lower use
  • lower uterine segment
  • lower value
  • lower variability
  • lower variance
  • lower velocity
  • lower vertebrate
  • lower virulence
  • lower viscosity
  • lower visibility
  • lower volume
  • lower wavenumber
  • lower weight
  • lower weight gain
  • lower weight loss
  • lower well-being
  • lower yield
  • lower zone

  • Selected Abstracts

    Does the Trainee's Level of Experience Impact on Patient Safety and Clinical Outcomes in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery?

    L. Ray Guo M.D.
    We designed this study to determine if there were any significant differences in patient demographics and clinical outcomes of coronary artery bypass procedures (CABG) performed by residents of PGY 4/lower, residents of PGY 5/6, fellows, or consultants. Methods: Standardized preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were prospectively collected and analyzed on 2906 isolated CABG procedures, performed between July 1999 and March 2006 with the primary surgeon prospectively classified as PGY4/lower, PGY5/6, fellow, and consultant. Results: The number of cases performed by residents of PGY4/lower, PGY5/6, fellows and consultants were 179, 263, 301, and 2163, respectively. Preoperative demographics and comorbidities were similar except PGY4/lower group had more diabetics and consultant group had more patients requiring IABP. More non-LIMA arterial conduits were used in the consultant and fellow groups. However, there were neither significant differences in the mean number of grafts nor in the composite postoperative morbidity, median ICU, and hospital lengths of stay. Observed in-hospital mortality was 2.2%, 1.5%, 1.7%, and 2.7% (p = 0.49), respectively. Conclusions: Preoperative patient demographics and operative data were similar in all groups except that patients requiring IABP preoperatively were more likely operated on by consultants and arterial revascularization was performed more commonly by consultants and fellows. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates were similar among all groups, thus demonstrating that with appropriate supervision, trainees of all levels can safely be taught CABG. [source]


    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 4 2005
    Tim Congdon
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 1 2007
    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to produce Listeria monocytogenes biofilms suitable for virulence assays and to determine whether the released bacteria had the same virulence potential as their planktonic counterparts. Biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes LO28 strain, with or without Sphingomonas paucimobilis CCL10 strain, containing up to 7 log10 cfu/cm2 were produced in polypropylene syringes. The virulence of strain LO28 was analyzed in mice after intravenous, subcutaneous and oral inoculation. Its virulence level in binary cultures was not significantly different from that of monocultures. L. monocytogenes LO28 virulence in biofilms was lower than that of their planktonic counterparts after oral inoculation. Our results suggest that biofilms pose no greater health risk to the consumer than planktonic bacteria. [source]

    Quantitative reconstruction of Late Cenozoic landscapes: a case study in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain)

    Alfonso Benito-Calvo
    Abstract We have developed a method to reconstruct palaeorelief by means of detailed geomorphological and geological studies, geostatistical tools, GIS and a DEM. This method has been applied to the Sierra de Atapuerca (NE Duero Basin, Burgos, Spain), allowing us to model a three-dimensional reconstruction of the relief evolution from the Middle Miocene to the present. The modelling procedure is based on geostatistical recovery of the palaeosurfaces characteristic of each geomorphological evolution stage, using polynomial regressions, trend surfaces and kriging. The modelling of morphology trends has been useful in establishing new geological and geomorphological relationships in the geodynamic evolution of this basin, such as uplift quantification, correlation of erosion surfaces and sedimentary units, and the evolution of fluvial base levels. The palaeosurface reconstruction together with an analysis of the slope retreat have allowed us to reconstruct the palaeoreliefs that define the Late Cenozoic landscape evolution of this area, where the Lower and Middle Pleistocene archaeopalaeontological sites of the Sierra de Atapuerca are located. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Educational Research: Time to Reach the Bar, Not Lower It

    Roger J. Lewis MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Hexavalent uranium supports growth of Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and Geobacter spp. with lower than predicted biomass yields

    Robert A. Sanford
    Summary The stimulation of bacteria capable of reducing soluble U(VI) to sparingly soluble U(IV) is a promising approach for containing U(VI) plumes. Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans is capable of mediating this activity; however, its ability to couple U(VI) reduction to growth has not been established. Monitoring the increase in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in cultures provided with U(VI) as an electron acceptor demonstrated growth, and 7.7,8.6 × 106 cells were produced per ,mole of U(VI) reduced. This biomass yield was lower than predicted based on the theoretical free energy changes associated with U(VI)-to-U(IV) reduction. Lower than predicted growth yields with U(VI) as electron acceptor were also determined in cultures of Geobacter lovleyi and Geobacter sulfurreducens suggesting that U(VI) reduction is inefficient or imposes an additional cost to growing cells. These findings have implications for U(VI) bioremediation because Anaeromyxobacter spp. and Geobacter spp. contribute to radionuclide immobilization in contaminated subsurface environments. [source]

