Longitudinal Study (longitudinal + study)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Longitudinal Study

  • australian longitudinal study
  • avon longitudinal study
  • baltimore longitudinal study
  • childhood longitudinal study
  • early childhood longitudinal study
  • education longitudinal study
  • larger longitudinal study
  • national education longitudinal study
  • national longitudinal study
  • ongoing longitudinal study
  • prospective longitudinal study
  • short-term longitudinal study

  • Selected Abstracts


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Studies of crime at micro places have generally relied on cross-sectional data and reported the distributions of crime statistics over short periods of time. In this paper we use official crime data to examine the distribution of crime at street segments in Seattle, Washington, over a 14-year period. We go beyond prior research in two ways. First, we view crime trends at places over a much longer period than other studies that have examined micro places. Second, we use group-based trajectory analysis to uncover distinctive developmental trends in our data. Our findings support the view that micro places generally have stable concentrations of crime events over time. However, we also find that a relatively small proportion of places belong to groups with steeply rising or declining crime trajectories and that these places are primarily responsible for overall city trends in crime. These findings are particularly important given the more general decline in crime rates observed in Seattle and many other American cities in the 1990s. Our study suggests that the crime drop can be understood not as a general process that occurred across the city landscape but one that was generated in a relatively small group of micro places with strong declining crime trajectories over time. [source]


    Mark Hamer PhD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Richard D. Semba MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Vincenzo Solfrizzi MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Article first published online: 28 JUN 200
    First page of article [source]


    Article first published online: 1 SEP 200
    First page of article [source]


    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 6 2010
    Abraham Morgentaler
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Maternal employment and the initiation of breastfeeding

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 4 2001
    S Noble
    This study examines whether planning to be employed postpartum has an effect on initiation of breastfeeding. Data were collected from questionnaires completed by mothers who were subjects in the prospective, population-based, Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. The mothers of 10 530 full-term singleton infants gave information during pregnancy on their postpartum employment plans and their initial infant feeding methods. Information was also given by 7642 of these mothers on the timing of their postpartum employment plans. Adjusted logistic regression was performed to identify associations between (a) "any" plans to work postpartum and the initiation of breastfeeding, and (b) the timing of the commencement of work postpartum, and the initiation of breastfeeding. A total of 8316 (79%) of the women initiated breastfeeding. The decision to breastfeed was not associated with "any" plans to work postpartum. However, women who planned to commence work prior to 6 wk postpartum were significantly less likely to initiate breastfeeding compared with those not intending to work postpartum. Older, more highly educated women, women who had or were planning to attend childbirth classes, women who were breastfed as infants, women who did not smoke and women who were giving birth to their first child were significantly more likely to initiate breastfeeding. Conclusion: Planning to return to employment prior to 6 wk postpartum reduces the likelihood of initiating breastfeeding. As increasing numbers of mothers are returning to work shortly after the birth of their child, this finding could have implications for maintaining the current level of breastfeeding. [source]

    Childhood predictors of adult criminality: are all risk factors reflected in childhood aggressiveness?

