Liver Resection (liver + resection)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Liver Resection

  • laparoscopic liver resection
  • major liver resection

  • Selected Abstracts


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 6 2007
    Peng Yao
    Background: In liver surgery, the increase in advancement of laparoscopic equipment has allowed the feasibility and safety of complex laparoscopic liver resection. However, blood loss and the potential risk of gas embolism seem to be the main obstacles. In this study, we successfully used the InLine radiofrquency ablation (RFA) device to carry out laparoscopic hand-assisted liver resection in pigs. Methods: Under general anaesthesia with tracheal intubation, pigs underwent InLine RFA-assisted laparoscopic liver resection. After installation of Hand Port and trocars, the InLine RFA device was introduced through Hand Port system and inserted into the premarked resection line. Then the generator was turned on and the power was applied according to the power setting. The resection was finally carried out using diathermy or stapler. For the control group, resection was simply carried out by diathermy or stapler. Results: Eight Landrace pigs underwent 23 liver resections. Blood loss was reduced significantly in the InLine group (P < 0.001) when compared with control group in both surgical methods (diathermy and stapler). Conclusion: In this study, we successfully carried out InLine RFA-assisted laparoscopic liver resection in both stapled and diathermy group. We showed that there was a highly significant difference between InLine and other liver resection techniques laparoscopically. [source]

    Harm and Benefits of Primary Liver Resection and Salvage Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    A. Cucchetti
    Primary transplantation offers longer life-expectancy in comparison to hepatic resection (HR) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) followed by salvage transplantation; however, livers not used for primary transplantation can be reallocated to the remaining waiting-list patients, thus, the harm caused to resected patients could be balanced, or outweighed, by the benefit obtained from reallocation of livers originating from HCC patients first being resected. A Markov model was developed to investigate this issue based on literature data or estimated from the United Network for Organ Sharing database. Markov model shows that primary transplantation offers longer life-expectancy in comparison to HR and salvage transplantation if 5-year posttransplant survival remains higher than 60%. The balance between the harm for resected patients and the benefit for the remaining waiting list depends on (a) the proportion of HCC candidates, (b) the percentage shifted to HR and (c) the median expected time-to-transplant. Faced with a low proportion of HCC candidates, the harm caused to resected patients was higher than the benefit that could be obtained for the waiting-list population from re-allocation of extra livers. An increased proportion of HCC candidates and/or an increased median time-to-transplant could lead to a benefit for waiting-list patients that outweighs this harm. [source]

    Liver Transplantation for Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma on Cirrhosis After Liver Resection: University of Bologna Experience

    M. Del Gaudio
    Liver resection (LR) for patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with preserved liver function, employing liver transplantation (LT) as a salvage procedure (SLT) in the event of HCC recurrence, is a debated strategy. From 1996 to 2005, we treated 227 cirrhotic patients with HCC transplantable: 80 LRs and 147 LTs of 293 listed for transplantation. Among 80 patients eligible for transplantation who underwent LR, 39 (49%) developed HCC recurrence and 12/39 (31%) of these patients presented HCC recurrence outside Milan criteria. Only 10 of the 39 patients underwent LT, a transplantation rate of 26% of patients with HCC recurrence. According to intention-to-treat analysis of transplantable HCC patients who underwent LR (n = 80), compared to all those listed for transplantation (n = 293), 5-year overall survival was 66% in the LR group versus 58% in patients listed for LT, respectively (p = NS); 5-year disease-free survival was 41% in the LR group versus 54% in patients listed for LT (p = NS). Comparable 5-year overall (62% vs. 73%, p = NS) and disease-free (48% vs. 71%, p = NS) survival rates were obtained for SLT and primary LT for HCC, respectively. LR is a valid treatment for small HCC and in the event of recurrence, SLT is a safe and effective procedure. [source]

    Radiofrequency ablation-assisted liver resection: review of the literature and our experience

    HPB, Issue 4 2006
    Peng Yao
    Abstract Background: Surgical resection is the best established treatment known to provide long-term survival and possibility of cure for liver malignancy. Intraoperative blood loss has been the major concern during major liver resections, and mortality and morbidity of surgery are clearly associated with the amount of blood loss. Different techniques have been developed to minimize intraoperative blood loss during liver resection. The radiofrequency ablation (RFA) technique has been used widely in the treatment of unresectable liver tumors. This review concentrates on the use of RFA to provide an avascular liver resection plane. Methods and results: The following review is based on two types of RFA device during liver resection: single needle probe RFA and the In-Line RFA device. Conclusion: Liver resection assisted by RFA is safe and is associated with very limited blood loss. [source]

    Liver Transplantation for Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma on Cirrhosis After Liver Resection: University of Bologna Experience