    Epidemiology of tomato yellow leaf curl begomovirus in the Fayium area, Egypt

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 2 2000
    A. E. Aboul-Ata
    Tomato yellow leaf curl begomovirus (TYLCV) severely invaded tomato plantations in Egypt (Lower and Middle Egypt) in 1989. This study aimed to discover the relationship between TYLCV and other epidemic-associated factors in the Fayium area. The rate of TYLCV infection was inspected visually for three successive years (1994/1996) in the Fayium area. During the same period, whiteflies were collected for virus detection using bait-plant and DNA hybridization techniques. DAS-ELISA was used to detect mixed virus infections in tomato plants. TYLCV infection was prevalent (60,68%) and severe (2.1,3.0) in the Fayium fields. Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) was found in some fields (5,28%) with moderate severity (1.0,20). Potato Y potyvirus (PVY) and potato leaf roll polerovirus (PLRV) were found in few fields (5,19% and 5% respectively) at very low severity. There was a negative correlation between TYLCV occurrence and distance from the source of infection, and a positive correlation (98%) between TYLCV intensity and percentage of viruliferous whiteflies in 1994 and 1995. There was no positive correlation between TYLCV and the total population of whiteflies caught during the same period. Five percent of viruliferous whiteflies, as proved by cDNA hybridization, led to 46% TYLCV infection. The same percentage of whiteflies, as shown by bioassay, led to 68% TYLCV infection. Monitoring of viruliferous whiteflies could be used for early prediction of TYLCV infection. [source]

    ,-diversity fluctuations in Early,Mid Ordovician brachiopod communities of South China

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3-4 2006
    R.-B. Zhan
    Abstract Lower to Middle Ordovician transitional strata (Acrograptus filiformis Biozone to Exigraptus clavus Biozone) of the Upper Yangtze Platform contain rich and diverse brachiopods, particularly in the Daguanshan Formation of Sichuan Province, the Meitan Formation of Guizhou Province, and the Yingpan Formation of Houping, Chongqing City. On the basis of multivariate analyses of 207 samples (about 15,000 brachiopod specimens) and 61 species from these strata, 23 brachiopod-dominated communities and associations are delineated through six graptolitic biozones (Acrograptus filiformis to Exigraptus clavus biozones). The disparity of brachiopod associations or ,-diversity, as measured by the number of contemporaneous associations across variable ecological settings, was low in the A. filiformis Biozone and increased through the overlying graptolitic biozones to reach an acme in the Azygograptus suecisus and Expansograptus hirundo biozones, where as many as nine different brachiopod associations thrived in mid-shelf and also established in inner- and outer-shelf environments. Despite a sharp increase in ,-diversity within the Didymograptellus eobifidus Biozone, ,-diversity remained relatively low, with only three distinct brachiopod communities. The diversity of brachiopod associations suffered an abrupt drop in the E. clavus Biozone, as a result of a major faunal turnover event, with only a single Metorthis Community present in an upper mid-shelf setting. Temporally, brachiopod associations appear to be most stable in mid-shelf settings, with the Paralenorthis, Sinorthis, Desmorthis, and Euorthisina communities having a relatively high ,-diversity and lasting through two to five graptolitic biozones. In both species composition and temporal duration, the brachiopod associations at the shallow- (BA1 to upper BA2) and deep-shelf (BA4) settings are unstable, characterized by low ,-diversity and rapid vertical changes. This study implies that, during the Early and Mid Ordovician, brachiopod communities already attained a high level of organization in mid-shelf settings, but remained poorly established in high-stress environments of very shallow or very deep shelf settings. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Tectonic deformation around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis: constraints from the Cretaceous palaeomagnetic data of the Shan-Thai Block

    Kenji Tanaka
    SUMMARY Lower to Middle Cretaceous red sandstones were sampled at four localities in the Lanpin-Simao fold belt of the Shan-Thai Block to describe its regional deformational features. Most of the samples revealed a characteristic remanent magnetization with unblocking temperatures around 680 °C. Primary natures of magnetization are ascertained through positive fold test. A tilt-corrected formation-mean direction for the Jingdong (24.5°N, 100.8°E) locality, which is located at a distance of 25 km from the Ailaoshan,Red River Fault, revealed northerly declination with steep inclination (Dec./Inc. = 8.3°/48.8°, ,95= 7.7°, N= 13). However, mean directions obtained from the Zhengyuan (24.0°N, 101.1°E), West Zhengyuan (24.0°N, 101.1°E) and South Mengla (21.4°N, 101.6°E) localities indicate an easterly deflection in declination; such as Dec./Inc. = 61.8°/46.1°, ,95= 8.1° (N= 7), Dec./Inc. = 324.2°/,49.4°, ,95= 6.4° (N= 4) and Dec./Inc. = 51.2°/46.4°, ,95= 5.6° (N= 13), respectively. The palaeomagnetic directions obtained from these four localities are incorporated into a palaeomagnetic database for the Shan-Thai Block. When combined with geological, geochronological and GPS data, the processes of deformation in the Shan-Thai Block is described as follows: Subsequent to its rigid block clockwise rotation of about 20° in the early stage of India,Asia collision, the Shan-Thai Block experienced a coherent but southward displacement along the Red River Fault prior to 32 Ma. This block was then subjected to a north,south compressive stresses during the 32,27 Ma period, which played a key role in shaping the structure of Chongshan-Lancang-Chiang Mai Belt. Following this some local clockwise rotational motion has occurred during the Pliocene-Quaternary time in central part of the Shan-Thai Block as a result of internal block movements along the reactivated network of faults. [source]

