Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of London

  • central london
  • city of london
  • college london
  • east london
  • north london
  • of london
  • south london
  • university college london

  • Terms modified by London

  • london area
  • london hospital
  • london international financial future exchange
  • london school
  • london stock exchange
  • london teaching hospital

  • Selected Abstracts

    Road pricing: lessons from London

    ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 46 2006
    Georgina Santos
    SUMMARY Road pricing LESSONS FROM LONDON This paper assesses the original London Congestion Charging Scheme (LCCS) and its impacts, and it simulates the proposed extension which will include most of Kensington and Chelsea. It also touches upon the political economy of the congestion charge and the increase of the charge from £5 to £8 per day. The possibility of transferring the experience to Paris, Rome and New York is also discussed. The LCCS has had positive impacts. This was despite the considerable political influences on the charge level and location. It is difficult to assess the impacts of the increase of the charge from £5 to £8, which took place in July 2005, because no data have yet been released by Transport for London. The proposed extension of the charging zone does not seem to be an efficient change on economic grounds, at least for the specific boundaries, method of charging and level of charging that is currently planned. Our benefit cost ratios computed under different assumptions of costs and benefits are all below unity. Overall, the experience shows that simple methods of congestion charging, though in no way resembling first-best Pigouvian taxes, can do a remarkably good job of creating benefits from the reduction of congestion. Nevertheless, the magnitude of these benefits can be highly sensitive to the details of the scheme, which therefore need to be developed with great care. , Georgina Santos and Gordon Fraser [source]


    ABSTRACT:,The Olympic Park being developed in east London for the 2012 Games is one large urban renewal project among many in the city. The impact of the Games on urban development may be of less significance than the impact on city politics. Bidding for and delivering the Games has contributed to a reassessment of the recent experiment with mayoral government. The article examines these changing representations of the structures of London government that are now seen as a success. Much of the literature on Olympic cities is highly critical of the impact of the games, but the (current) substantial support for London 2012 also needs to be explained. We examine how London has created opportunities for support, and moments and spaces for celebration when political leaders and Londoners can come together around particular representations of themselves and the city. [source]


    ART HISTORY, Issue 2 2009
    The role of sight in the experience of the metropolis as a cultural artefact had a special significance in the opening years of the nineteenth century. The visual register of the city was at once static , the panoptic vision , and fluid , the mobile and subjective gaze of the flāneur/euse. This scrutiny of the city as cultural capital operated on several levels. I want to demonstrate the complexities of the interaction of city, consumer/viewer and the role/agency of the textual/visual interlocutor. Any exploration of London as cultural capital must take into account this broader pan European phenomenon. The aim here is not to produce a comparative history, but rather to benefit from the specific points of contact between London and its near neighbour Paris as regards the consumption of the city and its emergence as cultural capital by a range of publics. My frame is the Benjaminian notion of the city as fragment or miniature as played out in his Arcades Project [source]


    Article first published online: 7 JUN 200, Bernard Attard
    Australia; capital market; debt; foreign exchange; statistics Current statistics of Australian public borrowing to 1914 suffer from several limits. On the basis of a comprehensive revision, an upward bias is shown in all the alternative time series of London borrowing, while statistics of local bond issues are derived for the first time. The new time series show the importance of the initial borrowing cycle during the 1850s and 1860s; the scale of debt repatriation from the mid-1890s; the interaction between domestic and overseas borrowing before the 1880s; and the potential significance of remittance as an ,invisible stabiliser' of the exchanges and alternative indirect source of capital imports. [source]


    Hilary Dewing
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Reasons for variation in coverage in the NHS cervical screening programme

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2001
    C. E. McGAHAN
    Reasons for variation in coverage in the NHS cervical screening programme In order to investigate reasons for variation in coverage of cervical screening, data from standard Department of Health returns were obtained for all Health Authorities for 1998/1999. Approximately 80% of the variation between health authorities is explained by differences in age distribution and area classification. Considerable differences between Health Authority and Office of National Statistics (ONS) population figures in City and Urban (London) areas for the age group 25,29 years and for City (London) for age group 30,34 years, suggest an effect of list inflation in these groups. Coverage as a performance indicator may be more accurately represented using the age range 35,64 years. Using this narrower age range, the percentage of health authorities meeting the 80% 5-year coverage target increases from 87% to 90%. [source]

    Knowledge-based system for structured examination, diagnosis and therapy in treatment of traumatised teeth