    M. Del Gaudio
    Liver resection (LR) for patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with preserved liver function, employing liver transplantation (LT) as a salvage procedure (SLT) in the event of HCC recurrence, is a debated strategy. From 1996 to 2005, we treated 227 cirrhotic patients with HCC transplantable: 80 LRs and 147 LTs of 293 listed for transplantation. Among 80 patients eligible for transplantation who underwent LR, 39 (49%) developed HCC recurrence and 12/39 (31%) of these patients presented HCC recurrence outside Milan criteria. Only 10 of the 39 patients underwent LT, a transplantation rate of 26% of patients with HCC recurrence. According to intention-to-treat analysis of transplantable HCC patients who underwent LR (n = 80), compared to all those listed for transplantation (n = 293), 5-year overall survival was 66% in the LR group versus 58% in patients listed for LT, respectively (p = NS); 5-year disease-free survival was 41% in the LR group versus 54% in patients listed for LT (p = NS). Comparable 5-year overall (62% vs. 73%, p = NS) and disease-free (48% vs. 71%, p = NS) survival rates were obtained for SLT and primary LT for HCC, respectively. LR is a valid treatment for small HCC and in the event of recurrence, SLT is a safe and effective procedure. [source]

    Liver resection using heat coagulative necrosis: indications and limits of a new method

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 9 2009
    Gregor A. Stavrou
    Abstract Background:, A new approach towards achieving bloodless liver resection is the use of heat coagulative necrosis. The latest stage of this technique is a four-probe device (Habib Sealer), which we used for a variety of resections to find the best indications for the method. Methods:, Between 2005 and 2006 we performed 28 liver resections in 20 consecutive patients. The most common indication was metastatic colorectal cancer (75%). We treated a heterogeneous patient collective in terms of tumour localization and extent of resection. Resection was performed after creating a necrotic zone. The device achieved an area of coagulation of 1-cm width in which even larger vessels and bile ducts were safely sealed. Results:, Operative spectrum covered atypical resections (8), one- or bisegmentectomies at different locations (15), hemihepatectomies (4) and one extended right hepatectomy. With one exception intra-operative blood loss was lower than 100 mL. Four patients (20%) developed operation-related complications comprising abscess formation at the resection site. Follow-up shows tumour-free survival for 13 of 18 patients 12 months after resection. Conclusion:, Liver resection using the sealer device seems safe. In proximity of hilar structures or large vessels the method is not favourable for the fear of thermal damage. Extended resections are possible but not parenchyma saving. Good indications are atypical (deep) resections , especially in Segment IVb. [source]

    Improving operative safety for cirrhotic liver resection

    Dr C.-C.
    Background: Liver resection in a patient with cirrhosis carries increased risk. The purposes of this study were to review the results of cirrhotic liver resection in the past decade and to propose safe strategies for cirrhotic liver resection. Methods: Based on the date of operation, 359 cirrhotic liver resections in 329 patients were divided into two intervals: period 1, from September 1989 to December 1994, and period 2, from January 1995 to December 1999. The patient backgrounds, operative procedures and early postoperative results were compared between the two periods. The factors that influenced surgical morbidity were analysed. Results: In period 2, patient age was higher and the amounts of blood loss and blood transfused were lower. Although postoperative morbidity rates were similar, blood transfusion requirement, postoperative hospital stay and mortality rate were significantly reduced in period 2. No death occurred in 154 consecutive cirrhotic liver resections in the last 38 months of the study. Prothrombin activity and operative time were independent factors that influenced postoperative morbidity. Conclusion: With improving perioperative assessment and operative techniques, most complications after cirrhotic liver resection can be treated with a low mortality rate. However, more care should be taken if prothrombin activity is low or there is a long operating time. © 2001 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd [source]

    Surgical resection of colorectal liver metastases

    COLORECTAL DISEASE, Issue 6 2001
    M. A. Memon
    Background Liver metastases are a major cause of death in patients with colorectal carcinoma. The only curative option available at present is surgery. This review article discusses the current state of evidence for the effectiveness of liver resection for patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Methods Medline, Embase, Current Contents and Science Citation Index databases were used to search English language articles published on the subject of liver resection for colorectal metastases in the last 20 years. Results Liver resection has a five year survival of 16,49% and 10 year survival of 17,33% with an operative mortality rate of 0,9%. Two factors appear to be clearly associated with poorer outcome , involved resection margins and the presence of extrahepatic disease (including hilar and coeliac axis lymph nodes) at the time of liver resection. None of the other factors related to the patients, their primary tumour or the metastases themselves have been conclusively shown to adversely effect long-term survival. Conclusions Liver resection is a feasible, safe and effective procedure which carries an acceptable morbidity and mortality and does have a major impact on the survival of these patients. The decision on resectability of colorectal metastases should be decided by the ability to leave at least 2,3 segments of liver free from metastases with uninvolved resection margins, together with the general fitness of the patient to undergo a major surgical procedure. [source]