    Magnetic polarity stratigraphy of Siwalik Group sediments of Karnali River section in western Nepal

    Pitambar Gautam
    The remanent magnetization of siltstones and sandstones sampled at 476 levels/sites throughout a 3560 m thick molasse sequence belonging to the Siwalik Group (0,2015 m: Lower; 2015,3560 m: Middle) has been studied by stepwise thermal demagnetization. This section is exposed along the Karnali River in Nepal. The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) usually consists of two components: a viscous or thermoviscous component of recent field origin, and an ancient characteristic component (ChRM). The former component is of normal polarity and resides either in goethite (unblocking temperature < 150 °C; resistant to AFD up to 150 mT) or in maghemite (unblocking temperature 150,400 °C). Goethite contributes up to 90 per cent of the total intensity in the finer variegated muddy samples belonging to the lower half of the section. Maghemite content is significant in the grey mud-free lithologies from the upper half of the section. The main component, unblocked in the high-temperature range (commonly 610,680 °C) and believed to reside in haematite, presumably of mostly detrital origin, represents a characteristic remanence (ChRM). The tilt-corrected ChRM directions at individual sites show antipodal clusters (ratio of normal- to reverse-polarity sites: 0.62), and yield mean inclinations recording significant inclination shallowing,a feature well recorded in the Siwaliks. This ChRM is interpreted to represent a largely primary detrital remanence. The ChRM data from 430 sites yield the Karnali River magnetic polarity sequence, whose correlation with the geomagnetic polarity timescale (Cande & Kent 1995) suggests a depositional age of 16 Ma (younger than chron C5Cn.1n) to 5.2 Ma (around the top of chron C3r) for the 3560 m section sampled. Hence, the Karnali River exposes the oldest part of the Siwalik Group in Nepal. Estimates of the sediment accumulation rate (SAR) average to 32.9 cm kyr,1 for the 10.8 Myr time span of deposition. [source]

    Carbon flow in an upland grassland: effect of liming on the flux of recently photosynthesized carbon to rhizosphere soil

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 12 2004
    J. Ignacio Rangel-Castro
    Abstract The effect of liming on the flow of recently photosynthesized carbon to rhizosphere soil was studied using 13CO2 pulse labelling, in an upland grassland ecosystem in Scotland. The use of 13C enabled detection, in the field, of the effect of a 4-year liming period of selected soil plots on C allocation from plant biomass to soil, in comparison with unlimed plots. Photosynthetic rates and carbon turnover were higher in plants grown in limed soils than in those from unlimed plots. Higher ,13C, values were detected in shoots from limed plants than in those from unlimed plants in samples clipped within 15 days of the end of pulse labelling. Analysis of the aboveground plant production corresponding to the 4-year period of liming indicated that the standing biomass was higher in plots that received lime. Lower ,13C, values in limed roots compared with unlimed roots were found, whereas no significant difference was detected between soil samples. Extrapolation of our results indicated that more C has been lost through the soil than has been gained via photosynthetic assimilation because of pasture liming in Scotland during the period 1990,1998. However, the uncertainty associated with such extrapolation based on this single study is high and these estimates are provided only to set our findings in the broader context of national soil carbon emissions. [source]

    A homogenization method for estimating the bearing capacity of soils reinforced by columns

    B. Jellali
    Abstract The ultimate bearing capacity problem of a strip foundation resting on a soil reinforced by a group of regularly spaced columns is investigated in the situation when both the native soil and reinforcing material are purely cohesive. Making use of the yield design homogenization approach, it is shown that such a problem may be dealt with as a plane strain yield design problem, provided that the reinforced soil macroscopic strength condition has been previously determined. Lower and upper bound estimates for such a macroscopic criterion are obtained, thus giving evidence of the reinforced soil strong anisotropy. Performing the upper bound kinematic approach on the homogenized bearing capacity problem, by using the classical Prandtl's failure mechanism, makes it then possible to derive analytical upper bound estimates for the reinforced foundation bearing capacity, as a function of the reinforced soil parameters (volume fraction and cohesion ratio), as well as of the relative extension of the reinforced area. It is shown in particular that such an estimate is closer to the exact value of the ultimate bearing capacity, than that derived from a direct analysis which implicitly assumes that the reinforced soil is an isotropic material. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Lower and upper bound estimation of isotropic and orthotropic fracture mechanics problems using elements with rotational degrees of freedom

    Antoinette de Klerk
    Abstract We use Rice's path-independent J integral, as well as its dual, the I* integral, to estimate lower and upper bounds of the stress intensity factor K in linear elastic fracture mechanics problems. The elements used contain rotational degrees of freedom, and are derived from the correct energy principles to guarantee path independence of the integrals. That is, the displacement-based elements used in calculating the J integral are derived from the principle of potential energy; the assumed stress elements used in calculating the I* integral are derived from complementary energy principles. For lower bound estimation in particular, elements with drilling degrees of freedom are advantageous, due to their superior accuracy. Numerical results are presented for isotropic and orthotropic mode I and mode II fracture mechanics problems. In addition, we reflect on suitable finite element integration schemes, and applicable values for the problem dependent penalty parameter , which is used in deriving the elements. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A Japanese case of Kindler syndrome

