Local Distribution (local + distribution)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Geostatistical characterization of the spatial distribution of Grapholita molesta and Anarsia lineatella males in an agricultural landscape

A. Sciarretta
Abstract:, The results obtained in spatial analysis of pheromone trap catches of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and Peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella (Zeller), are reported. The studies were performed in the Molise region, central Italy, during 2002 and 2003. Local distributions of oriental fruit moth and peach twig borer males were considered in a heterogeneous landscape. The aim of the study was to determine the temporal and spatial variation in distribution and abundance of the insect pests inside small plots of fruit orchards (apple, kiwi, peach, pear and plum fruits) and outside (in field crops, irrigation channels, hedgerows and a river), and to evaluate the importance of the host plants in relation to the adult distributions. Results showed that the main ,hot spot' for both lepidopterous pests was in a stone fruit orchard in the northern zone of the study area; other infested areas were in stone orchards and, in the case of A. lineatella, also in plum orchards. The river seems to act as a barrier rather than an ecological corridor. The observed spatio-temporal distributions of G. molesta and A. lineatella differed and were determined mainly by the location of the most important host plants and by the tendency of males to move in the environment, i.e. inside and outside the breeding and mating sites. Adequate knowledge of these spatial processes should be considered as an essential prerequisite for integrated pest management programmes in a precision farming approach. [source]

Arterial stiffness in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis

A. Wykretowicz
ABSTRACT Background, Increased arterial stiffness or arteriosclerosis, represents a physiological part of ageing. Atherosclerosis is a process that does not affect the arterial bed uniformly but has a variable local distribution and is frequently superimposed on stiffened vessels. We therefore addressed the question of whether any correlation exists between the general characteristics of arterial stiffness or wave reflection and subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in a sample of healthy subjects. Methods, A total of 116 healthy subjects (mean age 55 years, 43 female) were evaluated. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection was assessed with the use of digital volume pulse analysis (DVP) and pulse wave analysis (PWA). Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by measurement of IMT. Results, Stiffness Index (SIDVP), the measure of general arterial stiffness correlated significantly with IMT (r = 0·37, P < 0·01). IMT correlated significantly with age (r = 0·5, P < 0·0001), waist to hip ratio (WHR) (r = 0·39, P < 0·0001) and mean blood pressure (BPmean) (r = 0·4, P < 0·0001). IMT did not correlate with measures of wave reflection. SIDVP correlated significantly with age (r = 0·32, P < 0·005), WHR (r = 0·36, P < 0·0001), BPmean (r = 0·36, P < 0·0001) and measurements of wave reflection. However analysis of a model which included variables that significantly influenced SIDVP and IMT, such as age, WHR and mean BP showed that arterial stiffness is not independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. Conclusions, The indices of subclinical atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness and wave reflection, indicate different aspects of vascular status in otherwise healthy subjects [source]


Valerie D. Moulton
Abstract This study investigates how densities of ringed seals were affected by construction and oil production activities at Northstar, an artificial island built in the nearshore Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Intensive and replicated aerial surveys of seals on landfast ice were conducted during six spring seasons: for three seasons before island construction began (1997,1999); after a winter of intensive island construction (2000); and after more limited construction plus drilling (2001) and drilling plus oil production (2002). A Poisson regression model was used to examine seal densities relative to distance from Northstar after allowance for environmental covariates. Post hoc power analysis indicated that the study design and Poisson regression approach had high power to detect small-scale changes in seal densities near Northstar if such changes had occurred. However, seal densities during spring were not significantly affected by proximity to Northstar in 2000,2002. Habitat, temporal, and weather factors did have significant effects on seal densities. This study shows that effects of the Northstar oil development on local distribution of basking ringed seals are no more than slight, and are small relative to the effects of natural environmental factors. An understanding of environmental effects is essential when assessing potential impacts of industrial activity on ringed seals. [source]

Onosma bulgarica sp. nov. (Boraginaceae,Lithospermeae) found on serpentine in Bulgaria

Dolja Pavlova
A new species, Onosma bulgarica (Boraginaceae,Lithospermeae), found in the eastern Rhodope Mountains in Bulgaria is described. It is a typical serpentinitophyte with local distribution and is thus a further addition to the remarkable serpentine flora. The new species belongs to the asterotrichos Onosma species and shows similarities with other endemics distributed on the Balkan Peninsula. Onosma bulgarica is clearly morphologically delimited by its suffruticose dense caespitose habit, very narrow basal and cauline leaves, bracts of lower flowers shorter than calyx and pedicel, corolla pale yellow and glabrous and short anthers. The differences between the new species and related taxa are discussed. [source]

