Life Conditions (life + condition)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Evaluation of effluent toxicity as an indicator of aquatic life condition in effluent-dominated streams: A pilot study

Jerry Diamond
Abstract The types and quality of data needed to determine relationships between chronic whole effluent toxicity (WET) test results and in-stream biological condition were evaluated using information collected over a 1.5-y period from 6 different sites across the United States. A data-quality-objectives approach was used that included several proposed measurement quality objectives (MQOs) that specified desired precision, bias, and sensitivity of methods used. The 6 facilities used in this study (4 eastern and 2 western United States) all had design effluent concentrations >60% of the stream flow. In addition to at least quarterly chronic Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), and Selenastrum capricornutum (green algae) WET tests, other tests were conducted to address MQOs, including splits, duplicates, and blind positive and negative controls. Macroinvertebrate, fish, and periphyton bioassessments were conducted at multiple locations upstream and downstream of each facility. The test acceptance criteria of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) were met for most WET tests; however, this study demonstrated the need to incorporate other MQOs (minimum and maximum percent significant difference and performance on blind samples) to ensure accurate interpretation of effluent toxicity. More false positives, higher toxicity, and more "failed" (noncompliant) tests were observed using no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) as compared to the IC25 endpoint (concentration causing ,25% decrease in organism response compared to controls). Algae tests often indicated the most effluent toxicity in this study; however, this test was most susceptible to false positives and high interlaboratory variability. Overall, WET test results exhibited few relationships with bioassessment results even when accounting for actual effluent dilution. In general, neither frequency of WET noncompliance nor magnitude of toxicity in tests were significantly related to differences in biological condition upstream and downstream of a discharge. Periphyton assessments were most able to discriminate small changes downstream of the effluent, followed by macroinvertebrates and fish. Although sampling methods were robust, more replicate samples collected upstream and downstream of each facility were needed to increase detection power. In general, macroinvertebrate and periphyton assessments together appeared to be sufficient to address project objectives. [source]

Quality of life of male outpatients with personality disorders or psychotic disorders: a comparison

Yvonne HA Bouman
Background,Quality of life (QoL) has become increasingly important as an outcome measure in community-based psychiatry. QoL refers to an individual's sense of well-being and satisfaction with his current life conditions. It is measured both through objective social indicators and life domain-specific subjective indicators. People with a personality disorder (PD) or a major mental disorder (MMD) tend to show poor social adjustment, but their relative subjective QoL is not known. Aim,To compare the QoL of male outpatients in treatment for PD or MMD overall and by means of specific social and subjective indicators. Methods,A sample of 135 men under treatment for PD in Dutch forensic outpatient facilities were compared with 79 men with MMD using the extended Dutch version of the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile (LQoLP). Results,Almost all of the objective indicators of QoL were significantly poorer among men with MMD than those with PD, but the groups did not differ on domain-specific subjective ratings of QoL. Indeed, global subjective QoL was lower in the PD than in the MMD patient group. PD outpatients seemed to have a more complex concept of QoL than the MMD outpatients for whom almost half of the variance in subjective QoL rating was related to their everyday activities and their objective sense of safety. Conclusions and implications for practice,Further study of QoL among PD patients would be warranted to test the extent to which subjective dissatisfaction is intrinsic to PD and to explore the possibility of improving it with targeted treatments. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

BIOETHNIC CONSCRIPTION: Genes, Race, and Mexicana/o Ethnicity in Diabetes Research

This article is an examination of academic, corporate, and state-funded alliance of molecular, biological, computer, and clinical scientists who are conducting research into the genetic epidemiology of type 2 diabetes. Because type 2 diabetes affects human groups differently, researchers use ethnic and racial taxonomies to parse populations and social history to rationalize their categorical choices. In a process termed "bioethnic conscription," the social identities and life conditions of DNA donors are grafted into the biological explanations of human difference and disease causality in both objectionable and constructive ways. Bioethnic conscription is presented as an ethnographically sound alternative to the either,or proposition of the (R)ace,no race debate within biomedicine and anthropology. [source]

