Local Development (local + development)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Elites in Local Development in the Philippines

DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE, Issue 1 2010
Andreas Lange
ABSTRACT For many Philippine provinces, decentralization and more autonomous local development planning did not lead to the desired outcomes. This article examines the experiences of the two provinces of Cebu and Leyte. While Cebu became a centre of trade and industry, Leyte is still struggling with its local economy oriented to natural resources. A main reason for the divergent development paths of the two islands can be found in the emergence of different elite structures, which resulted in different path-dependent patterns of economic specialization. Despite this different historical experience, both provinces today suffer from similar institutional infirmities in their planning system for promoting local development. Local planning capacity constraints, such as regional and local co-ordination and co-operation patterns, local finances, human capital and knowledge are analysed. The Cebuano elites used the room for manoeuvre provided by decentralization reforms more successfully than elites in Leyte. This created pockets of efficiency in Cebu leading to more development-friendly investment policies. In order to increase local and regional planning capacity, short-term interventions and policy reforms at the local, regional and national level are discussed. [source]


The Signalling Role of Municipal Currencies in Local Development

ECONOMICA, Issue 288 2005
Rajshri Jayaraman
The last decade has seen the burgeoning of several hundred local community currency institutions in cities across the world. Although residents of these communities claim that local currency promotes local development, how it does so has hitherto been unexplored. We argue that the introduction of a municipal currency may serve as a signal of demand for local goods. Where demand uncertainty deters firms from investing in more productive technologies, such a signal improves the chances that technology choice will be optimal. The introduction of a local currency therefore always improves ex ante efficiency and may lead to ex post efficiency, with strictly higher levels of productivity and welfare. [source]


AFRICITIES: Summit Boosts Local Development

AFRICA RESEARCH BULLETIN: ECONOMIC, FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL SERIES, Issue 12 2010
Article first published online: 9 FEB 2010
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Social Partnership and Local Development in Ireland: The Limits to Deliberation

BRITISH JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS, Issue 3 2006
Paul Teague
The Irish model of social partnership is considered distinctive as it is based on the principles of deliberative democracy more than adversarial bargaining. The deliberative features of the model are considered to be threefold. First, the negotiations to conclude national social agreements are not confined to the government, trade unions and employers, but also include a wide range of civil associations. Second, agreements are not simply concerned with wage determination, but cover a wide range of matters designed to promote social inclusion. Third, there is an effort to avoid agreements being overly centralized by promoting programmes at the local, territorial level. This paper examines the validity of this argument by assessing efforts to forge a local dimension to the social partnership model. The conclusions suggest that while the model has improved the delivery of public services, it is premature to claim that Irish social partnership represents a new model of labour market governance based on deliberative democracy. [source]


Elites in Local Development in the Philippines

DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE, Issue 1 2010
Andreas Lange
ABSTRACT For many Philippine provinces, decentralization and more autonomous local development planning did not lead to the desired outcomes. This article examines the experiences of the two provinces of Cebu and Leyte. While Cebu became a centre of trade and industry, Leyte is still struggling with its local economy oriented to natural resources. A main reason for the divergent development paths of the two islands can be found in the emergence of different elite structures, which resulted in different path-dependent patterns of economic specialization. Despite this different historical experience, both provinces today suffer from similar institutional infirmities in their planning system for promoting local development. Local planning capacity constraints, such as regional and local co-ordination and co-operation patterns, local finances, human capital and knowledge are analysed. The Cebuano elites used the room for manoeuvre provided by decentralization reforms more successfully than elites in Leyte. This created pockets of efficiency in Cebu leading to more development-friendly investment policies. In order to increase local and regional planning capacity, short-term interventions and policy reforms at the local, regional and national level are discussed. [source]


Revealing the socioeconomic impact of small disasters in Colombia using the DesInventar database

DISASTERS, Issue 2 2010
Mabel C. Marulanda
Small disasters are usually the product of climate variability and climate change. Analysis of them illustrates that they increase difficulties for local development,frequently affecting the livelihoods of poor people and perpetuating their level of poverty and human insecurity,and entail challenges for a country's development. In contrast to extreme events, small disasters are often invisible at the national level and their effects are not considered as relevant from a macroeconomic standpoint. Nevertheless, their accumulated impact causes economic, environmental and social problems. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the DesInventar database, developed in 1994 by the Network for Social Studies in Disaster Prevention in Latin America. In addition, it proposes a new version of the Local Disaster Index developed in 2005 within the framework of the Disaster Risk and Management Indicators Program for the Americas, with the support of the Inter-American Development Bank. [source]