Ecological parameters of the leaf-litter frog community of an Atlantic Rainforest area at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

Abstract The Atlantic Rainforest originally covered much of the Brazilian coast and is now reduced to approximately only 7% of its original area. Data on abundance distribution and microhabitat characteristics of anuran amphibians living on the forest floor leaf litter in the Atlantic Rainforest are scarce. In this study, we analysed the effect of litter depth and structure on the abundance and species richness of leaf-litter frogs in an area of Atlantic Rainforest at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, south-eastern Brazil. We performed monthly samples (nocturnal and diurnal) from August 1996 to October 1997 using small (2 m × 1 m) plots. We sampled 234 plots, totalling 468 m2 of forest leaf litter. We estimated leaf-litter depth and the proportion of leaves in the plot and tested their effect on the total abundance of frogs and species richness using multiple regression analysis. We found 185 frogs from eight species: Brachycephalus (=Psyllophryne) didactylus (Izecksohn, 1971) (Brachycephalidae), Dendrophryniscus brevipollicatus Jiménez de la Espada 1871 (Bufonidae), Adenomera marmorata Steindachner 1867, Eleutherodactylus parvus (Girard 1853), Eleutherodactylus guentheri (Steindachner 1864), Eleutherodactylus binotatus (Spix 1824) and Zachaenus parvulus (Girard 1853) (Leptodactylidae), and Chiasmocleis sp. (Microhylidae). Brachycephalus didactylus was the most abundant species, with 91 individuals, whereas Dendrophryniscus brevipollicatus was the rarest, with two individuals. Mean litter depth and the proportion of leaves in the leaf litter were significantly related to frog abundance (R2 = 0.17; F2,107 = 10.779; P = 0.0001) and species richness (R2 = 0.11; F2,107 = 6.375; P = 0.002) indicating that microhabitat characteristics may affect local distribution and abundance of frogs in the forest floor. [source]

Influence of muscular activity on local mineralization patterns in metatarsals of the embryonic mouse

E. Tanck
This study addressed the theory that local mechanical loading may influence the development of embryonic long bones. Embryonic mouse metatarsal rudiments were cultured as whole organs, and the geometry of the primary ossification center was compared with that of rudiments that had developed in utero. The mineralization front in vivo was found to be nearly straight, whereas in vitro it acquired a more convex shape due to a slower mineralization rate at the periphery of the mineralized cylinder. A poroelastic finite element analysis was performed to calculate the local distributions of distortional strain and fluid pressure at the mineralization front in the metatarsal during loading in vivo as a result of muscle contractions in the embryonic hindlimbs. The distribution of fluid pressure from the finite element analysis could not explain the difference in mineralization shape. The most likely candidate for the difference was the distortional strain, resulting from muscle contraction, which is absent in vitro, because its value at the periphery was significantly higher than in the center of the tissue. Without external loads, the mineralization process may be considered as pre-programmed, starting at the center of the tissue and resulting in a spherical mineralization front. Strain modulates the rate of the mineralization process in vivo, resulting in the straight mineralization front. These results confirm that disturbances in muscle development are likely to produce disturbed mineralization patterns, resulting in a disordered osteogenic process. [source]

Plastid DNA variation in the Dactylorhiza incarnata/maculata polyploid complex and the origin of allotetraploid D. sphagnicola (Orchidaceae)

M. Hedrén
Abstract To obtain further information on the polyploid dynamics of the the Dactylorhiza incarnata/maculata polyploid complex and the origin of the allotetraploid D. sphagnicola (Orchidaceae), plastid DNA variation was studied in 400 plants from from Sweden and elsewhere in Europe and Asia Minor by means of polymerase chain reaction,restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) and sequencing. Allotetraploid taxa in Europe are known have evolved by multiple independent polyploidization events following hybridization between the same set of two distinct ancestral lineages. Most allotetraploids have inherited the plastid genome from parents similar to D. maculata sensu lato, which includes, e.g. the diploid D. fuchsii and the autotetraploid D. maculata sensu stricto. D. sphagnicola carries a separate plastid haplotype different from the one found in other allotetraploid taxa, which is in agreement with an independent origin from the parental lineages. Some of the remaining allotetraploids have local distributions and appear to be of postglacial origin, whereas still other allotetraploids may be of higher age, carrying plastid haplotypes that have not been encountered in present day representatives of the parental lineages. Introgression and hybridization between diploids and allotetraploids, and between different independently derived allotetraploids may further have contributed to genetic diversity at the tetraploid level. Overall, the Dactylorhiza polyploid complex illustrates how taxon diversity and genetic diversity may be replenished rapidly in a recently glaciated area. [source]