    Yasushi Suga MD
    A 25-year-old Japanese woman presented with contracture of the fingers and toes, and difficulty in opening her mouth. Her grandparents are first cousins, but none of the other members of the family are affected. Bulla formation started at birth on areas of the skin that received pressure, and in infancy and early childhood the lesions were limited only to the acral areas. She also had bilateral, incomplete syndactylies involving all web spaces ( Fig. 1a). The formation of blisters ceased after the age of 15 years, but a generalized progressive poikiloderma then appeared with accompanying cutaneous atrophy of the skin of the neck, trunk, and extremities ( Fig. 1b). The patient experienced mild photosensitivity of the face and neck. At age 18 years, surgical removal of the webbing of all her fingers was performed. Oral examination showed atrophy of the buccal mucosa, and an inability to fully open the mouth. The patient also suffered from poor dentition and easily bleeding gums, but had no symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Figure 1. Clinical manifestations of the patient with Kindler syndrome. (a) Dorsal surface of the patient's hands. Note the marked cutaneous atrophy with a severely wrinkled appearance on the dorsal surface of the hands, as well as the proximal fusion of the fingers. (b) Lower left leg of the patient. Atrophic thinning of the skin and poikiloderma with reticular pigmentation are evident Histology of separate biopsy specimens, taken from the poikilodermatous pretibial and trunk skin, showed classical features of poikiloderma, namely epidermal atrophy with flattening of the rete ridges, vacuolization of basal keratinocytes, pigmentary incontinence, and mild dermal perivascularization ( Fig. 2a). Interestingly, dyskeratotic cells ( Fig. 2b) and eosinophilic rounded bodies (colloid bodies) ( Fig. 2c) were frequently found at the basal keratinocyte layer and in the upper dermis, respectively. Pigment was also present in the upper epidermis. Figure 2. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of a biopsy specimen taken from pretibial skin. (a) Epidermal atrophy with flattening of the rete ridges. Note the dyskeratotic cells (arrowheads) and vacuolar degeneration of the basal layer in the epidermis. Bar = 50 ,m. (b) Higher magnification of dyskeratotic cells (arrowheads). Bar = 10 ,m. (c) Higher magnification of colloid bodies (arrowheads) in the superficial dermis. Bar = 10 ,m To rule out the possibility of a congenital epidermolysis bullosa, ultrastructural and immunofluorescence studies were performed. Ultrastructural studies demonstrated the reduplication of the basal lamina with branching structures within the upper dermis and cleavage between the lamina densa and the cell membrane of the keratinocytes ( Fig. 3a). The numbers of associated anchoring fibrils did not seem to be reduced, and colloid bodies and dyskeratotic cells were detected. Immunofluorescence studies with the antibody against type VII collagen (LH 7 : 2) were subsequently carried out. The results showed extensive broad bands with intermittently discontinuous and reticular staining at the dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ) ( Fig. 3b), whereas a linear distribution is typically seen in healthy tissue (data not shown). Interestingly, direct immunofluorescence studies revealed intracellular accumulation of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgA, and C3 in colloid bodies under the basement membrane ( Fig. 3c). Figure 3. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical findings of the patient with Kindler syndrome. (a) Ultrastructural study of the dermo-epidermal junction. The branching structures of the lamina densa (arrowheads) were frequently seen. The asterisks show the cleavage in the lamina lucida. Bar = 1 ,m. (b) Immunohistochemical studies with the antibody to type VII collagen (LH 7 : 2). An extensive broad band with reticular patterns is evident. Bar = 50 ,m. E, epidermis; D, dermis. (c) Direct immunofluorescence study. Intracytoplasmic deposition of IgM in the basal keratinocytes is evident (arrowheads). Bar = 50 ,m. E, epidermis; D, dermis [source]

    Lipid composition of retailed organic, free-range and conventional chicken breasts

    Kishowar Jahan
    Summary Lipid fractions of 20 retailed chicken breasts were correlated with production system: organic, corn-fed, free-range and conventional. Neutral lipid (NL), phospholipid (PL) and free fatty acids (FFA) were examined separately. Influence of production systems was found more pronounced in PL composition than NLs. Corn-fed and free-range NLs had higher contents of nutritionally beneficial eicosapentanoic acid (C20:5 n-3) and docosahexanoic acid (C22:6 n-3) than organic and conventional. Lower polyunsaturated fatty acids in organic and free-range PLs could be beneficial for tissue stability. Principal component product space for PLs showed clear clustering related to product category. In contrast, this was not observed with FFA except in the partial least square regression product space suggesting influences on NLs and PLs and FFA. PLs had lower contents of arachidonic acid than in earlier studies. Advantages were observed in lipid fractionation using advanced sorbent extraction matrices. [source]

    Reasons for Being Selective When Choosing Personnel Selection Procedures

    Cornelius J. König
    The scientist,practitioner gap in personnel selection is large. Thus, it is important to gain a better understanding of the reasons that make organizations use or not use certain selection procedures. Based on institutional theory, we predicted that six variables should determine the use of selection procedures: the procedures' diffusion in the field, legal problems associated with the procedures, applicant reactions to the procedures, their usefulness for organizational self-promotion, their predictive validity, and the costs involved. To test these predictions, 506 HR professionals from the German-speaking part of Switzerland filled out an online survey on the selection procedures used in their organizations. Respondents also evaluated five procedures (semi-structured interviews, ability tests, personality tests, assessment centers, and graphology) on the six predictor variables. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The results revealed that the highest odd ratios belonged to the factors applicant reactions, costs, and diffusion. Lower (but significant) odds ratios belonged to the factors predictive validity, organizational self-promotion, and perceived legality. [source]

    Lower pole ratio: A new and accurate predictor of lower pole stone clearance after shockwave lithotripsy?

