Local Conformational Change (local + conformational_change)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effect of the disease-causing mutations identified in human ribonuclease (RNase) H2 on the activities and stabilities of yeast RNase H2 and archaeal RNase HII

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 19 2008
Muhammad S. Rohman
Eukaryotic ribonuclease (RNase) H2 consists of one catalytic and two accessory subunits. Several single mutations in any one of these subunits of human RNase H2 cause Aicardi,GoutiŔres syndrome. To examine whether these mutations affect the complex stability and activity of RNase H2, three mutant proteins of His-tagged Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase H2 (Sc-RNase H2*) were constructed. Sc-G42S*, Sc-L52R*, and Sc-K46W* contain single mutations in Sc-Rnh2Ap*, Sc-Rnh2Bp*, and Sc-Rnh2Cp*, respectively. The genes encoding the three subunits were coexpressed in Escherichia coli, and Sc-RNase H2* and its derivatives were purified in a heterotrimeric form. All of these mutant proteins exhibited enzymatic activity. However, only the enzymatic activity of Sc-G42S* was greatly reduced compared to that of the wild-type protein. Gly42 is conserved as Gly10 in Thermococcus kodakareansis RNase HII. To analyze the role of this residue, four mutant proteins, Tk-G10S, Tk-G10A, Tk-G10L, and Tk-G10P, were constructed. All mutant proteins were less stable than the wild-type protein by 2.9,7.6 ░C in Tm. A comparison of their enzymatic activities, substrate binding affinities, and CD spectra suggests that the introduction of a bulky side chain into this position induces a local conformational change, which is unfavorable for both activity and substrate binding. These results indicate that Gly10 is required to make the protein fully active and stable. [source]

Structure and Photoreaction of Photoactive Yellow Protein, a Structural Prototype of the PAS Domain Superfamily,

Yasushi Imamoto
Photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is a water-soluble photosensor protein found in purple photosynthetic bacteria. Unlike bacterial rhodopsins, photosensor proteins composed of seven transmembrane helices and a retinal chromophore in halophilic archaebacteria, PYP is a highly soluble globular protein. The ,/, fold structure of PYP is a structural prototype of the PAS domain superfamily, many members of which function as sensors for various kinds of stimuli. To absorb a photon in the visible region, PYP has a p -coumaric acid chromophore binding to the cysteine residue via a thioester bond. It exists in a deprotonated trans form in the dark. The primary photochemical event is photo-isomerization of the chromophore from trans to cis form. The twisted cis chromophore in early intermediates is relaxed and finally protonated. Consequently, the chromophore becomes electrostatically neutral and rearrangement of the hydrogen-bonding network triggers overall structural change of the protein moiety, in which local conformational change around the chromophore is propagated to the N-terminal region. Thus, it is an ideal model for protein conformational changes that result in functional change, responding to stimuli and expressing physiological activity. In this paper, recent progress in investigation of the photoresponse of PYP is reviewed. [source]

Structure of d -alanine- d -alanine ligase from Thermus thermophilus HB8: cumulative conformational change and enzyme,ligand interactions

Yoshiaki Kitamura
d -Alanine- d -alanine ligase (Ddl) is one of the key enzymes in peptidoglycan biosynthesis and is an important target for drug discovery. The enzyme catalyzes the condensation of two d -Ala molecules using ATP to produce d -Ala- d -Ala, which is the terminal peptide of a peptidoglycan monomer. The structures of five forms of the enzyme from Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtDdl) were determined: unliganded TtDdl (2.3,┼ resolution), TtDdl,adenylyl imidodiphosphate (2.6,┼), TtDdl,ADP (2.2,┼), TtDdl,ADP,d -Ala (1.9,┼) and TtDdl,ATP,d -Ala- d -Ala (2.3,┼). The central domain rotates as a rigid body towards the active site in a cumulative manner in concert with the local conformational change of three flexible loops depending upon substrate or product binding, resulting in an overall structural change from the open to the closed form through semi-open and semi-closed forms. Reaction-intermediate models were simulated using TtDdl-complex structures and other Ddl structures previously determined by X-ray methods. The catalytic process accompanied by the cumulative conformational change has been elucidated based on the intermediate models in order to provide new insights regarding the details of the catalytic mechanism. [source]

Spectrum of molecular defects and mutation detection rate in patients with severe hemophilia A,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 3 2005
Nadja Bogdanova
Abstract Hemophilia A is the most frequently occurring X-linked bleeding disorder, affecting one to two out of 10,000 males worldwide. Various types of mutations in the F8 gene are causative for this condition. It is well known that the most common mutation in severely affected patients is the intron 22 inversion, which accounts for about 45% of cases with F8 residual activity of less than 1%. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the spectrum and distribution of mutations in the F8 gene in a large group of patients with severe hemophilia A who previously tested negative for the common intron 22 inversion. Here we report on a mutation analysis of 86 patients collected under the above-mentioned criterion. The pathogenic molecular defect was identified in all patients, and thus our detection rate was virtually 100%. Thirty-four of the identified mutations are described for the first time. The newly detected amino acid substitutions were scored for potential gross or local conformational changes and influence on molecular stability for every single F8 domain with available structures, using homology modeling. Hum Mutat Res 26(3), 249,254, 2005. ę 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Free and ATP-bound structures of Ap4A hydrolase from Aquifex aeolicus V5

Jeyaraman Jeyakanthan
Asymmetric diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolases degrade the metabolite Ap4A back into ATP and AMP. The three-dimensional crystal structure of Ap4A hydrolase (16,kDa) from Aquifex aeolicus has been determined in free and ATP-bound forms at 1.8 and 1.95,┼ resolution, respectively. The overall three-dimensional crystal structure of the enzyme shows an ,,,-sandwich architecture with a characteristic loop adjacent to the catalytic site of the protein molecule. The ATP molecule is bound in the primary active site and the adenine moiety of the nucleotide binds in a ring-stacking arrangement equivalent to that observed in the X-ray structure of Ap4A hydrolase from Caenorhabditis elegans. Binding of ATP in the active site induces local conformational changes which may have important implications in the mechanism of substrate recognition in this class of enzymes. Furthermore, two invariant water molecules have been identified and their possible structural and/or functional roles are discussed. In addition, modelling of the substrate molecule at the primary active site of the enzyme suggests a possible path for entry and/or exit of the substrate and/or product molecule. [source]