    Factors affecting outcome in liver resection

    HPB, Issue 3 2005
    Abstract Background. Studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between institution/surgeon procedural volumes and patient outcomes. Similar studies exist for liver resections, which recommend referral of patients for liver resections to ,high-volume' centers. These studies did not elucidate the factors that underlie such outcomes. We believe there exists a complex interaction of patient-related and perioperative factors that determine patient outcomes after liver resection. We sought to delineate these factors. Methods. Retrospective review of 114 liver resections by a single surgeon from 1993,2003: Records were reviewed for demographics; diagnosis; type/year of surgery; American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score; preoperative albumin, creatinine, and bilirubin; operative time; intraoperative blood transfusions; epidural use; and intraoperative hypotension. Main outcome measurements were postoperative morbidities, mortalities and length of stay (LOS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate linear regression model (SPSS v10.1 statistical analysis program). Results. Primary indications for resections were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (N=57), metastatic colorectal cancer (N=25), and benign disease (N=18). There were no intraoperative mortalities and 4 perioperative (30-day) mortalities (3.5%). Mortality occurred in patients with malignancies who were older than 50 years. Morbidity was higher in malignant (15.6%) versus benign (5.5%) disease. Complications included bile leak/stricture (N=6), liver insufficiency (N=3), postoperative bleeding (N=2), myocardial infarction (N=2), aspiration pneumonia (N=1), renal insufficiency (N=1), and cancer implantation into the wound (N=1). Average LOS for all resections was 8.6 days. Longer operative time (p=0.04), lower albumin (p<0.001), higher ASA score (p<0.001), no epidural use (p=0.04), and higher creatinine (p<0.001) all correlated positively with longer LOS. ASA score and creatinine were the strongest predictors of LOS. LOS was not affected by patient age, sex, diagnosis, presence of malignancy, intraoperative transfusion requirements, intraoperative hypotension, preoperative bilirubin, case volume per year or year of surgery. Conclusions. Liver resections can be performed with low mortality/morbidity and with acceptable LOS by an experienced liver surgeon. Outcome as measured by LOS is most influenced by patient comorbidities entering into surgery. Annual case volume did not influence LOS and had no impact on patient safety. Length of stay may not reflect surgeon/institution performance, as LOS is multifactorial and likely related to patient population, patient selection and increased high-risk cases with a surgeon's experience. [source]

    Combined liver and inferior vena cava resection for hepatic malignancy

    Spiros G. Delis MD
    Abstract Objective The experience from a single center, in combined liver and inferior vena cava (IVC) resection for liver tumors, is presented. Methods Twelve patients underwent a combined liver resection with IVC replacement. The median age was 45 years (range 35,67 years). Resections were carried out for hepatocellular carcinoma (n,=,4), colorectal metastases (n,=,6), and cholangiocarcinoma (n,=,2). Liver resections included eight right lobectomies and four left trisegmentectomies. The IVC was reconstructed with ringed Gore-Tex tube graft. Results No perioperative deaths were reported. The median operative blood transfusion requirement was 2 units (range 0,12 units) and the median operative time was 5 hr. Median hospital stay was 10 days (range 8,25 days). Three patients had evidence of postoperative liver failure, resolved with supportive management. Two patients developed bile leaks, resolved conservatively. With a median follow up of 24 months, all vascular reconstructions were patent and no evidence of graft infection was documented. Conclusions Aggressive surgical management of liver tumors, offer the only hope for cure or palliation. We suggest that liver resection with vena cava replacement may be performed safely, with acceptable morbidity, by specialized surgical teams. J. Surg. Oncol. 2007;96: 258,264. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Gyrus PlasmaKinetic bipolar coagulation device for liver resection

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 3 2010
    Jeremy Tan
    Abstract Background:, Liver parenchymal transection can be associated with significant blood loss and morbidity. We present our initial experience with the Gyrus PlasmaKinetic coagulation device in liver parenchymal resection in both cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients. Methods:, Liver resections were performed in 51 consecutive patients, from 20 July 2005 to 31 August 2007, using the Gyrus PlasmaKinetic coagulator. Requirement for blood transfusions, operating time, duration of hospital stay and major complications were evaluated initially for the group as a whole. Subsequently, the 11 patients with histologically confirmed cirrhosis (nine men, two women, median age 54 years, range 24,74 years) were compared with 40 patients without cirrhosis (25 men, 15 women, median age 57 years, range 24,87 years). Results:, There were 34 men and 17 women. The median age was 56 (range 24,87 years). There were 48 open procedures and 3 laparoscopic procedures. There were 30 major resections (>2 segments) and 21 minor resections (one to two segments). The overall median operating time was 260 min (range 90,690). Length of stay had a median of 9 days, range 4,50 days. Twenty-one patients (41%) required a blood transfusion. Two biliary leaks were observed in non-cirrhotic patients initially before the settings of the Gyrus device were optimized. Conclusions:, The Gyrus PlasmaKinetic coagulation device is a novel instrument for hepatic parenchymal transection in liver resection, which can be safely used in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients. [source]

