Local Availability (local + availability)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Why Taranaki women choose to have a mastectomy when suitable for breast conservation treatment

Susan J. Gollop
Abstract Background:, Breast conservation treatment (BCT) rate is recognized as a marker of surgical practice. An historically low BCT rate may reflect the requirement for Taranaki women to travel for adjuvant radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons Taranaki women with breast cancer choose mastectomy or BCT. Methods:, Prospective information, on all women presenting with breast cancer between May 2004 and December 2006, was collected on a standardized questionnaire. Results:, BCT was offered to 68% (140 of 206), but chosen by only 46% (n = 64) of suitable patients. If radiotherapy had been available locally, 23% (17 of 73) of patients who chose mastectomy would have instead opted for BCT. A quarter of each group of women thought they knew their surgeon's treatment preference and most chose this option. Fear of local recurrence and need for further surgery were significantly more important to those choosing mastectomy over BCT whereas what the surgeon was perceived to prefer was more important to those choosing BCT. Conclusion:, The rate of BCT in Taranaki is low, despite it being offered by surgeons to the majority of patients. Local availability of radiotherapy may increase the BCT rate to a level more consistent with larger centres in New Zealand. Care must be taken to provide neutral patient guidance. [source]

Mass flowering crops enhance pollinator densities at a landscape scale

ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 11 2003
Catrin Westphal
Abstract To counteract the decline of pollinators in Europe, conservation strategies traditionally focus on enhancing the local availability of semi-natural habitats, as supported by the European Union's Common Agriculture Policy. In contrast, we show that densities of bumblebees, an important pollinator group in agroecosystems, were not determined by the proportion of semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes. Instead, bumblebee densities were positively related to the availability of highly rewarding mass flowering crops (i.e. oilseed rape) in the landscape. In addition, mass flowering crops were only effective determinants of bumblebee densities when grown extensively at the landscape scale, but not at smaller local scales. Therefore, future conservation measures should consider the importance of mass flowering crops and the need for management schemes at landscape level to sustain vital pollination services in agroecosystems. [source]

European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for the clinical management and treatment of HIV-infected adults

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 2 2008
N Clumeck
A working group of the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) have developed these guidelines for European clinicians to help them in the treatment of adults with HIV infection. This third version of the guidelines includes, as new topics, the assessment of patients at initial and subsequent clinic visits as well as post-exposure prophylaxis. A revision of the 2005 guidelines based on current data includes changes in the sections on primary HIV infection, when to initiate therapy, which drug combinations are preferred as initial combination regimens for antiretroviral-nave patients, how to manage virological failure and the treatment of HIV during pregnancy. In Europe, there is a wide range of clinical practices in antiretroviral therapy depending on various factors such as drug registration, national policies, local availability, reimbursement and access to treatment. These can vary greatly from one country to another, especially in Central and Eastern parts of Europe. These guidelines are intended to help clinicians achieve the best care for their patients. In some countries, particularly where the quality of and access to care are not optimal, these guidelines should help AIDS societies and physicians or patient group organizations to negotiate with their national health authorities with a view to implementing what should be the standard of care for HIV-infected patients all over Europe. [source]

Managing obstruction of the central airways

J. P. Williamson
Abstract Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in Australia, Europe and the USA. Up to 20,30% of these cancers eventually affect the central airways and result in reduced quality of life, dyspnoea, haemoptysis, post-obstructive pneumonia and ultimately death. Non-malignant processes may also lead to central airway obstruction and can have similar symptoms. With the development of newer technologies, the last 20 years have seen the emergence of the field of interventional pulmonology to deal specifically with the diagnosis and management of thoracic malignancy, including obstruction of the central airways. This review discusses the pathology, pre-procedure work-up and management options for obstructing central airway lesions. Several treatment modalities exist for dealing with endobronchial pathology with local availability and expertise guiding choice of treatment. While the literature lacks large, multicentre, randomized studies defining the optimal management strategy for a given problem, there is growing evidence from numerous case studies of improved physiology, of quality of life and possibly of survival with modern interventional techniques. [source]

Removal of heavy metals and cyanide from gold mine wastewater

Mike A. Acheampong
Abstract This paper reviews the technology and biotechnology to remove heavy metals (such as copper, arsenic, lead and zinc) and cyanide from contaminated wastewater. The paper places special emphasis on gold mine wastewater and the use of low cost materials as sorbent. Various biological as well as physicochemical treatment processes are discussed and compared on the basis of costs, energy requirement, removal efficiency, limitations and advantages. Sorption using natural plant materials, industrial and agricultural waste has been demonstrated to have the potential to replace conventional methods for the removal of heavy metals because of its cost effectiveness, efficiency and the local availability of these materials as biosorbent. The parameters affecting sorption, such as initial ion concentration, pH, sorbent dosage, particle size and temperature, are discussed. The overall treatment cost of metal and cyanide contaminated wastewater depends on the process employed and the local conditions. In general, technical applicability, cost-effectiveness and plant simplicity are the key factors in selecting the most suitable treatment method. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Total lipid, fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation of Indian white shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus) fed diets containing different lipid sources

Hossein Ouraji
Abstract BACKGROUND: Seafood is an important constituent of the human diet. In Iran, Indian white shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus) is the major cultured shrimp species as a result of market demand, local availability and growth rate. It is mainly reared using commercial feed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing 50% of the fish oil by vegetable oils in shrimp feed on total lipid, fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation of shrimp muscle. RESULTS: No significant differences in total lipid content (6.1,7.3 g kg,1) were found between edible tissues of shrimp fed different diets. The major fatty acids in shrimp muscle were palmitic, oleic, lionoleic, stearic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Higher levels of EPA and DHA were observed in muscle of shrimp fed a diet containing fish oil. Oxidative rancidity, measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, for all shrimps did not exceed 0.2 mg malonaldehyde kg,1 muscle tissue, which was low and acceptable. CONCLUSION: This study had shown that the fatty acid composition of feed directly affects the fatty acid composition of Indian white shrimp muscle. Farmed Indian white shrimp can be considered as a species of low fat and shrimp muscle was quite stable to oxidation during storage. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Flowers Are an important food for small apes in southern Sumatra

Susan Lappan
Abstract Flowers are included in the diets of many primates, but are not generally regarded as making an important contribution to primate energy budgets. However, observations of a number of lemur, platyrrhine, and cercopithecine populations suggest that some flower species may function as key primate fallback foods in periods of low abundance of preferred foods (generally ripe fruits), and that flowers may be preferred foods in some cases. I report heavy reliance on flowers during some study months for a siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) population in southern Sumatra. Siamangs at Way Canguk spent 12% of feeding time eating flowers from October 2000 to August 2002, and in 1 month flower-feeding time exceeded 40% of total feeding time. The overall availabilities of fig and nonfig fruits, flowers, and new leaves in the study area were not significant predictors of the proportion of time that siamangs spent consuming any plant part. However, flower-feeding time was highest in months when nonfig fruit-feeding time was lowest, and a switch from heavy reliance on fruit to substantial flower consumption was associated with a shift in activity patterns toward reduced energy expenditure, which is consistent with the interpretation that flowers may function as a fallback food for Way Canguk siamangs. Hydnocarpus gracilis, a plant from which siamangs only consume flowers, was the third-most-commonly consumed plant at Way Canguk (after Ficus spp. and Dracontomelon dao), and flowers from this plant were available in most months. It is possible that relatively high local availability of these important siamang plant foods is one factor promoting high siamang density in the study area. Am. J. Primatol. 71:624,635, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]