Lipid Levels (lipid + level)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Lipid Levels

  • blood lipid level
  • dietary lipid level
  • highest lipid level
  • increasing dietary lipid level
  • plasma lipid level
  • serum lipid level

  • Selected Abstracts


    Kyoko Takahashi
    SUMMARY 1.,A dietary intervention study targeting female students by using cake containing soybean protein and isoflavone was conducted. Female students (n = 120) were divided into three Groups (A, 6.26 g of soybean protein and isoflavone at 50 mg/day; B, 1.36 g soybean protein and isoflavone 50 mg; and C, a wheat puff as placebo). Intervention period was 4 weeks. The ratio of hypercholesterol in each group indicated a high value; A: 25%, B: 17.9% and C: 24.4%. 2.,Total cholesterol as well as the rate of hypercholesterolemia decreased in Group A. The average total cholesterol significantly reduced (P < 0.001) from 242 ± 17 to 220 ± 25 mg/dL in Group A. 3.,Dietary intake of soy protein for 4 weeks could be effective in reducing CHD risk among Japanese female students with a high plasma cholesterol level. [source]

    Serum Uric Acid and Lipid Levels While Taking Topiramate for Migraine

    HEADACHE, Issue 7 2008
    Abdulkadir Koçer MD
    Objective., Topiramate (TPM) therapies for epilepsy or migraine are long-time therapies with unknown mechanisms and special side effects. TPM influences cholesterol (TC) and lipoprotein serum levels. In addition, TPM may cause uric acid (UA) stone formation. Material and Methods., Serum UA, TC, and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured in 53 migraine patients receiving TPM and in 44 age- and sex-matched controls. Compared with controls, patients on TPM showed significantly higher UA and nonsignificantly higher TC and TG values. We recorded pre- and posttreatment levels of UA, TC, and TG levels in 23 patients. Results., We found increased serum levels of UA with TPM use (P < .01). There was a significant and positive correlation between serum UA levels and male gender (P < .01). The changes in serum UA levels before and after TPM treatment differed significantly (P < .01). Conclusion., Our results suggest a need for monitoring serum UA levels in patients receiving TPM. We should perhaps prescribe a low-UA diet and advice to drink much more water in these patients. [source]

    Serum Lipid Levels and Cognitive Change in Late Life

    Chandra A. Reynolds PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of lipids and lipoproteins on longitudinal cognitive performance and cognitive health in late life and to consider moderating factors such as age and sex that may clarify conflicting prior evidence. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A 16-year longitudinal study of health and cognitive aging. PARTICIPANTS: Eight hundred nineteen adults from the Swedish Adoption Twin Study of Aging aged 50 and older at first cognitive testing, including 21 twin pairs discordant for dementia. MEASUREMENTS: Up to five occasions of cognitive measurements encompassing verbal, spatial, memory, and perceptual speed domains across a 16-year span; baseline serum lipids and lipoproteins including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (apo)A1, apoB, total serum cholesterol, and triglycerides. RESULTS: The effect of lipids on cognitive change was most evident before age 65. In women, higher HDL-C and lower apoB and triglycerides predicted better maintenance of cognitive abilities, particularly verbal ability and perceptual speed, than age. Lipid values were less predictive of cognitive trajectories in men and, where observed, were in the contrary direction (i.e., higher total cholesterol and apoB values predicted better perceptual speed performance though faster rates of decline). In twin pairs discordant for dementia, higher total cholesterol and apoB levels were observed in the twin who subsequently developed dementia. CONCLUSION: High lipid levels may constitute a more important risk factor for cognitive health before age 65 than after. Findings for women are consistent with clinical recommendations, whereas for men, the findings correspond with earlier age-associated shifts in lipid profiles and the importance of lipid homeostasis to cognitive health. [source]

