Life Activities (life + activity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Life Activities

  • daily life activity

  • Selected Abstracts

    REVIEW: Behavioural assessment of drug reinforcement and addictive features in rodents: an overview

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Carles Sanchis-Segura
    ABSTRACT Some psychoactive drugs are abused because of their ability to act as reinforcers. As a consequence behavioural patterns (such as drug-seeking/drug-taking behaviours) are promoted that ensure further drug consumption. After prolonged drug self-administration, some individuals lose control over their behaviour so that these drug-seeking/taking behaviours become compulsive, pervading almost all life activities and precipitating the loss of social compatibility. Thus, the syndrome of addictive behaviour is qualitatively different from controlled drug consumption. Drug-induced reinforcement can be assessed directly in laboratory animals by either operant or non-operant self-administration methods, by classical conditioning-based paradigms such as conditioned place preference or sign tracking, by facilitation of intracranial electric self-stimulation, or, alternatively by drug-induced memory enhancement. In contrast, addiction cannot be modelled in animals, at least as a whole, within the constraints of the laboratory. However, various procedures have been proposed as possible rodent analogues of addiction's major elements including compulsive drug seeking, relapse, loss of control/impulsivity, and continued drug consumption despite negative consequences. This review provides an extensive overview and a critical evaluation of the methods currently used for studying drug-induced reinforcement as well as specific features of addictive behaviour. In addition, comic strips that illustrate behavioural methods used in the drug abuse field are provided given for free download under http://www.zi-mannheim/ [source]

    Masticatory performance in patients with anterior disk displacement without reduction in comparison with symptom-free volunteers

    Ingrid Peroz
    Masticatory function can be impaired by craniomandibular disorders. The aim of this study was to assess masticatory performance in patients with an anterior disc displacement (ADD) without reduction. In the experiments, 29 patients and 33 age- and gender-matched volunteers chewed artificial test food for 60 chewing strokes. The collected remains of the test food were filtered, dried, fractionated by a sieving procedure, and weighed. The particle size distribution was then described using a cumulative distribution function. Patients and controls were clinically examined, and patients were asked to complete a pain questionnaire. Comparison with controls, patients showed significantly reduced masticatory performance. Patients that had had a disorder longer than 3 yr tended to display less reduction of their masticatory performance. Neither the treatment methods used, nor restriction of daily life activities or pain intensity were significantly correlated with masticatory performance. Jaw mobility was significantly reduced in patients. More than half of the patients and none of the controls had joint noises and trigger points in the masticatory muscles. Pain was present, in particular, during chewing and maximal opening of the mouth. It was concluded that patients with ADD without reduction have a significantly reduced masticatory performance. [source]

    Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of a mouthwash and oral gel containing the antimicrobial proteins lactoperoxidase, lysozyme and lactoferrin in elderly patients with dry mouth , a pilot study

    GERODONTOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Jose Antonio Gil-Montoya
    Objectives:, To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a mouthwash and oral gel containing the antimicrobial proteins lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin and lysozyme, in a sample of elderly individuals with dry mouth. Material and methods:, Twenty elderly institutionalised subjects with dry mouth and with a certain degree of independence for daily life activities were included in this pilot study. A randomised, double blind and cross-over design was used. The study variables comprised subjective dry mouth sensation, the severity of discomfort assessed by means of a visual analogical scale (VAS), the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP), the presence of signs and symptoms of dry mouth, sialometry and Candida albicans culture. All the variables were recorded before and after each of the two periods of the study. Results:, The 20 selected subjects we made up of 16 women and four men, with a mean age of 81.3 years. Improvement was observed on analysing the data between the first and second intervention period in terms of the OHIP values, the presence of dry mouth, and the need to drink fluids to swallow. However, the improvement in certain variables before and after treatment did not take a positive course in all cases, and some subjects even improved with placebo. Conclusions:, The evaluated mouthwash and oral gel improved some subjective and clinical aspects in elderly individuals with dry mouth, though a placebo effect cannot be entirely discarded. [source]

    Psychosocial Impact of Headache and Comorbidity with Other Pains among Swedish School Adolescents