    L. Rowell Huesmann
    Background Early aggressive behaviour is one of the best predictors of adult criminality. Aim To assess the degree to which family background variables, parental beliefs and behaviour and child intelligence predict child aggression and adult criminality. Method Data were used from the Colombia County Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal study of 856 children in third grade in New York, in 1959,60. Adult measures of criminal behaviour, child measures taken at age eight, child peer-nominated aggression, child's peer-nominated popularity, child's IQ and parental measures at eight years were used. Results Aggressive children were less intelligent, less popular, rejected more by their parents, had parents who believed in punishment, were less identified with their parents' self-image and were less likely to express guilt. As adults, more aggressive children with parents who were less well educated, experienced more marital disharmony and who seldom attended church were most at risk for arrest. However, after the effect of early aggression was controlled, most effects disappeared and only parents having a strong belief in punishment added significantly to risk of arrest by age 30; the only fact that then reduced the risk of arrest was having parents who attended church often. Both parental authoritarianism and child IQ reduced the risk of conviction for arrested children. Discussion Level of aggression at age eight is the best predictor of criminal events over the next 22 years. A clear implication is that the risk for criminality is affected by much that happens to a boy before he is eight years old. Preventive interventions need to target risk factors that appear to influence the development of early aggression. Copyright © 2002 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Because research shows a close association between offending and victimization, recent work has argued that theories that account for crime should explain victimization as well. The current study uses a new approach to examine the extent of the overlap between offenders who commit violent crime and victims of violence to determine whether it is worthwhile to pursue separate theories to account for these phenomena. Specifically, we take the statistical approach that Osgood and Schreck (2007) developed for analyzing specialization in violent versus property offending and apply it to analyzing tendencies to gravitate toward violent offending versus victimization. In doing so, we treat the differentiation into victim and offender roles as an individual-level latent variable while controlling for confounding between the likelihood that individuals will take either role in violent acts and their overall numbers of encounters with violence (as either offender or victim). Our purpose is to examine 1) whether significant differentiation can be observed between the tendency to be an offender versus the tendency to be a victim, 2) whether any such differential tendency is stable over time, and 3) if it is possible to predict whether individuals will tend toward violent offending versus victimization. Using two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to explore these objectives, we find significant and stable levels of differentiation between offenders and victims. Moreover, this differentiation is predictable with explanatory variables. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Why do delinquent youths complete less education than do their conventional peers? Theory and research in criminology and in the sociology of education suggest that two aspects of youths' commitment to education, their future goals and their behavioral investments in those goals, may explain the delinquency-education relationship, but only when considered jointly. Using panel data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, we find that educational expectations and school effort together explain delinquents' lower rates of college attendance and graduation, but of these two factors, effort provides the more powerful explanation. We also find that transcript grades explain more of the delinquency-education relationship than do self-reported grades, which indicates that delinquent youths may not know exactly how they are performing in school. Our findings suggest that the aspirational and behavioral components of commitment to education are only loosely coupled, and that delinquent youths may not understand how their behavior can jeopardize their goals. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    Why is juvenile delinquency associated with depression in young adulthood? One possibility is that delinquency interferes with socioeco-nomic attainment and disrupts entry into adult roles, perhaps because of official labeling processes or adolescent socialization into deviance, and these repercussions of delinquency lead to depression. Another possibility is that grown delinquents may show high levels of depression because they tend to offend in adulthood, and adult offenders tend to be depressed. I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the timing and mechanisms of the offending-depression relationship. The results suggest that delinquency is negatively associated with later status attainment and that the status attainment deficits of grown delinquents are not fully explained by justice system contacts or by adolescent delinquent peer influence. A portion of the longitudinal delinquency-depression link is explained by the low levels of education of grown delinquents and by their involvement with the justice system. Still, young adult depression is more closely tied to recent offending than it is to juvenile delinquency, official labeling, or the status attainment consequences of delinquency. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    Although a growing body of literature emphasizes the role of friendship networks and peer relations for youth involvement in violence and delinquency, little research has examined the role of friendship networks in understanding the varying involvement of different racial-ethnic groups in violence. Using data from approximately 13,000 respondents to the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we explore the ability of friendship networks to account for the differential rates of violence among racial-ethnic groups. In addition, we evaluate whether race moderates the degree to which friendship characteristics predict adolescent violence. Findings indicate significant differences in the structure and behavioral orientation of friendship networks across racial-ethnic identities. Moreover, incorporating characteristics of friendship networks into multivariate analyses accounts for greater involvement in violence among black and Hispanic youths. Network racial heterogeneity and friends' popularity also emerge as particular network characteristics that operate differently for black and white youth. [source]

    Prevalence and characteristics of autistic spectrum disorders in the ALSPAC cohort