    Univariate and Bivariate Linkage Analysis Identifies Pleiotropic Loci Underlying Lipid Levels and Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    Sandra J. Hasstedt
    Summary Dyslipidemia frequently co-occurs with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with obesity. To investigate whether the co-occurrence is due to pleiotropic genes, we performed univariate linkage analysis of lipid levels and bivariate linkage analysis of pairs of lipid levels and of lipid levels paired with T2D, body mass index (BMI), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) in the African American subset of the Genetics of NIDDM (GENNID) sample. We obtained significant evidence for a pleiotropic low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C),T2D locus on chromosome 1 at 16,19 megabases (MB) (bivariate lod = 4.41), as well as a non-pleiotropic triglyceride (TG) locus on chromosome 20 at 28,34 MB (univariate lod = 3.57). In addition, near-significant evidence supported TG,T2D loci on chromosome 2 at 81,101 MB (bivariate lod = 4.23) and 232,239 MB (bivariate lod = 4.27) and on chromosome 7 at 147,151 MB (univariate lod = 3.08 for TG with P = 0.041 supporting pleiotropy with T2D), as well as an LDL-C,BMI locus on chromosome 3 at 137,147 MB (bivariate lod score = 4.25). These findings provide evidence that at least some of the co-occurrence of dyslipidemia with T2D and obesity is due to common underlying genes. [source]

    The A370T Variant (StuI Polymorphism) in the LDL Receptor Gene is not Associated with Plasma Lipid Levels or Cardiovascular Risk in UK Men

    José Ricardo S. Vieira
    Summary Over 800 different missense mutations in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene (LDLR) have been identified in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Only two of them, including the Alanine to Threonine change at position 370 (A370T), have been discovered in FH patients but do not cause FH. The frequency of the 370T allele has been reported worldwide to be between 0.022 and 0.070, with no clear association with high cholesterol levels or risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. To explore this relationship in more detail we have determined this genotype in 2,659 healthy middle-aged (50,61 years) men participating in the prospective Second Northwick Park Heart Study, with 236 CHD and 67 stroke incident events. The genotype distribution was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and in the no-event group the frequency of 370T was 0.046 (95% CI 0.040,0.052). Overall, there was no significant association of the 370T allele with any measured plasma lipid trait, and there was no difference in genotype distribution or allele frequency between the no-event and CHD (0.059; 95% CI 0.040,0.085) or stroke (0.037; 95% CI 0.012,0.085) groups ( p= 0.18 and 0.65, respectively). There was evidence for significant interaction ( p= 0.006) between body mass index (BMI) and genotype on CHD risk, with 370A homozygotes showing the expected higher CHD risk for those with higher BMI, whilst risk for 370T allele carriers was highest in men in the lowest tertile of BMI. The explanation for this association is unclear, and may simply be chance. Thus, these data confirm the absence of a significant impact of the A370T polymorphism on LDL receptor function, at least as measured by the effect on plasma lipid levels and CHD risk. [source]

    Growth, fat content and fatty acid profile of South American catfish, surubim (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum) juveniles fed live, commercial and formulated diets

    M. Arslan
    Summary South American catfish, barred surubim (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum) juveniles (117.6 ± 11.8 mg individual weight; 28.3 ± 2.5 mm total length) were fed various diets: one live (Tubifex worms), two commercial (Aglo Norse and Bio Kyowa), and one semi-purified formulated diet (75% peptide based protein) over a 2-week period. Fish fed the Aglo Norse diet showed the highest growth performance, but cannibalism also was very high (42%). Fish fed peptide based formulated diet demonstrated the lowest growth rate, with no cannibalism. The highest survival was achieved with fish fed Tubifex worms (100%). Lipid level in the whole body of the fish fed four different experimental diets did not differ significantly, averaging 3.6 ± 0.7%. Fatty acid composition of neutral and phospholipid fractions of whole body lipids of fish reflected the fatty acid composition of the diets. The high level of 20:4n -6 in Tubifex worms resulted in a high level of this fatty acid in the tissue of fish fed this diet. It remains uncertain how high survival and no cannibalism is related to dietary lipids/fatty acids. In all cases, the increasing ratio of n -3 HUFA (highly unsaturated fatty acids)/n -6 HUFA in phospholipid fractions suggested the elongation and desaturation of 18:3n -3 to 22:6n -3 via 20:5n -3. Moreover, in respect to the 20:4n -6 levels in the diets, an increase in the concentration of this fatty acid in phospholipid fraction suggests that South American catfish can transform linoleate into arachidonate. [source]

