Local Dysfunction (local + dysfunction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Local Dysfunction and Asymmetrical Deformation of Mitral Annular Geometry in Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation: A Novel Computerized 3D Echocardiographic Analysis

ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2008
Masao Daimon M.D.
Objective: Most studies of the pathogenesis of functional mitral regurgitation (MR) have focused on alterations in ventricular function and geometry. We used a novel 3D echocardiographic method to assess abnormalities in mitral annular (MA) geometry and motion in patients with ischemic MR (IMR) and compared these data to those obtained from normal subjects and from patients with MR caused by dilated cardiomyopathy (DMR). Methods: Real time 3D echo was performed in 12 normal subjects, 25 with IMR, and 14 with DMR. Eight points along the saddle-shaped MA were identified using our software at systole and diastole. From these eight points, four annular diameters at each cardiac phase were determined. Annular motion was assessed by measuring local displacement (LD) of a given point between systole and diastole. Results: Annular motion was different between groups: IMR had smaller LD in posterior MA segments than did normals (2.6 ± 1.1 vs 4.8 ± 1.9 mm, P < 0.01), while DMR had globally reduced LD. In IMR systolic MA dilatation was striking in the anterior,posterior (diameter; IMR vs controls, 28.3 ± 3.5 vs 22.5 ± 2.2 mm, P< 0.05) and anterolateral,posteromedial (31.7 ± 3.5 vs 25.1 ± 2.2 mm, P < 0.05) directions; in IMR, systolic MA diameters in these two directions correlated with MR severity(P = 0.02). MA dilatation occurred globally in DMR. Conclusion: This novel 3D echo method demonstrated that MA motion and dilatation were asymmetric in IMR and symmetric in DMR. These differences in MA geometry and motion may aid in the development of distinct new therapies for IMR and DMR. [source]


Hypervolaemia improves global and local function and efficiency in postischaemic myocardium

CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 8 2001
FY Du
SUMMARY 1. In the present study, we investigated the effects of blood volume on postischaemic function and efficiency. In 14 anaesthetized dogs, following recovery from a period of 15 min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, the effects of hypervolaemia (HYPER; 15% increased volume produced by fast infusion of Hespan; B Braun Medical, Irvine, CA, USA), normovolaemia (NORMO) and hypovolaemia (HYPO) were studied. 2. Although myocardial O2 consumption was not significantly increased by volume (6.37±0.94 vs 6.89±1.1 mL/min per 100 g for HYPO and HYPER, respectively), local work of the stunned myocardium was markedly elevated (8.8±1.7 vs 22.5±3.5 g·mm/ beat, for HYPO and HYPER, respectively; P < 0.05). External work of the heart was also significantly improved (71.8±12.7 vs 139.5±16.2 mmHg·L/min for HYPO and HYPER, respectively). These data indicate markedly improved efficiency produced by volume, because work was increased with no change in myocardial O2 consumption. 3. Local dysfunction was characterized by several parameters, including systolic bulge, end-diastolic length, delay to onset of shortening, end shortening time delay (EST) and tail work ratio. Hypervolaemia reduced EST compared with hypovolaemia (98.6±18.3 vs 110.7±14.9 msec, respectively; P < 0.05) and improved tail work ratio (28.0±7.0 vs 36.0±7.0%, respectively; P < 0.05), with no effects on systolic bulge, end-diastolic length and delay to onset of shortening. 4. Thus, even in the postischaemic myocardium, increasing work by volume is energetically efficient and is accompanied by partial improvement of local dysfunction. [source]


Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa: A report of 16 cases with clinical and histopathological analysis and a review of the published work

THE JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
Naoko ISHIGURO
Abstract Sixteen cases of cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa referred to our Department from 1985 to 2003 were studied clinically and histopathologically. Laboratory data, treatments and clinical courses were also evaluated retrospectively. All cases had nodules and/or indurated erythemas on their lower extremities. All cases showed necrotizing vasculitis of small muscular arteries in the subcutaneous tissues and/or occlusion of those arteries histopathologically. Fifteen cases also had accumulation of plasma protein in vessels of the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. Laboratory data showed high activity of platelets and coagulation in some cases. Eleven cases had been effectively treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Eight cases were observed for at least 5 years (the longest for ,19 years) and had good prognoses and no systemic involvement. Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa seems to be a benign disease, and differs from systemic polyarteritis nodosa although their histopathological features are common. Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa might involve local dysfunction of the circulation from the dermis to the subcutaneous area. A review of the published work shows that the cause(s) of most cases of cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa is unknown, that no controlled trials for treatment of cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa compared to polyarteritis nodosa have been reported, and that no definitively effective therapy for cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa has been established. [source]


Hypervolaemia improves global and local function and efficiency in postischaemic myocardium

CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 8 2001
FY Du
SUMMARY 1. In the present study, we investigated the effects of blood volume on postischaemic function and efficiency. In 14 anaesthetized dogs, following recovery from a period of 15 min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, the effects of hypervolaemia (HYPER; 15% increased volume produced by fast infusion of Hespan; B Braun Medical, Irvine, CA, USA), normovolaemia (NORMO) and hypovolaemia (HYPO) were studied. 2. Although myocardial O2 consumption was not significantly increased by volume (6.37±0.94 vs 6.89±1.1 mL/min per 100 g for HYPO and HYPER, respectively), local work of the stunned myocardium was markedly elevated (8.8±1.7 vs 22.5±3.5 g·mm/ beat, for HYPO and HYPER, respectively; P < 0.05). External work of the heart was also significantly improved (71.8±12.7 vs 139.5±16.2 mmHg·L/min for HYPO and HYPER, respectively). These data indicate markedly improved efficiency produced by volume, because work was increased with no change in myocardial O2 consumption. 3. Local dysfunction was characterized by several parameters, including systolic bulge, end-diastolic length, delay to onset of shortening, end shortening time delay (EST) and tail work ratio. Hypervolaemia reduced EST compared with hypovolaemia (98.6±18.3 vs 110.7±14.9 msec, respectively; P < 0.05) and improved tail work ratio (28.0±7.0 vs 36.0±7.0%, respectively; P < 0.05), with no effects on systolic bulge, end-diastolic length and delay to onset of shortening. 4. Thus, even in the postischaemic myocardium, increasing work by volume is energetically efficient and is accompanied by partial improvement of local dysfunction. [source]