    Emma Williams MSc PhD
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) within a large representative population sample: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Cases of ASD were identified from the clinical notes of children in the ALSPAC with a suspected developmental disorder and from the Pupil Level Annual Schools Census (PLASC) for England in 2003. Seventy-one cases of ASD diagnosed after a multidisciplinary assessment were identified from health records. There were an additional 15 cases from PLASC data in which ASD was mentioned as a principal difficulty, thus giving a total of 86 children diagnosed by the age of 11 years. Prevalence of ASD per 10 000 population at 11 years was 51.1 for those with a multi-professional diagnosis, and 61.9 if cases from education were included, made up of 21.6 for childhood autism, 10.8 for atypical autism, 16.6 for Asperger syndrome, and 13.0 for unspecified ASD. The male:female ratio was 6.8:1. Median age at diagnosis ranged from 45 months in childhood autism to 116 months in Asperger syndrome. A comorbid developmental disorder was recorded in 33.8% of cases, including learning disability, in 14.7%, epilepsy in 10.3%, and mixed developmental disorder in 4.4%. We conclude that the prevalence of ASD diagnosed at 11 years in a UK representative population-based sample is at least 51.1/10 000. [source]

    Alcohol, suppressed anger and violence

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2010
    Thor Norström
    ABSTRACT Aims Is alcohol related causally to violence, and if so, is the effect of drinking contingent on suppressed anger such that it is strongest among individuals who are highly inclined to withhold angry feelings? We addressed these questions by analysing panel data using a method that diminishes the effects of confounding factors. Design We analysed data on heavy episodic drinking and violent behaviour from the second (1994) and third (1999) waves of the Young in Norway Longitudinal Study (n = 2697; response rate: 67%). The first difference method was applied to estimate the association between these behaviours, implying that changes in the frequency of violence were regressed on changes in the frequency of drinking. Hence, the effects of time-invariant confounders were eliminated. Analyses were conducted for the whole sample, and for groups scoring low, medium and high on a short version of the STAXI anger suppression scale. Findings Changes in drinking were related positively and significantly to changes in violent behaviour, but the alcohol effect varied with the level of suppressed anger: it was strongest in the high-anger group (elasticity estimate = 0.053, P = 0.011) and weakest (and insignificant) in the low-anger group (elasticity estimate = 0.004, P = 0.806). Conclusions Alcohol use may be related causally to violence, but the effect of drinking is confined to individuals who are inclined to suppress their angry feelings. [source]

    Gender differences in genetic and environmental influences on gambling: results from a sample of twins from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2010
    Kevin M. Beaver
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine the extent to which genetic factors and shared and non-shared environmental factors are implicated in the development of gambling behaviors and to examine whether there are gender differences in the genetic and environmental contributors to gambling behaviors. Design A genetically informative analysis was performed by using DeFries,Fulker (DF) analysis. Setting Analysis of secondary data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Participants A total of 324 monozygotic (MZ) twins and 278 same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twins were included in the analysis. Of these twins, there were 150 male MZ twins, 144 male DZ twins, 174 female MZ twins and 134 female DZ twins. Measurements Gambling behavior was measured through eight self-reported questions that tapped a range of items designed to measure problems related to gambling. Self-reported measures of self-control and delinquent involvement were also included to examine the degree to which these factors covaried with gambling behavior. Findings The results of the DF analysis indicated that when male and female twin pairs were analyzed simultaneously, genetic factors explained approximately 70% of the variance in gambling and non-shared environmental factors explained the remaining variance. When gender-specific models were calculated, substantial gender differences emerged. For males, genetic factors explained approximately 85% of the variance in gambling, with the non-shared environment accounting for the remaining variance. For females, genetic factors explained none of the variance in gambling behaviors, while the shared environment explained 45% of the variance and the non-shared environment explained 55% of the variance. Conclusions Analysis of twins from the Add Health data suggests that there are significant gender differences in the genetic and environmental underpinnings to gambling behaviors. [source]