    Abstract Background: Lower pole spatial anatomy is an important determinant of success after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. In the present study, we determine whether there is a significant relationship between lower pole ratio (infundibular length : infundibular width) on preoperative intravenous urograms and stone fragment clearances after shockwave lithotripsy. Methods: A total of 42 patients with isolated lower pole stones were retrospectively reviewed. Anatomical factors, such as infundibular length, width and infundibulopelvic angle were measured and the lower pole ratio was calculated on pretreatment intravenous urogram. Stone fragment clearance was assessed at three months with a plain abdominal X-ray. Results: The overall three-month stone-free rate was 62%. Mean stone size ± SD was 10 ± 4.8 mm, mean infundibular length was 21.7 ± 6.9 mm, mean infundibular width was 6.1 ± 2.3 mm, mean infundibulopelvic angle was 62.1 ± 30.1 degrees and mean lower pole ratio was 4.3 ± 2.8. Stone-free status after shockwave lithotripsy was significantly related to infundibular length and width as well as to lower pole ratio, but not to infundibulo-pelvic angle. Infundibular length less than 30 mm, width greater than 5 mm and lower pole ratio less than 3.5 were noted to have an improved three-month stone-free rate (P = 0.049, 0.01 and <0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Caliceal anatomy is an important consideration for lower pole stone clearance after shockwave lithotripsy. The present study suggests that a lower pole ratio of less than 3.5, which considers both infundibular length and width, is a promising predictor for stone-free status. [source]

    Benthic Invertebrates and Metabolism of West Carpathian (Slovakia) Rivers

    Ferdinand, porka
    Abstract We examined benthic invertebrates and metabolism on the basis of the annual sampling of 9 types of running waters in the West Carpathians. Headwaters in general represent typical heterotrophic systems, except where they are high mountain streams, which are autotrophic. Lower down, the upper reaches of brooks are transition zones between heterotrophic and autotrophic systems. After the transition to an autotrophic system (which depends mainly on the primary producers) there is a considerable decrease in secondary production. Production is higher in the rivers of the Carpathian basin, as well as lower down the valley (submontane rivers and lower tributaries of submontane streams) where, within the autotrophic systems, there is a shift of metabolism from the bottom to the water column. The temperature days, altitude and slope of the stream and concentration of calcium influence production of macrozoobenthos. [source]

    Tectonic and stratigraphic significance of the Middle Ordovician carbonate breccias in the Ogcheon Belt, South Korea

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2002
    In-Chang Ryu
    Abstract Carbonate breccias occur sporadically in the Lower,Middle Ordovician Maggol Limestone exposed in the Taebacksan Basin in the northeastern part of the northeast,southwest-trending Ogcheon Belt, South Korea. These carbonate breccias have been previously interpreted as intraformational or fault-related breccias. Thus, little attention has been focused on tectonic and stratigraphic significance of these carbonate breccias. The present study, however, indicates that the majority of these carbonate breccias are solution,collapse breccias, which are causally linked to paleokarstification. Carbonate facies analysis in conjunction with conodont biostratigraphy suggests that an overall regression toward the top of the Maggol Limestone probably culminated in subaerial exposure of platform carbonates during the early Middle Ordovician (earliest Darriwilian). Extensive subaerial exposure of platform carbonates resulted in paleokarst-related solution,collapse breccias in the upper Maggol Limestone. This subaerial exposure event is manifested as a major paleokarst unconformity at the Sauk,Tippecanoe sequence boundary elsewhere beneath the Middle Ordovician succession and its equivalents, most notably North America and North China. Due to its global extent, this paleokarst unconformity has been viewed as a product of second- or third-order eustatic sealevel drop during the early Middle Ordovician. Although a paleokarst breccia zone is recognized beneath the Middle Ordovician succession in South Korea, the Sauk,Tippecanoe sequence boundary appears to be a conformable transgressive surface on the top of the paleokarst breccia zone in the upper Maggol Limestone. The paleokarst breccia zone beneath the conformable transgressive surface is represented by a thinning-upward stack of exposure-capped tidal flat-dominated cycles that are closely associated with multiple occurrences of paleokarst-related solution,collapse breccias. This paleokarst breccia zone was a likely consequence of repeated fourth- and fifth-order sealevel fluctuations. It suggests that second- and third-order eustatic sealevel drop may have been significantly tempered by substantial tectonic subsidence near the end of the Maggol deposition. The tectonic subsidence in the basin is also evidenced by the occurrence of coeval off-platform lowstand siliciclastic quartzite lenses as well as debris flow carbonate breccias (i.e. the Yemi Breccia). With the continued tectonic subsidence, subsequent rise in the eustatic cycle caused drowning and deep flooding of carbonate platform, forming a transgressive surface on the top of the paleokarst breccia zone. This tectonic implication contrasts notably with the slowly subsiding carbonate platform model for the basin as has been previously interpreted. Thus, it is proposed that the Taebacksan Basin in the northeastern part of the Ogcheon Belt evolved from a slowly subsiding carbonate platform to a rapidly subsiding intracontinental rift basin during the early Middle Ordovician. The proposed tectonic model in the basin gives much better insight to unravel the stratigraphic response to tectonic evolution of the Ogcheon Belt, which remains an enigmatic feature in formulating a tectonic framework of the Korean peninsula. The present study also provides a good example that the falling part of the eustatic sealevel cycle may not produce a significant event in a rapidly subsiding basin where the rate of eustatic fall always remained lower than the rate of subsidence. [source]