    The value of a specialist lipid clinic

    S. C. Martin
    Summary Aims:, To establish the value of the first 3 years of a cardiovascular risk factor clinic in tackling the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods:, A database review of all 339 patients referred to the clinic. Results:, Blood pressure levels in the hypertensive patients were significantly reduced and 9% of the smokers managed to quit for 12 months, half of them subsequently relapsing. Ninety-eight oral glucose tolerance tests were performed and 40% were abnormal yielding 10 patients with hitherto unsuspected diabetes and 29 with impaired glucose tolerance. Sixty-four of the 97 referrals of patients in the primary prevention group (no evidence of CVD) were found to have calculated Framingham coronary heart disease risk estimates of < 15% per decade, the lowest being 0.3%. Lipid levels were significantly reduced in both the hypercholesterolaemic (n = 290) and hypertriglyceridaemic (n = 49) patient groups through the use of more potent statins, extensive use of combination therapy and appropriate use of fibrates and omega-3 fish oil supplements. The annual drug cost per patient treated only increased from £310.72 to £398.08, yet there was a 3.5-fold increase in the number of patients achieving the General Medical Services 2 target of a total cholesterol < 5 mmol/l and a 4.5-fold increase in patients achieving the Joint British Societies 2 target of a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol < 2 mmol/l. Conclusion:, The need for a specialist clinic was demonstrated by the 66% of primary prevention referrals who did not meet the current NICE treatment threshold. Additionally, the clinic was able to diagnose and treat 39 patients with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus/impaired glucose tolerance and 12 with hypothyroidism. LDL cholesterol was reduced overall by 36% implying a greater than one-third reduction in future cardiovascular events before the improvements in blood pressure control and smoking cessation are included and this was achieved at marginal extra cost to the mean drug bill at referral. [source]

    Biochemical composition of the Atlantic bonito Sarda sarda from the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean Sea) in different stages of sexual maturity

    N. Zaboukas
    The content (% wet mass) in water, ash, lipid, crude protein, DNA and RNA of different tissues was determined during sexual maturation of bonitos Sarda sarda from the Aegean Sea. A total of 220 specimens were collected in the following stages of sexual maturity: immature, resting, developing, mature, spawning and spent. Highest lipid levels in the white muscle, red muscle and liver were measured in immature specimens, while lowest levels were found in spawning bonitos. The gradual percentage of lipid reduction from immature to spawning bonitos was relatively higher in the liver (females 71·2% and males 64·4%) than in the white (females 59·2% and males 53·5%) and red (females 62·1% and males 51·7%) muscle. Lipid levels in the gonads increased gradually from the immature to spawning stage. The decrease of lipid in the somatic tissues was more intense in females than in males, and gonadal lipid content was higher in females than in males. There was a strong reverse correlation between water and lipid percentage in all tissues. Protein content decreased significantly only in spawning bonitos. The percentage of protein reduction from immature to spawning stage was relatively higher in males than in females in both white (females 3·4% and males 4·6%) and red (females 4·6% and males 5·1%) muscles. Protein content in the liver was significantly lower than in the other tissues, being highest in mature females. Gonadal protein content in females increased with maturation and decreased after spawning. The content in ash exhibited considerable stability. The RNA:DNA ratio exhibited a similar pattern of variation in both muscles. The RNA:DNA ratio increased during gonadal development gradually from the developing to spent stage. It was concluded that in S. sarda during gonadal development, there was an increase in gonadal lipid accompanied by a decrease in somatic tissue lipid reserves. Thus, reproductive inactive bonitos have more lipid in their edible part and a higher nutritional value than active ones. [source]

    Genetic and environmental influences on serum lipids and the effects of puberty: a Chinese twin study

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 6 2009
    Tian-Jiao Chen
    Abstract Aim: To study the contribution of genes and environment on the variation of serum lipids and the effects of puberty. Methods: In total, 314 same-sex twin pairs aged 5,18 years were studied. Puberty was marked physiologically by spermarche/menarche, and model fitting was used to analyse the genetic and environmental variance and its difference before and after puberty. Results: Lipid levels were different before and after puberty. The genetic factor had an important influence on lipid levels; the heritability estimates of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) were between 49 and 86%. The total phenotypic variances of TC, HDL, LDL, Lp(a) and ApoE decreased after puberty, mainly as a result of decrease of genetic variance, even though the common environmental variance for HDL, Lp(a) and ApoE increased. Conclusion: Genes and the environment have different effects on the levels of different lipids. The shared environmental effects on lipids are very important in children. The role of puberty on lipids deserves future study. [source]

    Comparative analysis of triacylglycerols from Olea europaea L. fruits using HPLC and MALDI-TOFMS