    A. Robertson
    Abstract , Dental trauma in children and adolescents is a common problem, and the prevalence of these injuries has increased in the last 10,20 years. A dental injury should always be considered an emergency and, thus, be treated immediately to relieve pain, facilitate reduction of displaced teeth, reconstruct lost hard tissue, and improve prognosis. Rational therapy depends upon a correct diagnosis, which can be achieved with the aid of various examination techniques. It must be understood that an incomplete examination can lead to inaccurate diagnosis and less successful treatment. Good knowledge of traumatology and models of treatments can also reduce stress and anxiety for both the patient and the dental team. Knowledge-based Systems (KBS) are a practical implementation of Artificial Intelligence. In complex domains which humans find difficult to understand, KBS can assist in making decisions and can also add knowledge. The aim of this paper is to describe the structure of a knowledge-based system for structured examination, diagnosis and therapy for traumatised primary and permanent teeth. A commercially available program was used as developmental tool for the programming (XpertRule, Attar, London, UK). The paper presents a model for a computerised decision support system for traumatology. [source]

    Illicit substance use and its correlates in first episode psychosis

    R. Mazzoncini
    Mazzoncini R, Donoghue K, Hart J, Morgan C, Doody GA, Dazzan P, Jones PB, Morgan K, Murray RM, Fearon P. Illicit substance use and its correlates in first episode psychosis. Objective:, To determine if substance use (particularly cannabis) is more frequent among first episode psychosis patients and associated with a more problematic clinical presentation. Method:, All first episode psychosis (FEP) patients presenting to secondary services were recruited from London and Nottingham, over 2 years, in the Aetiology and Ethnicity of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses study broad framework. Clinical and sociodemographic variables were assessed using a set of standardized instruments. A schedule was created to retrospectively collate substance use data from patients, relatives and clinicians. Results:, Five hundred and eleven FEP were identified. They used three to five times more substances than general population. Substance use was associated with poorer social adjustment and a more acute mode of onset. Cannabis use did not affect social adjustment, but was associated with a more acute mode of onset. Conclusion:, Cannabis has a different impact on FEP than other substances. Large epidemiological studies are needed to disentangle cannabis effect. [source]

    Gastrostomy placement in paediatric patients with neuromuscular disorders: indications and outcome

    Gian Paolo Ramelli MD
    Studies of children with neurodevelopmental disorders have shown that receiving nutrition through a gastrostomy can improve clinical outcomes and quality of life. However, there is little information on gastrostomy and its effect in patients with neuromuscular disorders. A retrospective casenote review of all patients with a gastrostomy, followed-up at the Hammersmith Hospital, London, was undertaken to assess the indications for, and outcomes of, gastrostomy placement. Notes for 32 patients (17 males, 15 females) were reviewed (age range 32mo,31y; median age 12y 5mo). We found three main groups of diagnoses: congenital muscular dystrophy (n=15), structural congenital myopathies (n=11), and other neuromuscular disorders (n=6). Two main patterns of feeding problems were identified before gastrostomy: swallowing difficulties, and nutrition and growth problems. The follow-up period after gastrostomy was from 12 months to 19 years (mean 5y). Weight faltering was reversed in 17 out of 22 patients, and height faltering in 9 out of 14, where data were available. Twenty-six patients had a reduced frequency of chest infections. No significant complication of gastrostomy placement was documented. Twenty-eight patients or their families were happy with the results of the gastrostomy. Gastrostomy seems to have a substantial positive impact in patients with neuromuscular disease and feeding difficulties. [source]

    The 31st British Paediatric Neurology Association (BPNA) Annual Meeting, Institute of Child Health, London, UK, 19-21 January 2005

    Jean-Pierre Lin
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The advantages and disadvantages of a ,herbal' medicine in a patient with diabetes mellitus: a case report

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 6 2004
    D. M. Wood
    Abstract Background Patient-initiated alternative treatments in the management of chronic conditions are common and increasing in the United Kingdom. To date, there have been no reports of herbal medicine use alone in the management of diabetes mellitus. We report here the case of a man who attained excellent glycaemic control using a ,herbal' medicine and reveal how important it was to identify the products of active constituents. Case report A 48-year-old man attending our clinic in Tooting, South London with known Type 2 diabetes, with evidence of both micro- and macro-vascular diabetes-related complications, was poorly controlled despite a drug regimen consisting of oral metformin and twice daily insulin. He went to India for at least 1 year and on returning to the clinic had excellent glycaemic control off all diabetic medication. While away he had started himself on a regimen of three different ,herbal' balls. Samples of blood were found to contain chlorpropamide in a therapeutic concentration; chlorpropamide was also found in one of the balls. He has been counselled on the potential risks associated with chlorpropamide and his treatment reverted to a more conventional treatment regimen. Conclusions General practitioners and hospital physicians should be alert to those patients returning from abroad on effective ,herbal' medications that these may in fact contain an active ingredient. [source]