    Seasonal inventory and status of flying insects, in Kihansi Gorge, Tanzania

    Edward K. Msyani
    Abstract Sampling of flying insects in Kihansi Gorge was conducted in six micro-habitats namely Lower, Upper, Main, Mid-Gorge and Mhalala Spray Wetlands and adjacent forest. The four traps used were, malaise, pitfall, light and artificial substrate sampler, besides sweep netting and beating. In the wet season, 65,549 flying insects (65.13%) were recorded when compared to 35,633 flying insects (34.87%) in dry season. At its peak, 29,783 flying insects (29.15%) were recorded at the start of wet season (December 2004). The abundance value was significant (,2 = 1794.98, d.f. = 5, P , 0.001). The favourable weather condition at the beginning of the wet season might have triggered emergence of high numbers of winged insects like ants, to facilitate migration through dispersal and reproduction, and some aquatic insects (Plecoptera, Odonata and Trichoptera) moulted and entered into terrestrial life to raise terrestrial abundance. No association was recorded between abundance of flying insects and amphibians (Kihansi Spray Toad; Nectophynoides asperginis), for Mid-Gorge and Main Spray Wetlands (r = ,0.71, n = 4, P = 0.147 and r = ,0.69, n = 5, P = 0.201) respectively. Résumé On a récolté des échantillons d'insectes volants dans la Kihansi Gorge, dans six micro-habitats à savoir les Lower, Upper, Main, et Mid-Gorge et les Mhalala Spray Wetlands ainsi que dans les forêts voisines. Les quatre pièges utilisés étaient le piège malaise, le piège-fosse ou Barber, le piège lumineux et l'échantillonnage sur substrat artificiel, auxquels s'ajoutaient le filet et la frappe. En saison des pluies, 65.549 insectes volants (65,13%) ont été rapportés, comparéà 35.633 (34,87%) en saison sèche. Le maximum a été atteint avec 29.783 insectes volants (29,15%) capturés au début de la saison des pluies, en décembre 2004. L'abondance avait une valeur significative (,2 = 1 794,98, d.f. = 5, P , 0.001). Les conditions climatiques favorables au début de la saison des pluies peuvent avoir suscité l'émergence d'insectes ailés qui devaient se reproduire et se disperser, comme les fourmis, et de certains insectes aquatiques (Plécoptères, Odonates et Trichoptères) qui entament leur vie terrestre pour augmenter l'abondance des espèces. On n'a rapporté aucune association entre l'abondance des insectes ailés et les amphibiens (crapaud de Kihansi Spray, Nectophynoides asperginis) pour la Mid-gorge ni pour les Main Spray Wetlands (r = ,0,71, n = 4, P = 0.147; et r = ,0,69, n = 5, P = 0.201) respectivement. [source]

    Microbial levan in the diet of Labeo rohita Hamilton juveniles: effect on non-specific immunity and histopathological changes after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila

    S K Gupta
    Abstract A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to study the immuno-protective effect of microbial levan on Labeo rohita juveniles challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Six purified diets were prepared with different levels of microbial levan: control (no levan), T1 (Basal + 0.25%), T2 (Basal + 0.50%), T3 (Basal + 0.75%), T4 (Basal + 1%) and T5 (Basal + 1.25%), fed to six groups of fish in triplicate. Among the treatment groups the haemoglobin content and total leucocyte count were increased with a dietary supplementation of levan at 1% or more. An increasing trend for total erythrocyte count was observed with increasing level of dietary levan. Lower levan-supplemented groups showed a higher albumin/globulin ratio. As the levan supplementation was increased, there was a gradual increase in serum lysozyme activity and respiratory burst activity [nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay] reduction values. The highest lysozyme activity and NBT were observed in the T5 group although this was similar to the T4 group (P > 0.05). No significant histo-architectural changes were associated with dietary levan levels. After challenge with A. hydrophila, moderately degenerated hepatocytes, oedema and leucocytic infiltration in parenchymatous tissues, and extensive haemorrhage and haemosiderosis in the kidney were observed in the control group. However, the T5 group supplemented with 1.25% levan showed infiltrating leucocytes in the liver while the kidney showed only moderate degeneration of renal tubules. The relative survival per cent of juveniles after challenge with A. hydrophila was the highest in the T5 group followed by T4. This suggests that microbial levan at 1.25% can be used as dietary immunostimulant for L. rohita juveniles. [source]