The relationship of postprandial glucose to HbA1c

Rüdiger Landgraf
Abstract The gold standard for the assessment of the overall glycemic control is the determination of HbA1c. There are, however, insufficient data to determine reliably the relative contribution of fasting and postprandial plasma glucose to HbA1c. Increasing evidence suggests that excessive excursions of postprandial glucose might be important for the development of micro- and macroangiopathic complications. With respect to the treatment options, one important question to be answered is whether premeal, postmeal or fasting plasma glucose, alone or in combination, will be necessary in adjusting the therapy to achieve optimal HbA1c levels while minimizing hypoglycemia. HbA1c is difficult to predict from fasting plasma glucose. There are indications that there is a shift in the relative contribution from postprandial glucose at good to fair HbA1c levels (<7.3% to <9.2%) to fasting plasma glucose at high HbA1c (>9.3%). There is also a better correlation of afternoon and evening plasma glucose with HbA1c than with prebreakfast and prelunch plasma glucose values. Since the definition on how to define postprandial glucose is still a matter of debate and since postprandial glucose depends on the premeal blood glucose level and, on the time of the meal, its size and composition and the therapeutic strategy, the data so far available are inconclusive and the best correlation of HbA1c is with the area under the glucose profiles. Continuous glucose monitoring under daily life conditions will be the key to definitely unravel the relationship among HbA1c and fasting, premeal, postprandial and postabsorptive plasma glucose. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Quality of private personal care for elderly people with a disability living at home: correlates and potential outcomes

Claudio Bilotta MD
Abstract To investigate correlates of the quality of private personal care for community-dwelling elderly people, this cross-sectional study enrolled 100 elderly outpatients living at home, along with their private aides and 88 informal caregivers, from May 2005 to January 2007. Cases were stratified according to the quality of private care as was described by both elderly participants and informal caregivers. In cases where the elderly person was suffering from overt cognitive impairment, only the opinions of the informal caregivers were taken into account. A comparison was made between the ,poor or fair care' group (n = 16), the ,intermediate care' group (n = 39) and the ,optimal care' group (n = 45). Considering the characteristics of private aides, there was a significant trend across the three groups in terms of language skills (P = 0.002) and level of distress with life conditions (P = 0.020). A statistical analysis performed on elderly participants without an overt cognitive impairment (n = 59) and informal caregivers showed an increase in the European Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale score in the elderly group [mean ± standard deviation (SD) were, respectively, 45 ± 23.2, 63.7 ± 19.7 and 68.8 ± 21.6; P = 0.007], and a decrease in the Caregiver Burden Inventory score (mean ± SD were, respectively, 34.9 ± 25.3, 26 ± 17.7 and 17.6 ± 14.6; P = 0.020) across the three groups. We found no significant difference between elderly people in the three groups in terms of social variables, functional and cognitive status, prevalence of depressive disorders and morbidity. Therefore, good language skills and non-distressing life conditions of private aides appeared to be correlates of an optimal quality of care for community-dwelling elderly people with a disability, and also a better quality of life for them and less distress for their informal caregivers appeared to be potential outcomes of the quality of personal care. [source]

When home is in jail: child development in Spanish penitentiary units

Jesús M. Jiménez
Abstract The quality of the educational family context of children who live with their mothers in prison (N=127, age M=16.3 months) as well as how this situation affects their level of development are analysed. The assessment of these contexts was carried out using the HOME scale. The evaluation of the children's development was carried out using the Brunet,Lézine scale. The data shows that the quality of this context is extremely low, with one of the most striking features being the low score obtained in the subscales of provision of play materials and variety of experiences. Moreover, there are significant differences in the scores that are related to the mother's level of education, ethnic origins and the type of prison where they are serving their sentences. As for the scores obtained by the children in the Brunet,Lézine scale, the data shows that their level of development is similar to that of the infant population in general although we also found that the development quotients of the children in the group with the lowest scores in the HOME scale tend to drop significantly after 18 months of age. The results are discussed taking into account the interaction of context and development under the light of the canalization hypothesis, and making some suggestions about possible ways to improve these children's life conditions. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Quality of Life Outcomes for People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Staffed Community Housing Services: a Stratified Random Sample of Statutory, Voluntary and Private Agency Provision

Jonathan Perry
Background, Small scale, community-based, staffed housing is a significant form of residential provision for people with intellectual disabilities. Such services are provided by health and local authorities, and voluntary and private agencies, yet little is known about how provision varies between provider sectors. Methods, This study compared sectors in terms of the processes operating within residential services, and objectively and subjectively assessed quality of life (QOL) resident outcomes. Measures of setting structure and processes and resident outcomes were undertaken on a stratified random sample of 47 small scale, community-based residential settings which accommodated a total of 154 people with intellectual disabilities. Results, In general, provider agencies did not differ in terms of the characteristics of the residents they served, the structure of settings, the processes underlying service operation or resident outcomes. However, across agencies there was considerable variation in residents' life conditions when they were measured objectively. Better outcome tended to be significantly correlated with the ability of residents. This was not the case with results on subjective measures (which were also higher than those on objective measures). Conclusions, The results reinforce the need to design services which effectively support people across the ability spectrum. Also, an argument is made for the continued utility of objective measurement in the assessment of service quality. [source]