    Cannabis use in adolescents: the impact of risk and protective factors and social functioning

    Abstract The study uses a school-based sample to test the social and familial risk and protective factors relating to cannabis use. Based on a self-completion survey of 2078 14,16-year-olds (mean age of 15 years) attending seven standard state-run secondary schools in south London, an assessment was made of rates and risk factors for cannabis use. Twenty-four per cent of the total sample had ever used cannabis, with 15% having done so in the month prior to assessment. In addition to greater likelihood of illicit drug use, lifetime cannabis users were less likely to spend time regularly with both their mothers and fathers, but more likely to spend free time with friends who smoked, drank alcohol and used illicit drugs, and with friends involved in criminal activities. Among those who had ever used cannabis, frequency of cannabis use was predicted (using linear regression) by two onset factors (earlier initiation of drinking and cannabis use were both linked to more frequent use) and two social factors (more time spent with drug-using friends and less time spent with the mother). Overall, the study showed that early onset, itself predicted by social networks, is linked to more frequent use of cannabis and that this appears to be sustained by less time spent with parents and more with drug-using peers. [source]

    Increasing practice nurse access to alcohol training

    Abstract Policy makers have repeatedly placed emphasis on the role of primary care in screening for at-risk alcohol consumption and delivering public health messages to the general population. Research has pointed to primary care staff holding negative attitudes towards alcohol misusing patients. Training has traditionally been seen as the key to increasing the capacity of the medical field to engage with alcohol misusing patients but little work has been undertaken to examine the potential barriers to training take up. Consequently, the aim of this study was to explore the willingness of practice nurses to be trained in alcohol screening and brief intervention, and whether identifiable barriers to training exist and how they may be overcome. All practice nurses (n = 82) in an outer London (UK) Health Authority Area were twice mailed an invitation to an alcohol training seminar and a telephone invitation was made to all of those who did not reply to the mailings. Those who did not attend (n = 66) were contacted to take part in a short structured telephone interview ,89% (59/66) were contacted successfully and interviewed. Respondents were experienced in primary care and viewed health promotional activity as a valid part of their role. Few had undertaken previous alcohol training and as a group they were highly active in attending training events with training undertaken tending to be related directly to perceived practice needs and priorities: thus this group could not be characterized as unwilling to be trained. Barriers to training at alcohol events were found to be either personal or work-related, with most nurses interested in receiving further training or information. These data imply that the ways in which training is organized and delivered require sensitivity to identifiable barriers if it is to reach and effect changing practice among practice nurses successfully. A range of possibilities are identified as alternative approaches to the provision of elective training events which may be more acceptable to the target population of health-care staff. [source]

    Identifying young people who drink too much: the clinical utility of the five-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)

    HELEN MILES Researcher
    Abstract The current study investigated the patterns and consequences of alcohol use among young people and their perceptions of associate health risk, and explored the clinical utility of the five-item version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in screening young people for hazardous drinking. A cross-sectional sample of 393 young people aged 16,19 years were accessed through two tertiary colleges in South London and self-completed an anonymous, confidential questionnaire recording the five-item AUDIT, patterns of alcohol consumption, hazardous consequences and perception of associate health risk. Over 90% of the sample reported drinking alcohol regularly, commonly excessive weekend use and related physical, psychological and social consequences. A significant minority (20.4% of males, 18.0% of females) reported consumption of alcohol in excess of UK recommended limits, while almost a third (34.2% of males, 30.2% of females) reported scores in the ,hazardous' range of the five-item AUDIT. However, the majority had little perception of associate health risk, perceiving their use to be ,light' and unproblematic. Only one in 10 of those drinking at ,hazardous' levels recognized their alcohol use as problematic, most believing the hazardous consequences of this use were acceptable. Self-reported patterns of alcohol consumption (except age first used) and total number of psychological and social hazardous consequences were found to significantly predict AUDIT scores using linear regression analysis. Therefore the five-item AUDIT appears to have predictive validity, reflecting self-reported alcohol consumption, perception of associate health risk and hazardous consequences among young people. It is concluded that it may consequently have clinical utility as a simple screening tool (suitable for use by a variety of professionals in contact with young people) for the identification of hazardous alcohol consumption among this population. [source]

    Accidental and deliberate overdose among opiate addicts in methadone maintenance treatment: are deliberate overdoses systematically different?