    The Impact of Standard Setting on Relevance and Reliability of Accounting Information: Lower of Cost or Market Accounting Reforms in China

    Ziyun Yang
    During the period from 1998 to 2000, China implemented several new asset write-down regulations that mandate lower of cost or market accounting (LCM) for most non-cash assets. This is a study of the relevance and reliability of those regulations for investors in China. The study measures the association of net asset value with market value of equity and the association of accounting income with stock return, on both a historical cost accounting (HCA) basis and on an LCM basis. A fixed-effects model controlling both year and firm effects is used in a balanced panel sample. The panel regressions show high levels of explanatory power. LCM values can be relevant but may be measured with sufficient error that they do not improve the prediction of firm values. Reliability is measured using non-nested, overlapping model comparison tests (J and Cox). The paper also considers whether discretionary motivations influence the amount of write-down. The study supports the relevance of LCM reforms, but finds that reliability is not increased over HCA during the period under study. Reliability appears to be reduced by the voluntary nature of LCM provisions during part of the period and by the effects of opportunism for some firms in the sample. [source]

    The P,T path of the ultra-high pressure Lago Di Cignana and adjoining high-pressure meta-ophiolitic units: insights into the evolution of the subducting Tethyan slab

    Abstract The Lago di Cignana ultra-high-pressure unit (LCU), which consists of coesite,eclogite facies metabasics and metasediments, preserves the most deeply subducted oceanic rocks worldwide. New constraints on the prograde and early retrograde evolution of this ultra-high pressure unit and adjoining units provide important insights into the evolution of the Piemontese,Ligurian palaeo-subduction zone, active in Paleocene,Eocene times. In the LCU, a first prograde metamorphic assemblage, consisting of omphacite + Ca-amphibole + epidote + rare biotite + ilmenite, formed during burial at estimated P < 1.7 GPa and 350 < T < 480 °C. Similar metamorphic conditions of 400 < T < 650 °C and 1.0 < P < 1.7 GPa have been estimated for the meta-ophiolitic rocks juxtaposed to the LCU. The prograde assemblage is partially re-equilibrated into the peak assemblage garnet + omphacite + Na-amphibole + lawsonite + coesite + rutile, whose conditions were estimated at 590 < T < 605 °C and P > 3.2 GPa. The prograde path was characterized by a gradual decrease in the thermal gradient from ,9,10 to ,5,6 °C km,1. This variation is interpreted as the evidence of an increase in the rate of subduction of the Piemonte,Ligurian oceanic slab in the Eocene. Accretion of the Piemontese oceanic rocks to the Alpine orogen and thermal relaxation were probably related to the arrival of more buoyant continental crust at the subduction zone. Subsequent deformation of the orogenic wedge is responsible for the present position of the LCU, sandwiched between two tectonic slices of meta-ophiolites, named the Lower and Upper Units, which experienced peak pressures of 2.7,2.8 and <2.4 GPa respectively. [source]

    In vivo mandibular elastic deformation during clenching on pivots

    Ting Jiang
    Lower rigidly connected long span bridges supported by natural abutments or implants sometimes become loose, come off, or fracture after a period of usage. Many reasons have been discussed for these failures. However, few researchers have shown the influence of mandibular elastic deformation on the abutments, although this influence is likely to produce a distortion force between the abutment and prosthesis. Therefore, this study measured the elastic deformation of the human mandibular arch during clenching on pivots by using charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras and an image analysing system. When the subjects clenched on the canines (unilaterally or bilaterally) or bilateral second molars, no mandibular deformation was found; whereas when the subjects clenched on the unilateral second molars, the mandibular arch on the non-pivot side moved upward and inward and the straight line distances between the right and left measurement points decreased by 0·2 mm. The magnitude of deformation is smaller than the depressible limit of periodontal membrane. This suggests that the influence of mandibular deformation on the connected prosthesis is negligible in the case of the natural root supported long span bridge but should probably be considered in the case of the implant supported bridge. [source]


    S.N. Ehrenberg
    Eight samples of brachiopod shell material have been analyzed for their strontium isotope composition in order to more accurately date Lower to Upper Permian siliceous biogenic strata of Spitsbergen (Kapp Starostin Formation) and the southern Barents Sea (Røye Formation). The results are interpreted as showing a mid-Artinskian age for the basal Vøringen Member of the Kapp Starostin Formation and a range of late Artinskian to Roadian for the overlying part of this unit. The upper part of the Røye Formation yields ages in the range Roadian to Wuchiapingian. These results are consistent with available biostratigraphic data and confirm the potential of strontium isotope stratigraphy for developing a more accurate chronology of the widespread spiculite deposits that characterize the northern margin of Pangea in late-Early Permian to Late Permian time and which constitute a potential target for petroleum exploration. [source]