    Faouzi Sakouhi
    Abstract MALDI-TOFMS and HPLC are two analytical methods that were used to characterize triacylglycerols (TAG) of the Meski, Sayali, and Picholine Tunisian olive varieties. The HPLC chromatograms of the oils showed the presence of 15 TAG species, among which triolein (OOO) was the most abundant (21,48%). In the Sayali cultivar, OOO was the predominant TAG species followed by POO and LOO. However, the minor TAG molecules were represented by LnLO and LnLP. MALDI mass spectra produced sodiated ([M,+,Na]+) and potassiated ([M,+,K]+) TAG molecules; only the major TAG were potassiated [OOO,+,K] ([OOO,+,K]+, [POO,+,K]+, and [LOO,+,K]+). In contrast to the HPLC chromatograms, the MALDI mass spectra showed 13 peaks of TAG. The major peak was detected at m/z,907, which corresponds to OOO with an Na+ adduct. The results from both HPLC and MALDI techniques predict the fatty acid composition and their percentages for each olive variety. Practical applications: TAG are the main components in vegetable oils. These biomolecules determine the physical, chemical, and nutritional properties of the oils. The nutritional benefits of TAG are related to DAG (moderate plasma lipid level) and esterified FA, which are intermediate biosynthetic molecules of TAG. TAG analysis is necessary to discriminate between oils of different origin, since some oils have similar FA profiles. Olive products, oils, and table olives, are the main diet sources of TAG in the Mediterranean countries. In this work, chromatographic and spectrometric methods were used for TAG analysis and characterization of Tunisian olive varieties. [source]

    Evaluation of Glycerol from Biodiesel Production as a Feed Ingredient for Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Menghe H. Li
    Glycerol is the main by-product of biodiesel production from vegetable oils and animal fats. It has been evaluated as an energy source for several farm animals. A study was conducted to examine the effects of various levels of glycerol in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets. Fish with mean initial weight of 6.8 ± 0.1 g were stocked in 110-L flow-through aquaria and fed practical diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% glycerol for 9 wk. There were no significant differences in feed consumption, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, and liver lipid level among fish fed diets containing 0, 5, and 10% glycerol. However, fish fed diets containing 15 and 20% glycerol had reduced weight gain, feed efficiency, and liver lipid content. Survival was not affected by dietary glycerol levels. Blood glucose level was significantly higher in fish fed 5% glycerol than fish fed other diets. Fillet protein and fat generally decreased and fillet moisture increased as dietary glycerol level increased. It appears that channel catfish can utilize about 10% glycerol in the diet without adverse effects on feed consumption, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, hemoglobin, hepatosomatic index, and liver lipid. [source]

    Dietary Lipid Utilization by Juvenile Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus

    T. Gibson Gaylord
    The ability of juvenile summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus to utilize dietary lipid as energy, and the effect of dietary lipid on weight gain and body composition was investigated in a 12-week feeding trial. Diets were formulated to provide 55% crude protein from herring meal and casein. Menhaden oil was added to produce diets with 8, 12, 16 or 20% total lipid while providing 16.0 kJ available energy/g dry diet. The diet containing 20% total lipid supplied 16.7 kJ available energy/g dry diet due to the high levels of protein and lipid. An additional diet was included to reproduce currently available commercial diet formulations for flounder, providing 55% crude protein supplied solely from herring meal and 16% total dietary lipid. Juvenile summer flounder (initial weight 23 g) were stocked into triplicate aquaria in a closed, recirculating system maintained at 20 C. Fish were fed 2% of body weight each day divided into two equal feedings. Upon termination of the study, effects of dietary lipid on weight gain, body condition indices, and proximate composition were determined. Weight gain (96,149% of initial weight), feed efficiency ratio values (0.43,0.48). fillet yield, and whole-body composition all were unaffected by dietary lipid level. High levels of dietary lipid did increase the lipid content in the finray muscle, as fish fed diets containing 16 and 20% dietary lipid had significantly higher lipid levels than fish fed the diet containing 8% lipid. No apparent protein sparing effect of lipid was observed. These data indicate that currently available commercial feeds for summer flounder may be over-formulated and show a need for further research to determine specific and accurate nutritional information for this species. [source]

    Non-invasive cryolipolysisÔ for subcutaneous fat reduction does not affect serum lipid levels or liver function tests,