    Abstract The frequency of accidental or deliberate overdose was investigated among 200 opiate addicts in methadone substitution treatment in clinics in Edinburgh and south London. One hundred and three of the participants reported a mean of 3.4 overdoses, with 71 (69%) reporting that their most recent overdose was accidental, 27 (26%) deliberate,the remainder were uncertain. Those whose last overdose was deliberate were more likely to have been prescribed diazepam at that time and were more depressed at the time of interview. Differentiation by self-reported reason for overdose suggests that treatment providers should distinguish between accidental and deliberate overdose in developing overdose prevention strategies. [source]

    One-year outcome of an early intervention in psychosis service: a naturalistic evaluation

    Swaran P. Singh
    Abstract Aim: We conducted a 1-year prospective evaluation of an early intervention in psychosis service (Early Treatment and Home-based Outreach Service (ETHOS)) during its first 3 years of operation in South-west London, UK. Methods: All patients referred to ETHOS underwent structured assessments at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. In addition, hospitalization rates of ETHOS patients (intervention group) were compared with a non-randomized parallel cohort (comparison group) of first-episode patients treated by community mental health teams. Results: The Early Treatment and Home-based Outreach Servicepatients experienced significant improvements in symptomatic and functional outcomes, especially vocational recovery. The service received only a quarter of eligible patients from referring teams. ETHOS patients did not differ from the comparison group in number of admissions, inpatient days or detention rates. Although number of referrals increased over time, there was no evidence that patients were being referred earlier. Conclusions: There is now robust evidence for the effectiveness of specialist early intervention services. However, such services must be adequate resourced, including an early detection team and provision of their own inpatient unit. [source]

    From episcopal conception to monastic compilation: Hemming's Cartulary in context

    Francesca Tinti
    This article examines the structure and the contents of the late eleventh century Worcester cartulary which forms the second part of London, British Library, Cotton Tiberius A. XIII. Its sections are analysed and checked against the explanatory statements on the composition of the libellus provided by Hemming in his Enucleatio. This essay then contextualizes the composition of the cartulary through an analysis of its various components. Particular attention is paid to the development of the monastic community of Worcester in the late eleventh century and the ways in which the manuscript seems to reflect their acquisition of a specific and distinctive identity. The development, therefore, of their relationship with the bishop of Worcester is especially significant. The evidence provided by the cartulary suggests that, by the time the Norman Samson succeeded Bishop Wulfstan II in 1096, the monks' attitude towards their bishop had noticeably changed from the time when Wulfstan had first suggested the cartulary's composition. [source]

    NATURAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE edited by A. M. Mannion, Routledge, London, 1999.

    No. of pages: 198.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Seeing America,diary of a drug-focused study tour made in 1967

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    Griffith Edwards
    ABSTRACT In 1965 the British government was forced to admit that the country had an escalating heroin problem, with the supply coming mainly from prescribing by private practitioners. Within the official responses to what was seen at that time as a very worrying public health situation was the decision to fund the setting-up of the Addiction Research Unit (ARU) at the Institute of Psychiatry, London. The US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) generously sponsored a study tour for the nominated director of the ARU shortly before the opening of the British research centre. Extensive contemporaneous diary notes of a visit included contact with administrators, researchers, clinicians, parish priests, narcotic agents and addicts themselves. From a mass of often conflicting advice, some insights could be derived. In particular, these included the need for an awareness of any country's way of dealing with drug problems as a dynamic, multi-factorial total system,a holistic ,national response'. A further conclusion was to see policy itself as a complex subject for analysis: drug policy should be as much an issue for research as drug taking. Besides these broad conclusions, the experience provided many specific leads to development of a British addiction research programme, and fostered professional friendships of immeasurable worth. [source]


    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 1 2005
    Michael Schabas
    A new railway is being planned across London. Incremental fares revenue will only pay about a quarter of the £10 billion1 expected cost, so the Greater London Assembly (GLA) is considering ,alternative funding mechanisms'. These include new taxes on businesses that are presumed to benefit from the scheme. Taxes would deter the very investment Crossrail is supposed to support. The GLA would do better to change the scheme to reduce the need for subsidy and strengthen the business case. [source]

    Listing BRICs: Stock Issuers from Brazil, Russia, India, and China in New York, London, and Luxembourg

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2010
    Dariusz Wójcik
    abstract In the past decade, hundreds of companies from emerging markets have listed their shares on American and European stock markets. Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) are the main countries of origin of issuers, and stock exchanges in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Luxembourg are the main destinations involved in the process. We use a comprehensive data set for these home and host markets for the end of 2008 to explore the intensity of foreign listings, the subnational geography of cross-listed firms, and the destinations of foreign listings. Cross-listing firms tend to be relatively large and come from capital-intensive, export-oriented, and high-growth sectors. Trading links with and industrial specialization of the host markets affect the choice of destination markets. These patterns, however, are not universal across countries. There is a high concentration of cross-listed firms in the leading financial centers of the BRIC countries, particularly in Russia and Brazil. Firms outside of the leading centers rarely cross-list, and when they do, they enter second-tier host markets. While BRIC countries have a large potential for further foreign listings, the process remains politically sensitive. Our results highlight the shortcomings of the literature on cross-listing in economics and the significance of the cross-listing phenomenon to future research in financial geographies. [source]