    Cannabis and crime: findings from a longitudinal study

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2010
    Willy Pedersen
    ABSTRACT Aim To examine the association between cannabis use during adolescence and young adulthood, and subsequent criminal charges. Methods Data were obtained from the Young in Norway Longitudinal Study. A population-based sample (n = 1353) was followed from 13 to 27 years of age. Data were gathered on cannabis use, alcohol consumption and alcohol problems, and use of other illegal substances such as amphetamines, cocaine and opiates. In addition, extensive information on socio-demographic, family and personal factors was collected. This data set was linked to individual-level information from official Norwegian crime statistics. Findings We found robust associations between cannabis use and later registered criminal charges, both in adolescence and in young adulthood. These associations were adjusted for a range of confounding factors, such as family socio-economic background, parental support and monitoring, educational achievement and career, previous criminal charges, conduct problems and history of cohabitation and marriage. In separate models, we controlled for alcohol measures and for use of other illegal substances. After adjustment, we still found strong associations between cannabis use and later criminal charges. However, when eliminating all types of drug-specific charges from our models, we no longer observed any significant association with cannabis use. Conclusions The study suggests that cannabis use in adolescence and early adulthood may be associated with subsequent involvement in criminal activity. However, the bulk of this involvement seems to be related to various types of drug-specific crime. Thus, the association seems to rest on the fact that use, possession and distribution of drugs such as cannabis is illegal. The study strengthens concerns about the laws relating to the use, possession and distribution of cannabis. [source]

    Determinants of continuity and change over 10 years in young women's smoking

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2009
    Liane McDermott
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine prospectively continuity and change in smoking behaviour and associated attributes over a 10-year period. Design, setting and participants Participants (initially aged 18,23 years) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health completed postal questionnaires in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The analysis sample was 6840 women who participated in all surveys and provided complete smoking data. Measurements Outcome variables were transitions in smoking behaviour between surveys 1 and 2, 2 and 3, 3 and 4 and 1 and 4. Attributes that differentiated continuing smokers from quitters, relapsers from ex-smokers and adopters from never smokers were examined for each survey period. Explanatory variables included previous smoking history, demographic, psychosocial, life-style risk behaviour and life-stage transition factors. Findings Over 10 years, 23% of participants either quit, re-started, adopted or experimented with smoking. Recent illicit drug use and risky or high-risk drinking predicted continued smoking, relapse and smoking adoption. Marriage or being in a committed relationship was associated significantly with quitting, remaining an ex-smoker and not adopting smoking. Living in a rural or remote area and lower educational attainment were associated with continued smoking; moderate and high physical activity levels were associated positively with remaining an ex-smoker. Conclusions Life-style and life-stage factors are significant determinants of young women's smoking behaviour. Future research needs to examine the inter-relationships between tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use, and to identify the determinants of continued smoking among women living in rural and remote areas. Cessation strategies could examine the role of physical activity in relapse prevention. [source]

    The Effect of Small Business Managers' Growth Motivation on Firm Growth: A Longitudinal Study

    Frédéric Delmar
    This study addresses the role of small business managers' growth motivation for business growth, taking into account the important effects of previous motives and feedback from earlier performance. We hypothesize that small business managers' growth motivation has a unique influence on firm outcome measured as growth in sales and in number of employees. Data were gathered from two different Swedish samples of small firms using telephone interviews. Using cross-lagged regression analysis, we find support for our hypotheses when examining employment growth, but only partial support when examining sales. [source]

    Smoking, nicotine dependence and mental health among young adults: a 13-year population-based longitudinal study