    HEADACHE, Issue 8 2002
    Ĺsa Fichtel MSc
    Background.,The psychosocial impact of headache combined with other pains has previously been insufficiently investigated. Objective., The present study examined the prevalence of headache, its comorbidity with other pains and psychosocial impact among adolescents. Methods., 793 adolescents in a sample recruited from 8 schools in the middle of Sweden were assessed. Results.,Forty-five percent of the adolescents reported ongoing pain during assessment and more than half of the adolescents reported at least one frequent pain during the previous 6 months. The most common pain among girls was headache (42%), but for boys muscle pain (32%) was most prevalent. Number of pains and perceived pain disability were also higher among girls than boys. One-third of the headache sufferers had headache only, while one-third reported one other frequent pain and the others had at least two other frequent pains. Overall, adolescents with frequent headaches had higher levels of anxiety or depressive symptoms, in addition to functional disability and usage of analgesic medication. Frequent headache sufferers reported more problems in everyday life areas than those with infrequent headaches. Conclusions.,It is recommended that adolescents suffering from recurrent headaches routinely should be asked about the presence of other pains, anxiety and depressive symptoms, medication usage, in addition to psychosocial consequences in their everyday life activities. Longitudinal research is also needed to delineate causal relationships between psychosocial factors and recurrent pains, in particular regarding possible sex differences. [source]

    Functional cognitive assessment scale (FUCAS): a new scale to assess executive cognitive function in daily life activities in patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    Fotini Kounti
    Abstract Background Several tests have been developed to examine performance of demented patients in daily life activities. However, most of them are based either on the subjective evaluation of performance by the patient him/herself, or on the reports of relatives. Functional Cognitive Assessment Scale (FUCAS) is a new reliable (,,>,0.89,,,0.92) cognitive-behavioral scale that assesses executive function in daily life activities directly in patients with dementia. Aims This study aimed at testing FUCAS' internal consistency of items, criterion-related validity, interrater reliability, discriminative ability, and effect of age, sex, and education on FUCAS scores. Results Criterion-related validity was supported by significant correlations between FUCAS, CAMCOG, MMSE, and FRSSD. The interrater reliability of FUCAS' total score for two raters was r 0.997 and we found no significant effect of age, sex, or education on FUCAS' total performance. Discriminant analysis has identified that FUCAS was able to sufficiently discriminate the patients with MCI from those with moderate-severe dementia. Conclusion FUCAS is a useful and reliable diagnostic tool for MCI. Cognitive-behavioral assessment such as that provided by FUCAS can provide objective information that can serve to enhance the quality of clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    On the Role of Passion for Work in Burnout: A Process Model

    Robert J. Vallerand
    ABSTRACT The purpose of the present research was to test a model on the role of passion for work in professional burnout. This model posits that obsessive passion produces conflict between work and other life activities because the person cannot let go of the work activity. Conversely, harmonious passion is expected to prevent conflict while positively contributing to work satisfaction. Finally, conflict is expected to contribute to burnout, whereas work satisfaction should prevent its occurrence. This model was tested in 2 studies with nurses in 2 cultures. Using a cross-sectional design, Study 1 (n=97) provided support for the model with nurses from France. In Study 2 (n=258), a prospective design was used to further test the model with nurses from the Province of Quebec over a 6-month period. Results provided support for the model. Specifically, harmonious passion predicted an increase in work satisfaction and a decrease in conflict. Conversely, obsessive passion predicted an increase of conflict. In turn, work satisfaction and conflict predicted decreases and increases in burnout changes that took place over time. The results have important implications for theory and research on passion as well as burnout. [source]

    Bilateral Motor Cortex Stimulation for the Relief of Central Dysesthetic Pain and Intentional Tremor Secondary to Spinal Cord Surgery: A Case Report