Interleukin-1, levels in gingival crevicular fluid and serum under naturally occurring and experimentally induced gingivitis

Leonardo Trombelli
Trombelli L, Scapoli C, Carrieri A, Giovannini G, Calura G, Farina R. Interleukin-1, levels in gingival crevicular fluid and serum under naturally occurring and experimentally induced gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol 2010; 37: 697-704 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01573.x. Abstract Aims: To evaluate the interleukin-1, (IL-1,) levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in either naturally occurring (N-O) or experimentally induced (E-I) plaque-associated gingivitis. Material and Methods: Thirty-seven periodontally healthy subjects were evaluated in real life conditions (N-O gingivitis) as well as after 21 days of experimental gingivitis trial (E-I gingivitis). During the experimental gingivitis trial, in one maxillary quadrant (test quadrant), gingival inflammation was induced by oral hygiene abstention, while in the contralateral (control) quadrant, oral hygiene was routinely continued. IL-1, concentrations in N-O and E-I gingivitis were investigated for IL-1B+3954 and IL-1B,511 gene polymorphisms. Results: (i) GCF IL-1, concentrations in E-I gingivitis were significantly higher compared with N-O gingivitis; (ii) an intra-individual correlation between GCF concentrations of IL-1, detected in N-O and E-I gingivitis was observed in control quadrants, but not in test quadrants; (iii) IL-1, concentration in GCF was associated with IL-1B+3954 genotype only at test quadrants; (iv) IL-1, was detectable in serum only at low levels in a limited number of subjects, without difference between gingivitis conditions. Conclusions: Aspects of the bacterial challenge to the gingival tissues, such as the amount of plaque deposits and plaque accumulation rate, appear to affect the IL-1, levels in GCF in subjects with a specific IL-1B genotype. [source]

Life events and brand preference changes

Anil Mathur
Abstract Three types of variable have been used to explain brand preference changes: consumer characteristics, marketing mix factors and situational influences. The study presented in this paper focuses on the relationship between life events experienced by individuals, resultant stress and lifestyle changes and changes in brand preferences. Based on theory and past research, a model is proposed and tested. The data support the notion that brand preference changes may be viewed as the outcome of adjustments to new life conditions and changes in consumption lifestyles that reflect consumer efforts to cope with stressful life changes. Implications for consumer research are also discussed. Copyright © 2003 Henry Stewart Publications. [source]

The circadian and homeostatic modulation of sleep pressure during wakefulness differs between morning and evening chronotypes

Jacques Taillard
Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate homeostatic and circadian sleep process in ,larks' and ,owls' under daily life conditions. Core body temperature, subjective sleepiness and waking electroencephalogram (EEG) theta,alpha activity (6.25,9 Hz) were assessed in 18 healthy men (nine morning and nine evening chronotypes, 21.4 ± 1.9 years) during a 36-h constant routine that followed a week of a normal ,working' sleep,wake schedule (bedtime: 23.30 h, wake time: 07.30 h). The phase of the circadian rhythm of temperature and sleepiness occurred respectively, 1.5 h (P = 0.01) and 2 h (P = 0.009) later in evening- than in morning-type subjects. Only morning-type subjects showed a bimodal rhythm of sleep,wake propensity. The buildup of subjective sleepiness, as quantified by linear regression, was slower in evening than in morning types (P = 0.04). The time course of EEG theta,alpha activity of both chronotypes could be closely fitted by an exponential curve. The time constant of evening types was longer than that of morning types (P = 0.03), indicating a slower increase in sleep pressure during extended wakefulness. These results suggest that both the circadian signal and the kinetics of sleep pressure buildup differ between the two chronotypes even under prior naturalistic conditions mimicking the usual working day. [source]

The effects of 17 August Marmara earthquake on patient admittances to our dermatology department

D Bayramgürler
Abstract On 17 August 1999 a devastating earthquake with a magnitude of 7.4 on the Richter scale occurred in Marmara region of Turkey and the epicentre of the earthquake was our city. In this study we aimed to determine the influence of a major earthquake on patient admittance's to the outpatient clinic of our dematology department. All the registrations of the outpatient clinic of our dermatology department in a period of 6 months after the earthquake and the same period last year were revised retrospectively and categorized into 15 subgroups. The first 3 months registrations (earthquake group 1) and the second 3 months registrations (earthquake group 2) after the earthquake were compared with those of the same periods in last year, respectively (control group 1 and control group 2). Also the earthquake group 1 was compared with the earthquake group 2. When the results were evaluated, it was seen that the incidence of infections-infestations was significantly higher in the earthquake group 1 when compared with the control group 1. When the earthquake group 2 and the control group 2 were compared with each other regarding the incidences of the skin diseases, no statistically significant difference was found. The incidences of erythematous-squamous skin diseases, pruritus and neurocutaneous dermatoses and eczemas were significantly higher in the earthquake group 2 when compared with the earthquake group 1. On the other hand, the incidences of infections-infestations and dermatoses due to physical factors were significantly lower in the earthquake group 2 when compared with the earthquake group 1. We think that the alteration in the admittance's to outpatient clinic of our dermatology department in the first 3 months after the earthquake is due to the damaged infrastructures and unhygienic life conditions and in the second 3 months is due to psycho-emotional factors related to earthquake. [source]