    Expression of X-linked inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein in hepatocellular carcinoma promotes metastasis and tumor recurrence,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Ying-Hong Shi
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Despite significantly improved diagnosis and treatment in recent years, the long-term therapeutic effect is compromised by the frequent recurrence and metastasis, of which the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Our initial studies in established HCC cell lines with different metastatic capabilities indicated a correlation of metastasis with the resistance to apoptosis and therefore the ability to survive in stressed conditions. Subsequent investigation revealed that increased expression of X-linked inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein (XIAP) was correlated with the resistance to apoptosis and enhanced invasiveness in vitro, which could contribute to increased metastatic foci in vivo. Furthermore, we found that nearly 90% of clinical samples from advanced HCC patients expressed high levels of XIAP. Patients with XIAP-positive tumors had a significantly increased risk of relapse, which resulted from metastasis after total liver resection and orthotopic liver transplantation. Indeed, XIAP expression could be an independent prognostic factor for predicting disease-free survival rate and overall survival rate of these patients. XIAP expression was also highly correlated with advanced cases that exceeded the Milan criteria and could be a prognostic factor for disease-free survival in these patients as well. Conclusion: Our studies have shown an important molecule in controlling HCC metastasis, defined a biomarker that can be used to predict HCC recurrence and patient survival after treatment, and suggest that XIAP can be a molecular target subject to intervention to reduce metastasis and recurrence. (HEPATOLOGY 2008;48:497,507.) [source]

    Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence with alpha-interferon after liver resection in HCV cirrhosis,,§

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    Vincenzo Mazzaferro
    Tumor recurrence after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can occur early (<2 years) or late (>2 years) as metastases or de novo tumors. Interferon (IFN) has the potential for chemoprevention against hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis. A predetermined group of 150 HCV RNA,positive patients undergoing resection of early- to intermediate-stage HCC was stratified into 80 HCV-pure (hepatitis B anticore antibody [anti-HBc],negative) and 70 mixed HCV+hepatitis B virus (HBV) (anti-HBc,positive) groups, then randomized to IFN-, (3 million units 3 times every week for 48 weeks [n = 76]) versus control (n = 74). The primary end point was recurrence-free survival (RFS); secondary end points were disease-specific and overall survival. Intention-to-treat and subgroup analysis on adherent patients were conducted. Treatment effects on early/late recurrences were assessed using multiple Cox regression analysis. No patient experienced life-threatening adverse events. There were 28 adherent patients (37%). After 45 months of median follow-up, overall survival was 58.5%, and no significant difference in RFS was detectable between the two study arms (24.3% vs. 5.8%; P = .49). HCC recurred in 100 patients (48 IFN-treated, 52 controls), with a 50% reduction in late recurrence rate in the treatment arm. HCC multiplicity and vascular invasion were significantly related to recurrence (P = .01 and .0003). After viral status stratification, while no treatment effect was apparent in the mixed HCV+HBV population and on early recurrences (72 events), there was a significant benefit on late recurrences (28 events) in HCV-pure patients adherent to treatment (HR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.09,0.9; P = .04). In conclusion, IFN does not affect overall prevention of HCC recurrence after resection, but it may reduce late recurrence in HCV-pure patients receiving effective treatment. (HEPATOLOGY 2006;44:1543,1554.) [source]

    Ischemic preconditioning of the murine liver protects through the Akt kinase pathway,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    Kunihiko Izuishi
    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs in the settings of transplantation, trauma, and elective liver resection. Ischemic preconditioning has been used as a strategy to reduce inflammation and organ damage from I/R of the liver. However, the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly understood. We examined the role of the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3) kinase/Akt-signaling pathway during hepatic ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Prior to a prolonged warm ischemic insult, BALB/c mice were subjected to a 20-minute IPC period consisting of 10 minutes of ischemia and 10 minutes of reperfusion. Mice undergoing IPC demonstrated a significantly greater level and earlier activation of Akt in the liver compared with control animals. IPC also resulted in markedly less hepatocellular injury and improved survival compared with control animals. Akt activation associated with hepatic IPC suppressed the activity of several modulators of apoptosis, including Bad, glycogen synthase kinase ,, and caspase-3. In addition, IPC also inhibited the activities of c-Jun N -terminal kinase and nuclear factor ,B after I/R. Pretreatment of mice with PI3 kinase inhibitors completely abolished Akt phosphorylation and the protective effects seen with IPC. In conclusion, these results indicate that the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway plays an essential role in the protective effects of IPC in hepatic I/R injury. Modulation of this pathway may be a potential strategy in clinical settings of ischemic liver injury to decrease organ damage. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the HEPATOLOGY website ( (HEPATOLOGY 2006;44:573,580.) [source]