    NEUROMODULATION, Issue 4 2002
    Roberto Fabian Rodríguez MD
    Abstract Objectives. Our objective was to describe and analyze through a third party disinterested observer the results obtained by using motor cortex stimulation (MCS) for the treatment of central dysesthetic diffuse-distal type of paraplegic pain and intentional tremor secondary to the total removal of a cervical ependymoma. Design. Retrospective case report with discussion. Methods. A 69-year-old female, who after satisfactory removal of a cervical ependymoma, developed a central dysesthetic diffuse-distal type of paraplegic pain and intentional tremor associated with mild cerebellar deficit. Neurologic compromise became so intense that it prevented the patient from leading an independent lifestyle. Conservative treatments failed and a unilateral trial of MCS was performed. After a four-day satisfactory unilateral trial, a bilateral electrode, Resume II (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN), was inserted through a small craniotomy and a dual-channel RF activated receiver was implanted. During the second month of follow-up an independent observer personally interviewed the patient and assessed results through a multimodal approach, encompassing several analog scales used to measure the different components of the painful experience; a daily life activities scale and drug intake. Results. Evoked painful phenomena were dramatically improved, but the steady component of pain was only moderately relieved. The patient's tremor improved to allow for the performance of simple movements such as independent eating. Conclusion. In this single case report MCS was extremely useful in eliminating almost all of the patient's pain-evoked phenomena. Both steady burning pain and tremor were also improved. This is only one case report and MCS warrants further investigation as to its utility in controlling central dysesthetic pain in paraplegia and postchordotomy dysesthesias. [source]

    Responsibilities of children in Latino immigrant homes

    Marjorie Faulstich Orellana
    Using survey and observational data, children's contributions to households in a Mexican immigrant community in Chicago are examined. Children provide essential help to their families, including translating, interpreting, and caring for siblings. These daily life activities shape possibilities for learning and development. [source]

    The efficacy of voice therapy in patients after treatment for early glottic carcinoma

    CANCER, Issue 1 2006
    Christine D. L. van Gogh M.D.
    Abstract BACKGROUND After treatment for early glottic carcinoma, a considerable number of patients end up with voice problems that interfere with daily life activities. The objective of this randomized and controlled study was to assess the efficacy of voice therapy in these patients. METHODS Of 177 patients, 6,120 months after treatment for early glottic carcinoma, 70 patients (40%) suffered from voice impairment based on a 5-item screening questionnaire. Approximately 60% of those 70 patients were not interested in participating in the current study. Twenty-three patients who were willing to participate were assigned randomly either to a voice therapy group (n = 12 patients) or to a control group (n = 11 patients). Multidimensional voice analyses (the self-reported Voice Handicap Index [VHI], acoustic and perceptual voice quality analysis, videolaryngostroboscopy, and the Voice Range Profile) were conducted twice: before and after voice therapy or with 3 months in between for the control group. RESULTS Statistical analyses of the difference in scores (postmeasurement minus premeasurement) showed significant voice improvement after voice therapy on the total VHI score, percent jitter, and noise-to-harmonics ratio in the voice signal and on the perceptual rating of vocal fry. CONCLUSIONS Voice therapy proved to be effective in patients who had voice problems after treatment for early glottic carcinoma. Improvement not only was noticed by the patients (VHI) but also was confirmed by objective voice parameters. Cancer 2006. © 2005 American Cancer Society. [source]

    LiFE Pilot Study: A randomised trial of balance and strength training embedded in daily life activity to reduce falls in older adults

    Lindy Clemson
    Background:,Exercise as a falls prevention strategy is more complex with people at risk than with the general population. The Lifestyle approach to reducing Falls through Exercise (LiFE) involves embedding balance and lower limb strength training in habitual daily routines. Methods:,A total of 34 community-residing people aged ,70 years were randomised either into the LiFE programme or into a no-intervention control group and followed up for six months. Inclusion criteria were two or more falls or an injurious fall in the past year. Results:,There were 12 falls in the intervention group and 35 in the control group. Therelative risk (RR) analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in falls (RR = 0.23; 0.07,0.83). There were indications that dynamic balance (P = 0.04 at three months) and efficacy beliefs (P = 0.04 at six months) improved for the LiFE programme participants. In general, secondary physical and health status outcomes, which were hypothesised as potential mediators of fall risk, improved minimally and inconsistently. Conclusions:,LiFE was effective in reducing recurrent falls in this at-risk sample. However, there were minimal changes in secondary measures. The study was feasible in terms of recruitment, randomisation, blinding and data collection. A larger randomised trial is needed to investigate long-term efficacy, mechanisms of benefit and clinical significance of this new intervention. [source]