    Yang Yongtai
    Although Mesozoic source and reservoir rocks are known to occur at oilfields in the northern Qaidam Basin (NW China), the precise identification and distribution of Mesozoic rocks in the subsurface are outstanding problems. The Dameigou locality has in the past been considered as the type section for Lower-Middle Jurassic strata in northern Qaidam. Previous studies have concluded that the onset of non-marine sedimentation here took place in the Early Jurassic; and that Mesozoic strata penetrated by wells in the Lenghu structural zone are Middle Jurassic. In this paper, we present new data from the Lengke-1 well, drilled in the Lenghu structural zone in 1997. This data indicates the existence of a more extensive pre-Middle Jurassic stratigraphy than has previously been recognized. Biostratigraphic data together with regional seismic mapping suggest that the pre-Middle Jurassic succession at Lengke-1 includes both Late Triassic and Early Jurassic deposits. The Late Triassic sedimentary rocks appear to have been deposited in local half graben, some of which were later inverted during Jurassic, Cretaceous and Cenozoic tectonism. Lower and Middle Jurassic strata (lacustrine and fluvial deposits) are present in the SW and NE parts of the Lenghu structural zone, respectively. Extensive organic-rich intervals are present in both successions. Lower Jurassic lacustrine mudstones may represent a previously under-appreciated, and potentially large, source rock sequence. [source]

    Regional pulmonary pressure volume curves in mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure measured by electrical impedance tomography

    J. Hinz
    Background:, We hypothized, that in mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure, regional pressure volume curves differ markedly from conventional global pressure volume curves of the whole lung. Methods:, In nine mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure during an inspiratory low-flow manoeuvre, conventional global pressure volume curves were registered by spirometry and regional pressure volume curves in up to 912 regions were assessed simultaneously using electrical impedance tomography. We compared the lower (LIP) and upper (UIP) inflection points obtained from the conventional global pressure volume curve and regional pressure volume curves. Results:, We identified from the conventional global pressure volume curves LIP [3,11 (8) cmH2O] in eight patients and UIP [31,39 (33) cmH2O] in three patients. Using electrical impedance tomography (EIT), LIP [3,18 (8) cmH2O] in 54,264 (180) regions and UIP [23,42 (36) cmH2O] in 149,324 (193) regions (range and median) were identified. Lung mechanics measured by conventional global pressure volume curves are similar to the median of regional pressure volume curves obtained by EIT within the tomographic plane. However, single regional pressure volume curves differ markedly with a broad heterogeneity of lower and upper inflection points. Conclusion:, Lower and upper inflection points obtained from conventional global pressure volume curves are not representative of all regions of the lungs. [source]

    Unemployment May Be Lower if Unions Bargain over Wages and Employment

    LABOUR, Issue 1 2002
    Hartmut Egger
    This paper addresses the question under which circumstances unemployment can be lower if unions bargain over wages and employment in a general equilibrium framework. Thereby, it turns out that the unemployment rate may negatively depend on the wage rate, if the unemployment compensation scheme contains a constant real term in addition to the replacement ratio component. This is, compared with a pure replacement ratio scheme, the more plausible formalization of the real world's compensation systems, at least for European countries. Besides the theoretical analysis, the paper also derives political implications by identifying the relevant parameters for the decision on whether weakening unions will be a good strategy for an economy to overcome its unemployment problem. [source]

    Evaluation of a technical revegetation action performed on foredunes at Devesa de la Albufera, Valencia, Spain

    F. J. Escaray
    Abstract We have evaluated the level of restoration achieved by a technical revegetation action carried out on reconstructed foredunes at the Devesa de la Albufera and compared this level with that achieved by spontaneous succession. Foredunes 1, 3, 6 and 20,y old since revegetated (1, 3, 6 and 20,y, respectively) were considered as spatially separated stages representing a successional trend in the development of the restored plant community. Lower and similar levels of diversity (richness and H´ and Pielou´s indexes) and coverage, respectively, were found on dunes corresponding to the oldest stage of technical revegetation compared with that of the reference site. Diversity and coverage parameters increased during the first 6,y of the technical succession and decreased after 20,y of revegetation. Moreover, that increase was quite obvious as early as 3,y after the onset of revegetation. Results also showed that the Devesa de la Albufera has its own capacity for revegetation. According to the Jaccard and Sørensen indexes, these dunes were more similar to the reference than those from the 20,y old site. Beyond the current functionality of the revegetated sites, it is concluded that the natural and aesthetic values may be restored at the Valencian Devesa de la Albufera. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A trace fossil assemblage from fluvial Old Red deposits (Wood Bay Formation; Lower to Middle Devonian) of NW-Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    LETHAIA, Issue 2 2004
    From the fluvial Old Red Sandstone (ORS) of the Lower to Middle Devonian Wood Bay Formation (NW-Spitsbergen), a diverse trace fossil assemblage, including two new ichnotaxa, is described: Svalbardichnus trilobus igen. n., isp. n. is interpreted as the three-lobed resting trace of an early phyllocarid crustacean (Rhinocarididae). Cruziana polaris isp. n. yields morphological details that point towards a trilobite origin. This occurence of presumably marine trace makers in a fluvial red bed sequence raises the question of whether we are dealing with marine ingressions that are not sedimentologically expressed, with homeomorphy, or with an adaptation of marine groups to non-marine environments. [source]