    Iron chelation prevents lung injury after major hepatectomy

    Konstantinos Kalimeris
    Aim:, Oxidative stress has been implicated in lung injury following ischemia/reperfusion and resection of the liver. We tested whether alleviating oxidative stress with iron chelation could improve lung injury after extended hepatectomy. Methods:, Twelve adult female pigs subjected to liver ischemia for 150 min, 65,70% hepatectomy and reperfusion of the remnant liver for 24 h were randomized to a desferrioxamine (DF) group (n = 6) which received i.v. desferrioxamine to a total dose of 100 mg/kg during both ischemia and reperfusion, and a control (C) group (n = 6). We recorded hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, plasma interleukin-6 and malondialdehyde levels, as well as liver malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls content. Total non-heme iron was measured in lung and liver. Pulmonary tissue was evaluated histologically for its nitrotyrosine and protein carbonyls content and for superoxide dismutase (SOD) and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AcH) activities. Results:, Reperfusion of the remnant liver resulted in gradual deterioration of gas-exchange and pulmonary vascular abnormalities. Iron chelation significantly decreased the oxidative markers in plasma, liver and the lung and lowered activities of pulmonary SOD and PAF-AcH. The improved liver function was followed by improved arterial oxygenation and pulmonary vascular resistance. DF also improved alveolar collapse and inflammatory cell infiltration, while serum interleukin-6 increased. Conclusion:, In an experimental pig model that combines liver resection with prolonged ischemia, iron chelation during reperfusion of the remnant liver is associated with improvement of several parameters of oxidative stress, lung injury and arterial oxygenation. [source]

    Effects of lamivudine on outcome after liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with active replication of hepatitis B virus

    Shoji Kubo
    Aim:, Patients with high serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA concentrations are at high risk of tumor recurrence after liver resection for HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods:, Among 24 patients with high serum HBV DNA concentrations who underwent liver resection for HBV-related HCC, postoperative lamivudine therapy was chosen by 14 (lamivudine group). The other 10 patients were controls. Results:, Clinicopathologic findings did not differ between the groups. Tumor-free survival rate after surgery was significantly higher in the lamivudine than the control group (P = 0.0086). By univariate analysis, multiple tumors were also a risk factor for a short tumor-free survival. By multivariate analysis, lack of lamivudine therapy and multiple tumors were independent risk factors for a short tumor-free survival. In four patients YMDD mutant viruses were detected after beginning lamivudine administration; in two of them, adefovir dipivoxil was administered because of sustained serum alanine aminotransferase elevations. Conclusion:, Lamivudine therapy improved tumor-free survival rate after curative resection of HBV-related HCC in patients with high serum concentrations of HBV DNA, although careful follow up proved necessary for the detection of YMDD mutant viruses. [source]

    Open liver resection for colorectal metastases: better short- and long-term outcomes in patients potentially suitable for laparoscopic liver resection

    HPB, Issue 6 2010
    Fenella Welsh
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with left hepatectomy after pre-operative embolization of the proper hepatic artery

    HPB, Issue 2 2010
    Yoshikazu Yasuda
    Abstract Background:, Right or right-extended hepatectomy including the caudate lobe is the most common treatment for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC). A 5-year survival of up to 60% can be achieved using this procedure if R0-resection is obtained. However, for some patients a left-sided liver resection is necessary to obtain radical resection. The close relationship between the right hepatic artery and the HC in these patients frequently limits the ability to achieve a radial R0-resection without difficult vascular reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to describe the outcome of patients who underwent pre-operative embolization of the proper hepatic artery in an effort to induce development of arterial collaterals thus allowing the resection of the proper and right hepatic artery without vascular reconstruction. Methods:, In patients presenting with HC who were considered to require a left hepatic lobectomy and in whom pre-operative work up revealed possible tumour invasion of the right hepatic artery, transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of the proper hepatic artery or the left and right hepatic arteries was performed. Three weeks later, a left-sided hepatectomy with resection of all portal structures except the portal vein was performed. Results:, In six patients, pre-operative embolization of the proper hepatic artery was performed. Almost instantaneously in all six patients arterial flow signals could be detected in the liver using Doppler ultrasonography. No patient died peri-operatively. In all six patients an R0 radial resection was achieved and in three an R0 proximal transection margin was obtained. All post-operative complications were managed successfully using percutaneous drainage procedures. No patient developed local recurrence and two patients remain disease free more than 7 years after surgery. Summary:, After pre-operative embolization of the proper hepatic artery, resection of the HC with left hepatectomy is a promising new approach for these technically demanding patients, giving them the chance of a cure. [source]

    Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of pharmacological interventions to reduce ischaemia-reperfusion injury in elective liver resection with vascular occlusion

    HPB, Issue 1 2010
    Mahmoud Abu-Amara
    Abstract Background:, Vascular occlusion during liver resection results in ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, which can lead to liver dysfunction. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the benefits and harms of using various pharmacological agents to decrease IR injury during liver resection with vascular occlusion. Methods:, Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating pharmacological agents in liver resections conducted under vascular occlusion were identified. Two independent reviewers extracted data on population characteristics and risk of bias in the trials, and on outcomes such as postoperative morbidity, hospital stay and liver function. Results:, A total of 18 RCTs evaluating 17 different pharmacological interventions were identified. There was no significant difference in perioperative mortality, liver failure or postoperative morbidity between the intervention and control groups in any of the comparisons. A significant improvement in liver function was seen with methylprednisolone use. Hospital and intensive therapy unit stay were significantly shortened with trimetazidine and vitamin E use, respectively. Markers of liver parenchymal injury were significantly lower in the methylprednisolone, trimetazidine, dextrose and ulinastatin groups compared with their respective controls (placebo or no intervention). Discussion:, Methylprednisolone, trimetazidine, dextrose and ulinastatin may have protective roles against IR injury in liver resection. However, based on the current evidence, they cannot be recommended for routine use and their application should be restricted to RCTs. [source]