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2009
    Willy Pedersen
    ABSTRACT Aims To investigate prospectively the associations between daily smoking and nicotine dependence and anxiety, depression and suicide attempts. Methods Data were from the Young in Norway Longitudinal Study. A population-based sample (n = 1501) was followed for 13 years from ages 13,27 years. Data were gathered on smoking patterns and nicotine dependence; and depression, anxiety and parasuicide. Extensive information on socio-demographic factors, parental and family conditions, parental rearing practices, educational career, conduct problems, alcohol problems and use of illegal substances was also collected. Results Young adults who were nicotine-dependent had clearly elevated rates of anxiety, depression and parasuicide. These rates declined after controlling for a previous history of mental health problems and potential confounding factors. After adjustment, nicotine dependence was still associated with anxiety, depression and parasuicide. There was also a significant association with later depression in the group of non-dependent daily smokers. Measures of reduced mental health did not predict later smoking initiation or the development of nicotine dependence. Conclusions Mental health was reduced more seriously in nicotine-dependent smokers than in non-dependent smokers. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that smoking, in particular nicotine dependence, influences mental health. [source]

    Childbirth, abortion and subsequent substance use in young women: a population-based longitudinal study

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2007
    Willy Pedersen
    ABSTRACT Aims To investigate the possible linkages between deliveries, abortions and subsequent nicotine dependence, alcohol problems and use of cannabis and other illegal drugs from the ages of 15,27 years. Methods Data were gathered as part of the Young in Norway Longitudinal Study, an 11-year follow-up of a representative sample of Norwegian adolescents and young adults. Design, setting and participants Information was obtained on (i) the history of childbirths and induced abortions for the participants between the ages of 15,27 years; (ii) measures of nicotine dependence, alcohol problems and use of cannabis and other illegal drugs; and (iii) socio-demographic, family and individual confounding factors. Results Those who had had an abortion had elevated rates of substance use and problems. Those who gave birth to a child had reduced rates of alcohol problems and cannabis use. These associations persisted after control for confounders. However, those women who still lived with the father of the aborted fetus were not at increased risk. Conclusions Abortion in women may, under some circumstances, be associated with increased risk of nicotine dependence, alcohol problems and use of cannabis and other illegal drugs. The birth of a child may reduce the use of some substances. [source]

    MRI Volumetric Analysis in Rasmussen Encephalitis: A Longitudinal Study

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2003
    Masanori Takeoka
    Summary: ,Purpose: Rasmussen encephalitis is a progressive inflammatory process with difficult-to-control focal or lateralized seizure activity, leading to hemispheric dysfunction and atrophy in advanced stages. Anatomic changes of atrophy may be subtle in earlier phases of the disease, and progressive changes on serial scans may be difficult to detect. We report a case of early-stage Rasmussen encephalitis with a relatively stable clinical course in whom we performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetric analysis over an interval of 1 year, to assess for volumetric changes. Methods: Volumetric analysis was performed on two successive MRI scans obtained at age 5 and 6 years, by using the CARDVIEWS program (J Cogn Neurosci, 1996). The images were segmented into gray- and white-matter structures according to signal intensity of their borders semiautomatically, with manual corrections. The cerebral cortex was further subdivided into smaller parcellation units according to anatomic landmarks identifiable on MRI. Results: Stable left cerebral hemispheric atrophy and progressive atrophy in the left precentral gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, and left cerebellar atrophy were detected over the 1-year interval. Conclusions: Volumetric analysis enables early detection and quantification of anatomic changes, identification of focal involvement, and assists in determining the severity of disease and timing for surgical interventions such as hemispherectomy. [source]

