Liver Diseases. (liver + diseases)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Adipokines in liver diseases,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
Fabio Marra
Adipokines are polypeptides secreted in the adipose tissue in a regulated manner. While some of these molecules are expressed only by adipocytes, resident and infiltrating macrophages and components of the vascular stroma markedly contribute to expression of other adipokines. As a result, adipose tissue inflammation is associated with a modification in the pattern of adipokine secretion. Leptin, adiponectin, and resistin are the best-studied molecules in this class, but cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor or interleukin-6 are also secreted at high levels by the adipose tissue. Several other molecules have been recently identified and are actively investigated. Adipokines interfere with hepatic injury associated with fatty infiltration, differentially modulating steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Several studies have investigated plasma levels of adiponectin in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, to establish correlations with the underlying state of insulin resistance and with the type and severity of hepatic damage. Hepatitis C is another disease where adipokines may represent a link between viral infection, steatosis, and metabolic disturbances. Identification of the mediators secreted by expanded adipose tissue and their pathogenic role is pivotal in consideration of the alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity and of the detrimental role that this condition exerts on the course of liver diseases. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

Multidrug resistance,associated proteins are crucial for the viability of activated rat hepatic stellate cells,,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
Rebekka A. Hannivoort
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) survive and proliferate in the chronically injured liver. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a crucial role in cell viability by transporting toxic metabolites or xenobiotics out of the cell. ABC transporter expression in HSCs and its relevance to cell viability and/or activation have not been reported so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression, regulation, and function of multidrug resistance,associated protein (Mrp)-type and multidrug resistance protein (Mdr),type ABC transporters in activated rat HSCs. Rat HSCs were exposed to cytokines or oxidative stress. ABC transporter expression was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. HSCs were exposed to the Mdr inhibitors verapamil and PSC-833 and the Mrp inhibitor MK571. Mdr and Mrp transporter function was evaluated with flow cytometry. Apoptosis was determined by activated caspase-3 and acridine orange staining, and necrosis was determined by Sytox green nuclear staining. An in vivo model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4),induced liver fibrosis was used. With respect to hepatocytes, activated HSCs expressed high levels of Mrp1 and comparable levels of Mrp3, Mrp4, Mdr1a, and Mdr1b but not the hepatocyte-specific transporters bile salt export pump, Mrp2, and Mrp6. Mrp1 protein staining correlated with desmin staining in livers from CCl4 -treated rats. Mrp1 expression increased upon activation of HSCs. Cytokines induced Mdr1b expression only. Oxidative stress was not a major regulator of Mdr and Mrp transporter expression. Activated HSCs became necrotic when exposed to the Mrp inhibitors. Conclusion: Activated HSCs contain relatively high levels of Mrp1. Mrp-type transporters are required for the viability of activated HSCs. Mrp-dependent export of endogenous metabolites is important for the survival of activated HSCs in chronic liver diseases. (HEPATOLOGY 2008.) [source]

Increased hepatotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor,related apoptosis-inducing ligand in diseased human liver,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
Xandra Volkmann
Tumor necrosis factor,related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in tumor cells but not in most normal cells and has therefore been proposed as a promising antitumor agent. Recent experiments suggested that isolated primary human hepatocytes but not monkey liver cells are susceptible to certain TRAIL agonists, raising concerns about the use of TRAIL in cancer treatment. Whether TRAIL indeed exerts hepatotoxicity in vivo and how this is influenced by chemotherapeutic drugs or liver disease are completely unknown. Employing different forms of recombinant TRAIL, we found that the cytokine can induce proapoptotic caspase activity in isolated human hepatocytes. However in marked contrast, these different TRAIL preparations induced little or no cytotoxicity when incubated with tissue explants of fresh healthy liver, an experimental model that may more faithfully mimic the in vivo situation. In healthy liver, TRAIL induced apoptosis only when combined with histone deacetylase inhibitors. Strikingly, however, TRAIL alone triggered massive apoptosis accompanied by caspase activation in tissue explants from patients with liver steatosis or hepatitis C viral infection. This enhanced sensitivity of diseased liver was associated with an increased expression of TRAIL receptors and up-regulation of proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Conclusion: These results suggest that clinical trials should be performed with great caution when TRAIL is combined with chemotherapy or administered to patients with inflammatory liver diseases. (HEPATOLOGY 2007.) [source]

Mitochondrial hepatopathies: Advances in genetics and pathogenesis,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
Way S. Lee
Hepatic involvement is a common feature in childhood mitochondrial hepatopathies, particularly in the neonatal period. Respiratory chain disorders may present as neonatal acute liver failure, hepatic steatohepatitis, cholestasis, or cirrhosis with chronic liver failure of insidious onset. In recent years, specific molecular defects (mutations in nuclear genes such as SCO1, BCS1L, POLG, DGUOK, and MPV17 and the deletion or rearrangement of mitochondrial DNA) have been identified, with the promise of genetic and prenatal diagnosis. The current treatment of mitochondrial hepatopathies is largely ineffective, and the prognosis is generally poor. The role of liver transplantation in patients with liver failure remains poorly defined because of the systemic nature of the disease, which does not respond to transplantation. Prospective, longitudinal, multicentered studies will be needed to address the gaps in our knowledge in these rare liver diseases. (HEPATOLOGY 2007;45:1555,1565.) [source]

Chronic liver disease in murine hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 induces resistance to cell death

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
Arndt Vogel
The murine model of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) was used to analyze the relationship between chronic liver disease and programmed cell death in vivo. In healthy fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficient mice (Fah -/- ), protected from liver injury by the drug 2-(2- nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC), the tyrosine metabolite homogentisic acid (HGA) caused rapid hepatocyte death. In contrast, all mice survived the same otherwise lethal dose of HGA if they had preexisting liver damage induced by NTBC withdrawal. Similarly, Fah -/- animals with liver injury were also resistant to apoptosis induced by the Fas ligand Jo-2 and to necrosis-like cell death induced by acetaminophen (APAP). Molecular studies revealed a marked up-regulation of the antiapoptotic heat shock proteins (Hsp) 27, 32, and 70 and of c-Jun in hepatocytes of stressed mice. In addition, the p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) stress-activated kinase pathways were markedly impaired in the cell-death resistant liver. In conclusion, these results provide evidence that chronic liver disease can paradoxically result in cell death resistance in vivo. Stress-induced failure of cell death programs may lead to an accumulation of damaged cells and therefore enhance the risk for cancer as observed in HT1 and other chronic liver diseases. (HEPATOLOGY 2004;39:433,443.) [source]

Toenail selenium and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma mortality in Haimen City, China,

Lori C. Sakoda
Abstract Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral with known anticarcinogenic properties in humans. However, few studies have examined the association between Se nutrient status and risk of liver cancer. We conducted a nested case-control study comparing the Se content in toenail clippings of 166 individuals (154 men, 12 women) with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to 394 healthy controls (360 men, 34 women) in Haimen City, China, where HCC is a leading cause of mortality. Toenail Se concentration was measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Median toenail Se was lower for HCC cases than controls (p = 0.03). Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for HCC mortality by increasing quartile of toenail Se were 1.00 (reference), 0.58 (0.32,1.03), 0.83 (0.48,1.42) and 0.50 (0.28,0.90), with a marginally significant trend in risk observed (p for trend = 0.06). This inverse association appeared stronger among those who did not consume alcohol and among women. Future studies are needed to examine the interrelationship between Se, viral hepatitis infection and HCC in order to better understand the etiologic mechanisms involved and evaluate the true chemopreventive potential of Se compounds for liver diseases. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]