    The impact of pre-operative serum creatinine on short-term outcomes after liver resection

    HPB, Issue 8 2009
    Thomas Armstrong
    Abstract Background:, The aim of the present study was to determine whether raised pre-operative serum creatinine increased the risk of renal failure after liver resection. Method:, Data were studied from 1535 consecutive liver resections. Outcomes in patients with pre-operative creatinine ,124 µmol/l (Group 1) were compared with those with pre-operative creatinine ,125 µmol/l (Group 2). Results:, The median age of the 1446 (94.3%) patients resected in Group 1 was 62 years compared with 67 years in the 88 (5.7%) patients in Group 2 (P < 0.0001). Similarly this latter group had double the number of patients who were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) III or IV (34.1% vs. 15.2%, P= 0.00004). Overall, the incidence of post-operative renal failure requiring haemofiltration was low (0.9%) but significantly more in Group 2 patients (5.7% vs. 0.6, P= 0.0007). In addition, patients in Group 2 were more likely to suffer acute kidney injury post-operatively (18.2% vs. 4.3%, P < 0.0001). Patients with acute kidney injury had significantly higher blood loss. Although there was no difference in mortality, patients in Group 2 had higher post-operative morbidity (37.5%) than Group 1 (21.7%, P= 0.0006), with the incidence of cardiorespiratory complications being higher in Group 2 (25.9% vs. 8.9%, P= 0.0025). Conclusions:, After liver resection, renal failure is rare but patients with an elevated creatinine pre-operatively are at an increased risk of both renal and non-renal complications. [source]

    Should we give thromboprophylaxis to patients with liver cirrhosis and coagulopathy?

    HPB, Issue 6 2009
    Marco Senzolo
    Abstract Patients with liver cirrhosis are characterized by decreased synthesis of both pro- and anticoagulant factors, and recently there has been evidence of normal generation of thrombin resulting in a near normal haemostatic balance. Although it is generally recognized that bleeding is the most common clinical manifestation as a result of decreased platelet function and number, diminished clotting factors and excessive fibrinolysis, hypercoagulability may play an under recognized but important role in many aspects of chronic liver disease. In fact, they can encounter thrombotic complications such as portal vein thrombosis, occlusion of small intrahepatic vein branches and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). In particular, patients with cirrhosis appear to have a higher incidence of unprovoked DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE) compared with the general population. In dedicated studies, the incidence of DVT/PE ranges from 0.5% to 1.9%, similar to patients without comorbidities, but lower than patients with other chronic diseases (i.e, renal or heart disease). Surprisingly, standard coagulation laboratory parameters are not associated with a risk of developing DVT/PE; however, with multivariate analysis, serum albumin level was independently associated with the occurrence of thrombosis. Moreover, patients with chronic liver disease share the same risk factors as the general population for DVT/PE, and specifically, liver resection can unbalance the haemostatic equilibrium towards a hypercoagulable state. Current guidelines on antithrombotic prophylaxis do not specifically comment on the cirrhotic population as a result of the perceived risk of bleeding complications but the cirrhotic patient should not be considered as an auto-anticoagulated patient. Therefore, thromboprophylaxis should be recommended in patients with liver cirrhosis at least when exposed to high-risk conditions for thrombotic complications. Low molecular weight heparins (LWMHs) seem to be relatively safe in this group of patients; however, when important risk factors for bleeding are present, graduated compression stockings or intermittent pneumatic compression should be considered. [source]

    Open versus laparoscopic resection for liver tumours

    HPB, Issue 6 2009
    Thomas Van Gulik
    Abstract Background:, The issue under debate is whether laparoscopic liver resections for malignant tumours produce outcomes which are comparable with conventional, open liver resections. Methods:, Literature review on liver resection and laparoscopy. Results:, There are no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published that provide any evidence for the benefits of laparoscopic liver resections for liver tumours. In case,control series reporting short-term outcomes, laparoscopic liver resection has been shown to have the advantage of a reduced length of hospital stay. There are as yet, however, no adequate long-term survival studies demonstrating that laparoscopic liver resection is oncologically equivalent to open resection. Discussion:, The challenge for the near future is to test the oncological integrity of laparoscopic liver resection in controlled trials in the same way that we have learned from the RCTs carried out in laparoscopic resection for colorectal cancer. It is likely that laparoscopic liver resection will then have to compete with fast-track, open liver resection. Already, concerns have been raised regarding the learning curve required to master the techniques of laparoscopic liver resection. [source]