Crossing Cultures, Learning to Export: Making Houses in British Columbia for Consumption in Japan,

ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2002
Tim Reiffenstein
Abstract: In this article, trade is conceptualized as a cultural as well as an economic and political process. In this view, exporting connects market intelligence with production intelligence on either side of national, typically cultural, borders. These connections frequently imply alternative, mutually influencing, forms of communication and learning that have various implications for local development. A model of relational market intelligence is outlined as a way of understanding this dimension of exporting. The model integrates production and market intelligence while emphasizing alternative pathways of learning and communication. It is applied to the newly emergent trade that features the export of houses from British Columbia to Japan. Within an extended case-study research design framework, information is based on interviews with manufacturing firms and related organizations in British Columbia. Implications for local development in British Columbia are noted. [source]


The Signalling Role of Municipal Currencies in Local Development

ECONOMICA, Issue 288 2005
Rajshri Jayaraman
The last decade has seen the burgeoning of several hundred local community currency institutions in cities across the world. Although residents of these communities claim that local currency promotes local development, how it does so has hitherto been unexplored. We argue that the introduction of a municipal currency may serve as a signal of demand for local goods. Where demand uncertainty deters firms from investing in more productive technologies, such a signal improves the chances that technology choice will be optimal. The introduction of a local currency therefore always improves ex ante efficiency and may lead to ex post efficiency, with strictly higher levels of productivity and welfare. [source]


National Qualification Frameworks: from policy borrowing to policy learning

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, Issue 2 2010
BORHENE CHAKROUN
This article takes up the issue of the internationalisation of Vocational Education and Training (VET) reforms, expressed in the way policy instruments such as National Qualifications Frameworks (NQF) are introduced in the European Training Foundation's (ETF) partner countries. There is an international debate and different perspectives regarding NQFs. These perspectives have largely talked past each other. The article brings together these perspectives and highlights the issues at stake in this field. Through the analysis of ETF interventions in different regions, the article makes a case for new approaches of intervention, namely policy learning, that aim at enabling national stakeholders and that are conducive for home-grown VET policies. The discussion is broad in scope, not only because the article reviews developments in qualifications frameworks across-regions, but also because it highlights the complex interaction of the global and local development when introducing NQFs and the impact of such reforms on VET systems. [source]


Landmines and Local Community Adaptation

JOURNAL OF CONTINGENCIES AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2002
Aldo A. Benini
Despite international mobilization for greater humanitarian mine action and despite considerable clearance achievements, the majority of mine-affected communities have not yet been involved in formal clearance activities. They adapt to the contamination largely by local means. The differing degree to which local adaptation is successful is now better understood as a result of the Global Landmine Survey, a multi-country survey project launched in the wake of the 1997 Ottawa treaty to ban anti-personnel mines. Socio-economic impact surveys have since been completed in several countries. In addition to landmines, the Global Landmine Survey records impacts also from unexploded ordnance (UXO). The ability to avoid mine incidents is used to measure adaptation success. We use a variant of Poisson regression models in order to identify community and contamination correlates of the number of recent landmine victims. We estimate separate models using data from the Yemen, Chad and Thailand surveys. We interpret them in a common framework that includes variables from three domains: Pressure on resources, intensity of past conflict and communities' institutional endowments. Statistically significant associations occur in all three domains and in all the three countries studied. Physical correlates are the most strongly associated, pointing to a lasting deadly legacy of violent conflict, but also significant learning effects over time are present. Despite different measurements of institutional endowments, in each country one factor signifying greater local development is correlated with reductions in victims, whereas factors commonly associated with the presence of government officials do not contribute to local capacity to diminish the landmine problem. Strong spatial effects are manifest in clusters of communities with recent victims. Two policy consequences emerge. Firstly, given humanitarian funding limits, trade-offs between clearing contaminated land and creating alternative employment away from that land need to be studied more deeply; the Global Landmine Survey will need to reach out to other bodies of knowledge in development. Secondly, communities with similar contamination types and levels often form local clusters that are smaller than the administrative districts of the government and encourage tailored planning approaches for mine action. These call for novel coalitions that bring advocacy and grassroots NGOs together with local governments, agricultural and forestry departments and professional mine clearance and awareness education agencies. [source]