    The Impact of Childhood Epilepsy on Neurocognitive and Behavioral Performance: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2000
    Laura L. Bailet
    Summary: Purpose: To assess neurocognitive and behavioral performance in children with idiopathic epilepsy (CWE, n = 74), their siblings without epilepsy (control, n = 23), and children with migraine (CWM, n = 13), and to identify medical factors related to learning or behavioral problems in CWE. Methods: Subjects, ages 8,13 years with IQs of ,80, completed a neurocognitive test battery annually for ,3 years. For CWE, age at seizure onset, most recent EEG results, seizure type, seizure frequency, current antiepileptic drug (AED), and most recent AED serum levels were documented at each visit. Results: CWE and CWM had high rates of grade retention and placement in special education compared with sibling controls. CWE performed worse than controls on numerous neurocognitive variables. These differences persisted over time. CWE with abnormal EEGs scored lower than CWE with normal EEGs on reading and spelling measures, even with comparable IQs. Age at seizure onset, seizure type, and seizure frequency were not related to neurocognitive or behavioral test scores. CWE taking carbamazepine (CBZ) performed better than CWE taking valproate (VPA) on academic achievement measures, although the study lacked controls necessary to assess this finding thoroughly. CWM did not differ from CWE or controls in cognitive or academic achievement skills. Conclusions: Long-term risk of learning problems exists among CWE as compared with controls, even with normal IQs and well-controlled seizures. Predicting learning problems in CWE based on medical factors remains elusive. Monitoring of educational progress and neurocognitive screening may be most effective in assessing academic risk for CWE. [source]

    Women's Scientific Employment and Family Formation: A Longitudinal Perspective

    Louisa Blackwell
    We focus here on the retention of highly qualified women scientists in science-based employment in England and Wales. Using linked Census records from the Longitudinal Study 1971,1991 we show that women's education and employment rates in science, engineering and technology increased somewhat, although some fields show persistently low representation. We then compare retention in employing women with health-related degrees with that of women with degrees in science, engineering and technology, showing that the latter group has markedly lower retention rates. Those who stay on in science-based employment have children later than other types of graduate and their rates of non-motherhood are higher. Four-fifths of women in health-related occupations were mothers, compared to only two-fifths in science, engineering and technology. Our findings have implications for policymakers who wish to make best use of the knowledge base: attention should be paid to retention, as well as the more usual focus on qualifications and recruitment. The findings also suggest the potential for institutionally based theories to explain why highly qualified women have such low retention rates in science-based employment. [source]

    Infants' Evolving Representations of Object Motion During Occlusion: A Longitudinal Study of 6- to 12-Month-Old Infants

    INFANCY, Issue 2 2004
    Gustaf Gredebäck
    Infants' ability to track temporarily occluded objects that moved on circular trajectories was investigated in 20 infants using a longitudinal design. They were first seen at 6 months and then every 2nd month until the end of their 1st year. Infants were presented with occlusion events covering 20% of the target's trajectory (effective occlusion interval ranged from 500,4,000 msec). Gaze was measured using an ASL 504 infrared eye-tracking system. Results effectively demonstrate that infants from 6 months of age can represent the spatiotemporal dynamics of occluded objects. Infants at all ages tested were able to predict, under certain conditions, when and where the object would reappear after occlusion. They moved gaze accurately to the position where the object was going to reappear and scaled their timing to the current occlusion duration. The average rate of predictive gaze crossings increased with occlusion duration. These results are discussed as a 2-factor process. Successful predictions are dependent on strong representations, themselves dependent on the richness of information available during encoding and graded representations. [source]

    A latent growth-curve approach to difficult temperament

    Ty Partridge
    A purported hallmark of temperament characteristics is that they appear very early in the course of development and are persistent across time and situation. There is, however, a small, but growing cadre of research findings that question this traditional view. It may be that temperament characteristics are not necessarily established during the first few months of development or are not stable over time. A secondary analysis of the New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS) temperament data was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that temperament has a complex developmental course over the first five years of development. A latent growth curve analysis of difficult temperament suggests that temperament development follows a non-linear trajectory. This finding, in concert with related findings, suggests the need for a broader discussion of the possible developmental processes that underlie these patterns. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Interrelations between maternal smoking during pregnancy, birth weight and sociodemographic factors in the prediction of early cognitive abilities