    Comparative performances of staging systems for early hepatocellular carcinoma

    HPB, Issue 5 2009
    Hari Nathan
    Abstract Background:, Several staging systems for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been proposed, but studies of their prognostic accuracy have yielded conflicting conclusions. Stratifying patients with early HCC is of particular interest because these patients may derive the greatest benefit from intervention, yet no studies have evaluated the comparative performances of staging systems in patients with early HCC. Methods:, A retrospective cohort study was performed using data on 379 patients who underwent liver resection or liver transplantation for HCC at six major hepatobiliary centres in the USA and Europe. The staging systems evaluated were: the Okuda staging system, the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA) staging system, the Cancer of the Liver Italian Programme (CLIP) score, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, the Japanese Integrated Staging (JIS) score and the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) staging system, 6th edition. A recently proposed early HCC prognostic score was also evaluated. The discriminative abilities of the staging systems were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models and the bootstrap-corrected concordance index (c). Results:, Overall survival of the cohort was 74% at 3 years and 52% at 5 years, with a median survival of 62 months. Most systems demonstrated poor discriminatory ability (P > 0.05 on Cox proportional hazards analysis, c, 0.5). However, the AJCC/UICC system clearly stratified patients (P < 0.001, c= 0.59), albeit only into two groups. The early HCC prognostic score also clearly stratified patients (P < 0.001, c= 0.60) and identified three distinct prognostic groups. Discussion:, The early HCC prognostic score is superior to the AJCC/UICC staging system (6th edition) for predicting the survival of patients with early HCC after liver resection or liver transplantation. Other major HCC staging systems perform poorly in patients with early HCC. [source]

    Thrombotic complications following liver resection for colorectal metastases are preventable

    HPB, Issue 5 2008
    G. Morris-Stiff
    Background. Surgery for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) can be expected to be associated with a significant rate of thromboembolic complications due to the performance of long-duration oncologic resections in patients aged 60 years. Aims. To determine the prevalence of clinically significant thrombotic complications, including deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolus (PE), in a contemporary series of patients undergoing resection of CRLM with standard prophylaxis. Material and methods. A prospectively maintained database identified patients undergoing resection of CRLM from January 2000 to March 2007 and highlighted those developing thromboembolic complications. In addition, the radiology department database was reviewed to ensure that clinically suspicious thromboses had been confirmed radiologically by ultrasound in the case of DVT or computed tomography for PEs. Results. During the period of the study, 523 patients (336 M and 187 F) with a mean age of 65 years underwent resection. A major hepatectomy was performed in 59.9%. One or more complications were seen in 45.1% (n=236) of patients. Thrombotic complications were seen in 11 (2.1%) patients: DVT alone (n=4) and PE (n=7). Eight of 11 thrombotic complications occurred in patients undergoing major hepatectomy, 4 of which were trisectionectomies. Patients were anti-coagulated and there were no mortalities. Conclusions. The symptomatic thromboembolic complication rate was lower in this cohort than may be expected in patients undergoing non-hepatic abdominal surgery. It is uncertain whether this is due entirely to effective prophylaxis or to a combination of treatment and a natural anti-coagulant state following hepatic resection. [source]

    Laparoscopic liver surgery: parenchymal transection using saline-enhanced electrosurgery

    HPB, Issue 4 2008
    Abstract Minimally invasive liver resection (MILR) has evolved considerably in the past decade. Safe hepatic parenchymal transection, has been one of the technical hurdles that has become evident during the growth of MILR. Advances in technology have now made safe liver transection a reality allowing resections of greater magnitude. In this review, the precoagulation approach is described in both methodology and technique. Using this method of liver transection, we have been able to perform MILR of all varieties and magnitudes, with favorable patient outcomes. A detailed description of one particular device will be highlighted to disseminate our experience and thus broaden the technical options for hepatobiliary surgeons wishing to offer their patients a minimally invasive .therapy. [source]

    Use of dissecting sealer may affect the early outcome in patients submitted to hepatic resection

    HPB, Issue 4 2008
    Abstract Background. Many technological devices have been used to avoid intraoperative bleeding during hepatic parenchymal transection and to avoid morbidity and mortality, but until now none is complete. The aim of this work is to prospectively analyze hepatic resection patients treated with a water-cooled high frequency monopolar device in order to evaluate its effectiveness. Patients and methods. All consecutive patients who underwent liver resection by use of this device, between January 2003 until December 2007, were analyzed prospectively. The following variables were considered: age, sex, kind of disease, kind of liver resection, number of major/minor resections, total operative time and transection time, number and time of clamping, blood loss, time of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. Results. Between January 2003 and December 2007, 26 patients were analyzed prospectively (69% women, 31% men). Ages ranged from 18 to 84 years. Sixty-five percent of patients had a malignant disease; 35%, a benign disease. The procedures performed were two major hepatectomies (7.6%) and 24 minor hepatectomies (92.4%). Hepatic transection was performed in 35 to 150 min. Total operative time range was 120,480 min. The average blood loss was 325 ml (range 50,600 ml). The mean postoperative stays were nine days for all the patient and six days for non-cirrhotic patients. Conclusion. The water-cooled high frequency monopolar device is useful for reducing ischemia,reperfusion damage due to the Pringle maneuver and for reducing the risk of morbidity. However, the Kelly forceps remains the only inexpensive instrument really essential for liver surgery. [source]