    Managing the Transnational Law Firm: A Relational Analysis of Professional Systems, Embedded Actors, and Time,Space-Sensitive Governance

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2008
    James R. Faulconbridge
    Abstract This article argues that the relational approach can be particularly effective for addressing debates about the varieties of capitalism and the dynamics of institutional contexts. Using the case study of transnational law firms and data gathered through interviews with partners in London and New York, it makes two arguments. First, it suggests that the relational approach's focus on the behavior of key agents when new or different work practices are encountered helps explain the management of institutional heterogeneity by transnational corporations (TNCs). Such an approach reveals the peculiarities of professionals and professional service managers and how they affect the response of globalizing law firms when home- and host-country business practices diverge. Second, the article shows how relational approaches can help disaggregate descriptions of national institutional systems to reveal the importance of studying their constitutive practices. Understanding these microlevel variations, which is missed by macrolevel categories like Anglo-American, is essential for explaining how firms cope with institutional heterogeneity. The author therefore argues that a better understanding of the effects of TNCs on national business systems can be facilitated by further developing the actor- and practice-focused analyses promoted by relational approaches. [source]

    Stuart London's standard of living: re-examining the Settlement of Tithes of 1638 for rents, income, and poverty

    The Settlement of Tithes of 1638 can be tested for biases in its London rents. Even so, it proves to be a relatively good source for seventeenth-century London, and for calculating associated median and mean rents, as well as a Gini coefficient of inequality for the distribution of resources. Through other evidence in the Settlement, rent/income ratios for London can be approximated, and from them estimates made of London's median income. Median rents and income also allow estimates of the percentage of Londoners in poverty. Though the last is inevitably disputable, the estimate holds up well to testing by other evidence. [source]

    Trading options before Black-Scholes: a study of the market in late seventeenth-century London1

    This article uses data from the ledgers of the financial broker Charles Blunt to explore the market in equity options that emerged in London during the stock market boom of the early 1690s. Blunt's ledgers provide a unique opportunity to observe the workings of an early modern derivatives market. They reveal a broadly based and highly active trade in options. The market functioned well, determined value using agreed criteria, and was utilized by a diverse range of individuals to facilitate both risk-seeking and risk-averse investment strategies. [source]

    Cottage industry, migration, and marriage in nineteenth-century England

    There has been considerable debate concerning the impact of the industrial employment of women upon their demographic behaviour in nineteenth-century England. This article assesses the impact of employment in the cottage industry of straw plait and hat making in the county of Hertfordshire, comparing and contrasting districts where the industry was prominent with those where it was not. It is discovered that in 1851 the availability of straw industry employment encouraged earlier marriage, most notably in those parishes where the industry was particularly heavily concentrated, although overall levels of nuptiality and proportions ultimately marrying were similar in straw and non-straw areas alike. By 1871, however, the skewed sex ratio that such employment produced among young adults served to offset this positive effect. As the industry waned in the later nineteenth century, the experience of different regions of the county converged, while throughout the period the data suggest that urban/rural contrasts and the suburbanization of London produced more stark contrasts in female marriage patterns than did the availability of cottage industry employment. [source]

    Emporium of the world: the merchants of London, 1660,1800 , By Perry Gauci

    John Smail
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Consumption, retailing, and medicine in early-modern London

    This article examines the early development of specialized retail shops in early modern London. It argues that apothecaries' shops were sites of innovative shop design and display. These practices were responses to attitudes to consumption, the problematic nature of the medical commodities which apothecaries sold, and, particularly, contemporary concerns about their reliability, trustworthiness, and honesty. The article concludes that analyses of the rise of the shop need to be revised to incorporate early developments by producer-retailers, such as apothecaries and goldsmiths, and suggests that investments in retailing were driven more by worries about commodities than enticing customers. [source]

    Imagined orphans: poor families, child welfare and contested citizenship in London , Lydia Murdoch

    Harry Hendrick
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    ,Unfortunate objects': lone mothers in eighteenth-century London , Tanya Evans

    Leonard Schwarz
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Down and out in eighteenth-century London , Tim Hitchcock

    Peter King
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]