A Quasi-Market Framework for Development Competition

JOURNAL OF URBAN AFFAIRS, Issue 2 2002
Richard C. Feiock
This article describes a quasi-market framework to integrate the diverse perspectives on local government development competition found in the economic development literatures. Within this framework local governments seek to obtain positive externalities associated with economic growth through the provision of services and inducements to private firms in exchange for commitments of employment and investment. Efficient pursuit of economic development is impeded by market and government failures. Better understanding of how the quasi-market for economic development works promises to enhance our understanding of the relationships between economic and political demands and local development with important implications for evaluation of local growth policy and development competition. [source]


Olympic Cities: Lessons Learned from Mega-Event Politics

JOURNAL OF URBAN AFFAIRS, Issue 2 2001
Greg Andranovich
As cities compete for jobs and capital in the context of limited federal aid and increasing global economic competition, a new and potentially high-risk strategy for stimulating local economic growth has emerged. This strategy, called the mega-event strategy, entails the quest for a high-profile event to serve as a stimulus to, and justification for, local development. We examine how the mega-event strategy has played out in the three US cities with contemporary Olympic experience: Los Angeles (1984), Atlanta (1996), and Salt Lake City (2002). We analyze the approaches taken by these three cities to bidding for and staging an Olympic mega-event. Our comparison focuses on the decade long period that cities use to prepare to host the games. We conclude with a discussion of lessons learned and the policy implications of the mega-event strategy on urban politics. [source]


Free Enrichment or Hidden Indexicals?

MIND & LANGUAGE, Issue 4 2008
ALISON HALL
In this paper, I defend the latter position. The main objection to this view is that free enrichment appears to overgenerate, not predicting where context cannot affect truth conditions, so that a systematic account is unlikely (Stanley, 2002a). I first examine the semantic alternative proposed by Stanley and others, which assumes extensive hidden structure acting as a linguistic trigger for pragmatic processes, so that all truth-conditional effects of context turn out to be instances of saturation. I show that there are cases of optional pragmatic contributions to the proposition expressed that cannot plausibly be accounted for in this way, and that advocates of this approach will therefore also have to appeal to free enrichment. The final section starts to address the question of how free enrichment is constrained: I argue that it involves only local development or adjustment of parts of logical form, any global developments being excluded by the requirement for the proposition expressed to provide an inferential warrant for the intended implications of the utterance. [source]


Knowledge, networks of cities and growth in regional urban systems*

PAPERS IN REGIONAL SCIENCE, Issue 4 2007
Rafael Boix
Knowledge city; networks of cities; urban growth; external economies; spatial econometrics Abstract., Recent theories of regional growth and local development emphasise the roles of agglomeration and knowledge as the main determinants of growth, whereas the theories of the networks of cities remark that growth is a process not only within cities but also between cities. The objective of this paper is to measure the factors that affect the evolution of different intensities of knowledge in a region's cities. An adaptation of the OECD knowledge classification is used to divide the industries by knowledge intensity and to model the determinants of these intensities in a spatial context. Results suggest that higher growth rates are associated with higher levels of technology and knowledge. The growth of the different kinds of knowledge is related to local and spatial factors (agglomeration and network externalities) and each knowledge intensity show a particular response to these factors. [source]


Why some regions will decline: A Canadian case study with thoughts on local development strategies,

PAPERS IN REGIONAL SCIENCE, Issue 1 2006
Mario Polèse
Regional development; local development; periphery; location; economic decline Abstract., The authors present the case of five Canadian peripheral regions, which they argue are destined to decline. The explanation of the reasons why future decline (in absolute population and employment numbers) is inevitable constitutes the article's central focus. The authors suggest that regional decline will become an increasingly common occurrence in nations at the end of the demographic transition whose economic geographies display centre-periphery relationships. Such broad structural trends cannot be easily altered by public policy. The authors reflect on the implications of regional decline for the formulation of local economic development strategies. Local economic development strategies should not, they argue, be advanced as a means of arresting population and employment decline. To suggest that the regions studied in this article will decline because of a lack of social capital or insufficient number of local entrepreneurs, is not only misleading but may also be counterproductive. [source]