    Kenneth B. Klein MD
    Abstract Background and Objective Cryolipolysis provides a method of non-invasive fat reduction that significantly reduces subcutaneous fat without injury to adjacent tissues. Preliminary animal and human data have suggested that cryolipolysis has no effect on serum lipid profiles or liver tests. This study was intended to more fully document any effect of this procedure on lipid and liver-related blood tests. Study Design/Materials and Methods Forty subjects with fat bulges on their flanks ("love handles") were treated bilaterally with a non-invasive device (Zeltiq Aesthetics, Pleasanton, CA) that precisely cools tissue to achieve a reduction in the fat layer. Serum lipid levels and liver tests were measured prior to treatment, and at 1 day and 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-treatment. Results No meaningful changes in mean values were observed for any blood lipid level or liver test at any point over the 12-week follow-up period. Conclusion Cryolipolysis, when used for reduction of subcutaneous flank fat, is not associated with changes in serum lipids or liver test results. Lasers Surg. Med. 41:785,790, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Influence of dietary lipid/protein ratio on survival, growth, body indices and digestive lipase activity in Snakehead (Channa striatus, Bloch 1793) fry reared in re-circulating water system

    Abstract Nine isoenergetic (18.5 kJ g,1) diets were formulated in a 3 × 3 factorial design to contain three protein levels (350, 400 and 450 g kg,1) for each of three lipid levels (65, 90 and 115 g kg,1), respectively, and fed twice daily for 8 weeks to fish of mean initial weight 3.34 ± 0.02 g reared in a re-circulatory water system. Temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) were maintained within the range 28,30 °C, 5.6,6.8 and 4.82,6.65 mg L,1 respectively throughout. Results show that fish survival was better in the groups fed 65 g kg,1 lipid while growth performance (% weight gain, WG; specific growth rate, SGR) and nutrient utilization (feed conversion ratio, FCR; protein efficiency ratio, PER; protein intake, PI) in the 65/450 and 90/450 g kg,1 treatments were similar and significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in fish fed the other lipid/protein ratio combinations. The body indices monitored (Hepatosomatic index, HSI and viscerosomatic index, VSI) were similar among the treatments whereas intestinal lipase activity was not significantly (P < 0.05) affected by increase in dietary lipid and protein levels. Carcass composition showed that dietary protein level affected body protein content positively in the 65 and 90 g kg,1 lipid treatments, but dietary lipid level did not affect body lipid content. A lipid/protein ratio of 65/450 g kg,1 is considered adequate for good growth performance and survival of Channa striatus fry. [source]

    Effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth and energy productive value of pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, at different salinities

    X.Z. ZHU
    Abstract A 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different dietary protein and lipid levels on growth and energy productive value of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei, at 30 and 2 ppt, respectively. Nine practical diets were formulated to contain three protein levels (380, 410 and 440 g kg,1) and three lipid levels (60, 80 and 100 g kg,1). Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate groups of 30 shrimps per tank (260 L). The effects of salinity and an interaction between dietary protein level and lipid level on growth and energy productive value of shrimp were observed under the experimental conditions of this study. At 30 ppt seawater, shrimp fed with 440 g kg,1protein diets had significantly higher weight gain (WG) than those fed with 380 g kg,1 protein diets at the same dietary lipid level, and the 60 g kg,1 lipid group showed higher growth than 80 g kg,1and 100 g kg,1 lipid groups at the same dietary protein level. At 2 ppt seawater, the growth of shrimp was little affected by dietary protein treatments when shrimp fed the 80 and 100 g kg,1 lipid, shrimp fed the 80 g kg,1 lipid diets had only slightly higher growth than that fed 60and 100 g kg,1 lipid diets when fed 380 and 410 g kg,1 dietary protein diets. A significant effect of salinity on growth of shrimp was detected with the growth responses at 30 ppt > 2ppt (P < 0.05). Final body lipid content, body protein content and energy productive value of shrimp was significantly higher in animals exposed to 30 ppt than in shrimp held at 2 ppt. [source]

    Effects of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth and body composition of juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus

    Y.C. YUAN
    Abstract A growth experiment was conducted to investigate effect of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth and body composition of juvenile Myxocyprinus asiaticus (initial mean weight: 10.04 ± 0.53 g, mean ± SD). Nine practical diets were formulated to contain three protein levels (340, 390 and 440 g kg,1), each with three lipid levels (60, 100 and 140 g kg,1), in order to produce a range of P/E ratios (from 22.4 to 32.8 mg protein kJ,1). Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 20 fish in 400-L indoors flow-through circular fibre glass tanks provided with sand-filtered aerated freshwater. The results showed that the growth was significantly affected by dietary P/E ratio (P < 0.05). Fish fed the diets with 440 g kg,1 protein (100 and 140 g kg,1 lipid, P/E ratio of 31.43 and 29.22 mg protein kJ,1) had the highest specific growth rates (SGR) (2.16 and 2.27% day,1, respectively). However, fish fed the diet with 390 g kg,1 protein and 140 g kg,1 lipid showed comparable growth (2.01% day,1), and had higher protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein productive value (PPV) and energy retention (ER) than other groups (P < 0.05). No significant differences in survival were found among dietary treatments. Carcass lipid content was positively correlated with dietary lipid level, but irrespective of protein level and inversely correlated with carcass moisture content. Carcass protein contents increased with increasing dietary lipid at each protein level. The white muscle and liver composition showed that lipid increased with increasing dietary lipid level (P < 0.05). Dietary protein concentrations had significant effect on condition factor (CF), hepatosomatic index (HSI) and viscerosomatic index (VSI) (P < 0.05). However, dietary lipid concentrations had no significant effect on CF, HSI (P > 0.05). Based on these observations, 440 g kg,1 protein with lipid from 100 to 140 g kg,1 (P/E ratio of 29.22 to 31.43 mg protein kJ,1) seemed to meet minimum requirement for optimal growth and feed utilization, and lipid could cause protein-sparing effect in diets for juvenile Chinese sucker. [source]

    Short-term food deprivation does not improve the efficacy of a fish oil finishing strategy in Murray cod

    Abstract Two groups of fish (Maccullochella peelii peelii) were fed for a 90-day conditioning period on a canola oil diet (CO) or a fish oil diet (FO). Canola oil diet fed fish were then shifted to the FO diet for a 90-day finishing period. A variable period of starvation (0, 5, 10 and 15 days) was introduced to reduce the initial lipid level of CO fed fish at the beginning of the finishing period and therefore accelerate the rate of recovery of FO-like fatty acids. During starvation, fish did not show significant reduction in total lipid content, either in the fillet or whole body. At the end of the conditioning period, fatty acid composition of the diet was mirrored in fish tissues. These differences came close to levelling out following re-feeding, with the exception of n - 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). However, no effects of the starvation periods on the final fatty acid make-up of fish were recorded. The results of this trial show that Murray cod, when subjected to a starvation period of up to 15 days, does not lose an appreciable quantity of lipid and, therefore, the tested starvation approach to reduce the initial level of lipid has to be considered unsuccessful. [source]

    Influences of dietary fatty acid profile on growth, body composition and blood chemistry in juvenile fat cod (Hexagrammos otakii Jordan et Starks)

    S.-M. LEE
    Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary lipid source and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) level on growth, body composition and blood chemistry of juvenile fat cod. Triplicate groups of fish (13.2 ± 0.54 g) were fed the diets containing different n-3 HUFA levels (0,30 g kg,1) adjusted by either lauric acid or different proportions of corn oil, linseed oil and squid liver oil at 100 g kg,1 of total lipid level. Survival was not affected by dietary fatty acids composition. Weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of fish fed the diets containing squid liver oil were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those fed the diets containing lauric acid, corn oil or linseed oil as the sole lipid source. Weight gain, feed efficiency and PER of fish increased with increasing dietary n-3 HUFA level up to 12,16 g kg,1, but the values decreased in fish fed the diet containing 30 g kg,1 n-3 HUFA. The result of second-order polynomial regression showed that the maximum weight gain and feed efficiency could be attained at 17 g kg,1 n-3 HUFA. Plasma protein, glucose and cholesterol contents were not affected by dietary fatty acids composition. However, plasma triglyceride content in fish fed the diet containing lauric acid as the sole lipid source was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of fish fed the other diets. Lipid content of fish fed the diets containing each of lauric acid or corn oil was lower than that of fish fed the diets containing linseed oil or squid liver oil only. Fatty acid composition of polar and neutral lipid fractions in the whole body of fat cod fed the diets containing various levels of n-3 HUFA were reflected by dietary fatty acids compositions. The contents of n-3 HUFA in polar and neutral lipids of fish increased with an increase in dietary n-3 HUFA level. These results indicate that dietary n-3 HUFA are essential and the diet containing 12,17 g kg,1 n-3 HUFA is optimal for growth and efficient feed utilization of juvenile fat cod, however, excessive n-3 HUFA supplement may impair the growth of fish. [source]