    S. C. J. Huijbregts
    Abstract Maternal prenatal smoking, birth weight and sociodemographic factors were investigated in relation to cognitive abilities of 1544 children (aged 3.5 years) participating in the Québec Longitudinal Study of Children's Development. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) was used to assess verbal ability, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) block design test to assess visuospatial ability, and the Visually Cued Recall (VCR) task to assess short-term memory. Prenatal smoking was related to performance on the WPPSI-R, the PPVT, and the VCR, although it did not independently predict any cognitive ability after maternal education was taken into account. Birth weight was a more robust predictor of all outcome measures and independently predicted VCR-performance. Birth weight interacted significantly with family income and maternal education in predicting visuospatial ability, indicating a greater influence of birth weight under relatively poor socio-economic conditions. Parenting and family functioning mediated associations between maternal education/family income and cognitive task performance under different birth weight conditions, although there were indications for stronger effects under relatively low birth weight. We conclude that investigations of moderating and mediating effects can provide insights into which children are most at risk of cognitive impairment and might benefit most from interventions. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Should bulimia nervosa be subtyped by historyof anorexia nervosa?

    A longitudinal validation
    Abstract Objective: To determine whether a past diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN) predicts longitudinal course and outcome among women with bulimia nervosa (BN). Method: A subset (n = 176) of participants in the Longitudinal Study of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa who met DSM-IV criteria for BN either at study intake (n = 144) or during follow-up (n = 32; 4 had restricting AN at intake, 28 had binge/purge AN at intake) were included in this report. Over a median of 9 years, weekly eating disorder symptom data were collected from participants using the Longitudinal Interview Follow-up Examination, Eating Disorders Version. Results: While there were no between-group differences in likelihood of partial recovery, women with BN who had a history of AN were more likely to have a protracted illness, relapsing into AN during follow-up, compared to those with no AN history who were more likely to move from partial to full recovery. Conclusion: Lifetime AN is an important prognostic indicator among women with BN and these longitudinal data would support the subtyping of BN on the basis of AN history. © 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2007 [source]

    A randomized, two-year study of the efficacy of cognitive intervention on elderly people: the Donostia Longitudinal Study

    Cristina Buiza
    Abstract Background Research on non-pharmacological therapies (cognitive rehabilitation) in old age has been very limited, and most has not considered the effect of interventions of this type over extended periods of time. Objective To investigate a new cognitive therapy in a randomized study with elderly people who did not suffer cognitive impairment. Methods The efficacy of this therapy was evaluated by means of post-hoc analysis of 238 people using biomedical, cognitive, behavioural, quality of life (QoL), subjective memory, and affective assessments. Results Scores for learning potential and different types of memory (working memory, immediate memory, logic memory) for the treatment group improved significantly relative to the untreated controls. Conclusions The most significant finding in this study was that learning potential continued at enhanced levels in trained subjects over an intervention period lasting two years, thereby increasing rehabilitation potential and contributing to successful ageing. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Selective non-response to clinical assessment in the longitudinal study of aging: implications for estimating population levels of cognitive function and dementia

    Kaarin J. Anstey
    Abstract Objective To identify the cognitive outcome of interviewed participants who did not progress to partake in clinical assessments in a longitudinal aging study. Design A retrospective study was conducted on participants who were interviewed but who did not complete the clinical assessment (including an extended cognitive assessment) at either Wave 1 or both Wave 1 and Wave 3 of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing. A total of 1947 participants aged 70 and older commenced the study, 246 participants without clinical data at either or both Waves 1 and 3 were identified for the sub-sample followed-up retrospectively. The Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) was administered to informants and medical records were reviewed. Results Participants who did not complete the clinical assessment at Wave 3 reported poorer health and had poorer cognitive function at Wave 1 independent of age and gender. Rates of possible dementia or cognitive decline were higher in the group who did not undertake the clinical assessment compared with both those who did the clinical assessment and with population data. Conclusion Selective non-response to clinical assessment in a longitudinal aging study is associated with higher risk of cognitive decline and probable dementia. Longitudinal aging studies may underestimate rates of dementia and population levels of cognitive decline. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]