An introduction to Decentralized Cooperation: definitions, origins and conceptual mapping

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2003
Pierre HafteckArticle first published online: 28 JUL 200
The term ,Decentralized Cooperation', coined in the 1980s, is interpreted differently by various organisations involved in development cooperation. However, there are points of convergence among these interpretations that suggest a common definition involving: (a) the lead actors (local governments), (b) an overarching objective (sustainable local development) and (c) the nature of activities carried out (exchanges and support). From a historical perspective, the origin of Decentralized Cooperation is two-fold. On the development cooperation scene, the concept emerged when the array of actors involved in development projects widened as a result of major changes in aid themes and approaches. In the field of international relations between local governments, Decentralized Cooperation activities appeared as the scope of municipal twinnings also widened accordingly to involve partners from countries in development or in transition. Today, Decentralized Cooperation continues as an evolving concept located at the intersection of its two parent fields: development cooperation and international municipal relations. At this intersection, a fusion of experiences, resources and ideas is taking place. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Building knowledge city in transformation era: Knowledge-based urban development in Beijing in the context of globalisation and decentralisation

ASIA PACIFIC VIEWPOINT, Issue 1 2010
Pengjun Zhao
Abstract This study examines knowledge-based urban development in Beijing with the objective of revealing the impact of the ,synergetic' forces of globalisation and local government intervention on knowledge-based urban development in the context of the coexisting processes of globalisation and decentralisation. The findings in this paper show that due to the rapid growth of the cultural industry sector, knowledge-based urban development has created various kinds of ,cultural industry clustered areas', which were recently promoted by the 2008 Olympic Games. ,Synergetic' global and local forces are leading knowledge-based urban development, with the emergence of a local coalition regime in which local government manages local development, considered as ,enterprises' in the decentralisation process, while the State retains a significant influence on knowledge-based urban development. The central and municipal governments tend to emphasise strategies to ,facilitate the climate for growth' rather than the centrally planned control they exerted prior to the 1980s. [source]


Filling hollowed out spaces with localised meanings, practices and hope: Progressive neoliberal spaces in Te Rarawa

ASIA PACIFIC VIEWPOINT, Issue 2 2009
Nick Lewis
Abstract The contracting out to private providers of services previously delivered within the state has been framed critically as ,hollowing out' and read for its erosion of social democracy, social justice and welfare, as well as its inefficiencies in practice. It is commonly dismissed as neoliberalism. In this paper, we highlight the gains made through this new contractualism by Te Oranga, the Family, Health and Education division of Te Runanga o Te Rarawa located in the Far North of New Zealand. Our aim is not to narrate the exceptional, but to point to the inherent resistances to totalising projects residing in agency and place. Placed at the service of a deep sense of community being and community good rather than self-interest, delivery contracts have enabled Te Oranga to pursue an alternative form of local development and craft a set of progressive spaces. Although highly contingent upon powerful Maori political projects, we argue that the case suggests that gains may be sought in other settings, albeit partial, temporary, and politically contingent. We thus offer a more nuanced account of neoliberalism by highlighting its agency, fractures, politics, and contradictions, and by demonstrating that actualised neoliberalisms are co-constituted with other political projects. [source]


Identifying marks of Latin American psychoanalysis Towards the defi nition of a River Plate model,

THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOANALYSIS, Issue 6 2005
ANA MARÍA VIÑOLY BECEIRO
The author considers the infl uences that different psychoanalytic trends have had on the thought processes of psychoanalysts in the River Plate region. She begins by giving a history of the way in which these trends were shaped by the sociocultural context of the region, and of how the dialectical relationship between these two factors produced the River Plate region's (Argentina and Uruguay) own theoretical model. The author includes a study-albeit incomplete-of major local developments, and attempts to defi ne the characteristics of a regional model. The model is based on the following parameters: the fundamental rules of evenly suspended attention and free association; the technical frame; links between theory and clinical practice such as transference-countertransference, resistance, identifi cation, the analytic fi eld; the concept of psychic change and its indicators; and the interpretive instrument. The author considers the past and present infl uence of Lacanian thought on this model. She concludes by reviewing some of these theoretical and clinical concepts. [source]