    Growth and body composition of juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, fed different ratios of dietary protein to energy

    Y. HU
    Abstract A 10-week feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different protein to energy ratios on growth and body composition of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (initial average weight of 0.09 ± 0.002 g, mean ± SE). Twelve practical test diets were formulated to contain four protein levels (300, 340, 380 and 420 g kg,1) and three lipid levels (50, 75 and 100 g kg,1). Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate groups of 30 shrimps per tank (260 L). The water temperature was 28.5 ± 2 °C and the salinity was 28 ± 1 g L,1 during the experimental period. The results showed that the growth was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by dietary treatments. Shrimps fed the diets containing 300 g kg,1 protein showed the poorest growth. However, shrimp fed the 75 g kg,1 lipid diets had only slightly higher growth than that fed 50 g kg,1 lipid diets at the same dietary protein level, and even a little decline in growth with the further increase of dietary lipid to 100 g kg,1. Shrimp fed the diet with 420 g kg,1protein and 75 g kg,1 lipid had the highest specific growth rate. However, shrimp fed the diet with 340 g kg,1 protein and 75 g kg,1 lipid showed comparable growth, and had the highest protein efficiency ratio, energy retention and feed efficiency ratio among dietary treatments. Triglycerides and total cholesterol in the serum of shrimp increased with increasing dietary lipid level at the same dietary protein level. Body lipid and energy increased with increasing dietary lipid level irrespective of dietary protein. Results of the present study showed that the diet containing 340 g kg,1 protein and 75 g kg,1 lipid with digestible protein/digestible energy of 21.1 mg kJ,1 is optimum for L. vannamei, and the increase of dietary lipid level has not efficient protein-sparing effect. [source]

    A multivariate approach to optimization of macronutrient composition in weaning diets for cod (Gadus morhua)

    K. HAMRE
    Abstract Atlantic cod, initial weight 0.26 g, were fed diets varying in added protein from 530 to 830 g kg,1, lipid from 50 to 300 g kg,1 and carbohydrate from 0 to 150 g kg,1 of dry weight, according to a three-component mixture design. Analysed values of protein and lipid were 500,770 g kg,1 and 30,270 g kg,1, respectively. Analysed carbohydrate levels were as added. Increasing levels of both lipid and carbohydrate had a positive effect on fish growth (P < 10,3), whereas protein levels above 600 g kg,1 gave a reduction in growth (P < 10,4). The effects on growth were evident in fish less than 4 g, whereas fish growth between 4 and 6 g was unaffected by the dietary variation. It is hypothesized that the reduction in growth at high protein levels in fish of less than 4 g could be owing to incomplete utilization of protein, as the stomach of cod is not fully developed before the fish is approximately 1 g. Mortality and cannibalism were high in fish less than 4 g but low when the fish grew from 4 to 6 g. There was a significant decrease in cannibalism with increasing dietary lipid during the first half of the experiment (P < 0.05) and cannibalism was consistently high in fish fed less than 150 g kg,1 lipid. The lipid level in whole fish increased with increasing dietary levels of lipid (P < 10,6) and carbohydrate (P < 10,4), whereas the liver lipid level increased with increasing dietary lipid up to 200 g kg,1 (P < 10,6) and decreased thereafter (P < 10,4). Whole body glycogen increased slightly with increasing levels of dietary carbohydrate (P < 0.05) and was not affected by the other dietary variables. Liver glycogen increased in response to increasing dietary carbohydrate (P < 10,5) and decreasing levels of dietary lipid (P < 10,5). An abrupt increase in liver glycogen was seen with the reduction in dietary lipid from 100 to 50 g kg,1. The hepatosomatic index increased in response to both dietary lipid and carbohydrate (P < 10,6). It is concluded that the protein requirement of young cod is less than 500 g kg,1 of dry diet. Fish of less than 4 g should not be given more than 620 g kg,1 protein and should be supplemented with 150,200 g kg,1 lipid. Carbohydrate up to 150 g kg,1 of dry diet promoted growth and did not seem to affect the fish negatively. Fish above 4 g can be given diets varying in protein and carbohydrate over the wide range of concentrations used in the present study, but lipid supplementation should be restricted to between 100 and 200 g kg,1. [source]

    Interacting effects of dietary lipid level and temperature on growth, body composition and fatty acid profile of rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)