    The use of water-jet dissection in open and laparoscopic liver resection

    HPB, Issue 4 2008
    H. G. RAU
    Abstract Background. We intend to give an overview of our experiences with the implementation of a new dissection technique in open and laparoscopic surgery. Methods. Our database comprises a total of 950 patients who underwent liver resection. Three hundred and fifty of them were performed exceptionally with the water-jet dissector. Forty-one laparoscopic partial liver resections were accomplished. Results. Using the water-jet dissection technique it was possible to reduce the blood loss, the Pringle- and resection time in comparison to CUSA® and blunt dissection. In the last five years we could reduce the Pringle-rate from 48 to 6% and the last 110 liver resections were performed without any Pringle's manoeuvre. At the same time, the transfusion-rate decreased from 1.86 to 0.46 EC/patient. In oncological resections, the used dissection technique had no influence on long-time survival. Conclusions. The water-jet dissection technique is fast, feasible, oncologically safe and can be used in open and in laparoscopic liver surgery. [source]

    Patient preparation before surgery for cholangiocarcinoma

    HPB, Issue 3 2008
    E. Oussoultzoglou
    Abstract Aim. Multiorgan dysfunction is often encountered in jaundiced patients and may compromise the postoperative outcome after liver resection for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The aim of the present study was to elucidate evidence-based medicine regarding the benefit of the available preoperative treatments currently used for the preparation of patients before surgery for hilar CCA. Material and methods. An electronic search using the Medline database was performed to identify relevant articles relating to renal dysfunction, bacterial translocation, hemostasis impairment, malnutrition, liver failure, and postoperative outcome in jaundiced patients undergoing liver resection for CCA. Results. There is grade B evidence to expand the extracellular water volume and to administer oral synbiotic supplements. Intravenous vitamin K administration is an effective treatment. Perioperative nutritional support should be administered preferably by the enteral route in severely malnourished patients with compromised liver function undergoing extended liver resection (grade A evidence). There is only grade C evidence to recommend a portal vein embolization in patients with CCA when the future remnant liver volume is <40%. Conclusions. A simplified scheme that might be useful in the management of patients presenting with obstructive jaundice was presented. Despite surgical technique improvements, preparation of patients for surgery will continue to be one of the major determinants for the postoperative prognosis of jaundiced patients. [source]

    Cholangiocarcinoma: preoperative biliary drainage (Con)

    HPB, Issue 2 2008
    Aim. In patients with malignant hilar obstruction, liver resection is associated with an increased risk of postoperative liver failure attributed to the need for major liver resection in a context of obstructive jaundice. To overcome this issue, most authors recommend preoperative biliary drainage (PBD). However, PBD carries risks of its own, including, primarily, sepsis and, more rarely, tumor seeding, bile peritonitis, and hemobilia. We, unlike most authors, have not used routine PBD before liver resection in jaundiced patients. Material and methods. Our series includes 62 patients who underwent major liver resection for cholangiocarcinoma; 33 of these had elevated bilurubin (60,470 µmol/l) and were operated without PBD. There were 43 extended right hepatectomies and 18 extended left hepatectomies. Results. Hospital deaths occurred in 5 patients (8%) including 3 of 33 jaundiced patients (9%, ns). All deaths occurred after extended right hepatectomy (12%), including 3 patients with a serum bilirubin level above 300 µmol/l and 2 with normal bilirubin. There were no deaths after left-sided resections, whatever the level of bilirubin. Conclusions. PBD can be omitted in the following situations: recent onset jaundice (<2,3 weeks), total bilirubin <200 µmol/l, no previous endoscopic or transhepatic cholangiography, absence of sepsis, future liver remnant >40%. These criteria include most patients requiring left-sided resections and selected patients requiring right-sided resections. In other cases, PBD is required, associated with portal vein embolization in the event of a small future liver remnant. [source]

    Practical questions in liver metastases of colorectal cancer: general principles of treatment

    HPB, Issue 4 2007
    Héctor Daniel González
    Abstract Liver metastases of colorectal cancer are currently treated by multidisciplinary teams using strategies that combine chemotherapy, surgery and ablative techniques. Many patients classically considered non-resectable can now be rescued by neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by liver resection, with similar results to those obtained in initial resections. While many of those patients will recur, repeat resection is a feasible and safe approach if the recurrence is confined to the liver. Several factors that until recently were considered contraindications are now recognized only as adverse prognostic factors and no longer as contraindications for surgery. The current evaluation process to select patients for surgery is no longer focused on what is to be removed but rather on what will remain. The single most important objective is to achieve a complete (R0) resection within the limits of safety in terms of quantity and quality of the remaining liver. An increasing number of patients with synchronous liver metastases are treated by simultaneous resection of the primary and the liver metastatic tumours. Multilobar disease can also be approached by staged procedures that combine neoadjuvant chemotherapy, limited resections in one lobe, embolization or ligation of the contralateral portal vein and a major resection in a second procedure. Extrahepatic disease is no longer a contraindication for surgery provided that an R0 resection can be achieved. A reverse surgical staged approach (liver metastases first, primary second) is another strategy that has appeared recently. Provided that a careful selection is made, elderly patients can also benefit from surgical treatment of liver metastases. [source]