Spouse selection by health status and physical traits.

Abstract Military medical information and data from civil registers of death and marriage have been used to study the role of physical characteristics and health conditions in explaining access to marriage for the male population of Alghero, a small city located in Sardinia Island (Italy), at the turn of 19th century. Literature data about contemporary populations have already demonstrated the influence of somatic traits in the mate choice. The results presented here show that men with low height and poor health status at the age of 20 were negatively selected for marriage. This holds true also in a society where families often arranged marriages for their children. This pattern of male selection on marriage was found to be particularly marked among the richest and wealthiest SES groups. Our hypothesis is that this social group carefully selected for marriage those individuals who were apparently healthier and therefore more likely to guarantee good health status and better life conditions to offspring. In evolutionary terms, the mate choice component of sexual selection suggests that the height of prospective partners could be claimed as one of the determinants, along with other environmental causes, of the observed higher stature of men belonging to the wealthiest social strata of the Alghero population. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Stature estimation in an early medieval (XI-XII c.) Polish population: Testing the accuracy of regression equations in a bioarcheological sample

Giuseppe Vercellotti
Abstract Accurate stature estimation from skeletal remains can foster useful information on health and microevolutionary trends in past human populations. Stature can be estimated through the anatomical method and regression equations. The anatomical method (Fully: Ann Med Leg 36 [1956] 266,273; Raxter et al.: Am J Phys Anthropol 130 [2006] 374,384) is preferable because it takes into account total skeletal height and thus provides more accurate estimates, but it cannot be applied to incomplete remains. In such circumstances, regression equations allow estimates of living stature from the length of one or few skeletal elements. However, the accuracy of stature estimates from regression equations depends on similarity in body proportions between the population under examination and those used to calibrate the equations. Since genetic affinity and body proportions similarity are not always clearly known in bioarcheological populations, the criteria for selection of appropriate formulae are not always straightforward. This may lead to inaccurate stature estimates and imprecise accounts of past life conditions. Prompted by such practical and theoretical concerns this study aimed at (1) estimating living stature in an early medieval (XI-XII c.) Polish sample (40 male; 20 female) through the anatomical method and developing population-specific regression formulae; and (2) evaluating the accuracy of estimates obtained with regression methods commonly employed in European populations. Results indicate that when applied to the skeletal remains from Giecz, our formulae provide accurate estimates, with non-age-corrected formulae performing better than age-corrected ones. Our formulae provide better estimates than those calibrated on recent populations and their use in medieval Polish populations is preferable. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Masatoshi Matsumoto
Objectives: The purpose of this paper was to discover to what degree Japanese rural doctors are satisfied with various aspects of their jobs and lives, and to find out whether they intend to continue their rural careers. Design: Nationwide postal survey Setting: Public clinics or hospitals in municipalities that are authorised as ,rural' by the national government. Subjects: A total of 4896 doctors working for public clinics or hospitals. Interventions: Self-evaluation questionnaires were mailed. The rural doctors were asked to evaluate their satisfaction with 19 items related to their job conditions and 10 items concerning life conditions, using a four-point scale. They also were asked to evaluate their intent to stay in rural practice until retirement. Results: The response rate was 64%. Overall, rural doctors were satisfied with both their work and life conditions. However, only 27% of respondents hoped to continue rural practice beyond the usual age of retirement. Among job-related items, continuing medical education and interactions with municipal governments were rated as least satisfactory. Among lifestyle-related items, duration of holidays and workload were unsatisfactory. Subgroup analysis revealed male doctors showed greater intent to stay in rural practice. Doctors aged > 50 years were more satisfied with most aspects of their job and lifestyle than younger doctors. A strong correlation was found between the degree of intent to stay and several items such as interactions with municipal government, human interactions salary and job fulfilment. Conclusions: Strategies, based on the results of this survey, should be implemented. Particularly in Japan, positive interaction between doctors and municipal governments is crucial. [source]