    K. Mishra
    Abstract Three isonitrogenous (320 g kg,1 crude protein, casein and gelatine) semi-purified diets with 80 (L8), 130 (L13) and 180 (L18) g kg,1 lipid (sunflower oil at increasing levels and cod liver oil fixed at 50 g kg,1) at three digestible energy levels (12 096, 13 986 and 15 876 kJ kg,1 dry weight) and were tested, in triplicate, on rohu fingerlings (3.2 ± 0.08 g) at two different temperatures (21 and 32 °C). Fish were fed to apparent satiation, twice daily, at 09.00 and 15.00 h, 7 days a week for 56 days. Maximum growth was obtained at a lipid level of 80 g kg,1 (L8) at 21 °C (439.37%) and 130 g kg,1 (L13) at 32 °C (481.8%). In general growth rate was higher at 32 °C than at 21 °C at all lipid levels. Tissue monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) contents decreased with increasing lipid level at 32 °C, but the reverse occurred at 21 °C. At 21 °C, Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) level increased significantly (P > 0.05) over initial values, but was affected insignificantly by dietary lipid level. At 32 °C, fish fed diet L13 had more n-3 fatty acid (FA) in liver and muscle than the other two dietary groups while at 21 °C, both liver and muscle FA profiles exhibited significant change (P > 0.05) in n-3 and n-6 FA content which corresponded to variation in percent addition of dietary lipid. However, n-3/n-6 ratio was higher for fish fed diet L13 at 32 °C and diet L8 at 21 °C and may be correlated with fish growth. [source]

    Effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth, feed conversion and body composition in rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), fingerlings

    B.B. Satpathy
    Abstract Twelve experimental diets (D-1 to D-12) in a 4 × 3 factorial design (four protein levels: 250, 350, 400 and 450 g kg,1 and three lipid levels: 50, 100 and 150 g kg,1) were formulated. Carbohydrate level was constant at 250 g kg,1. Rohu fingerlings (average wt. 4.3 ± 0.02 g) were fed the experimental diets for 60 days in three replicates at 2% BW day,1. Weight gain (%), specific growth rate (% day,1) and feed gain ratio (FGR) indicated that diets containing 450 g kg,1 protein and 100 or 150 g kg,1 lipid (diets D-11 and D-12) resulted in best performance, although results were not significantly different from those of diet D-9 (400 g kg,1 protein and 150 g kg,1 lipid). Protein efficiency ratio was highest with diets D-6 (350 g kg,1 protein and 150 g kg,1 lipid) and D-9 (400 g kg,1 protein and 150 g kg,1 lipid) (P > 0.05) and declined with higher and lower protein diets at all levels of lipid tested. Elevated lipid level (50, 100 or 150 g kg,1) did not produce better FGR in diets containing 400 and 450 g kg,1 dietary protein (P > 0.05). The combined effects of protein and lipid were evident up to 400 g kg,1 protein. Growth and FGR showed consistent improvement with increased lipid levels from 50 to 150 g kg,1 at each protein level tested except with diets containing 450 g kg,1 protein. Apparent nutrient digestibility (for protein, lipid and energy) did not show significant variation among different dietary groups (P > 0.05). Whole body protein and lipid contents increased significantly (P > 0.05) with dietary protein level. The results of this study indicate that rohu fingerlings are adapted to utilize high protein in diets with varying efficiency. The fish could utilize lipid to spare protein but there is no significant advantage from this beyond the dietary protein level of 350,400 g kg,1 in terms of growth and body composition. [source]

    Manipulation of end-product quality of rainbow trout with finishing diets

    The effect of dietary lipid level upon various quality parameters of smoked rainbow trout were examined. Fish were fed four experimental diets differing in lipid content (18.8,31.4%). Groups received either a lipid-rich diet throughout the trial (101 days), a lipid-rich feed for 46 days followed by a lower fat diet for 55 days and vice versa, or a low fat diet throughout. A fifth group (controls), consisting of commercially reared animals, was employed for comparative purposes. The visceral fraction of experimental fish increased with increasing lipid ingestion, whereas final process yield decreased. Chemical analyses following salting and hot-smoking revealed that fillet lipid and ash was higher (P < 0.05) and moisture lower (P < 0.05) for fish fed the high-lipid diet throughout and during the last 55 days of trial. No differences were recorded with respect to sensory attributes between treatment groups, although differences were observed between tank-reared and control fish. In experimental animals, fillet protein content was negatively correlated with juiciness and fibreness, while dry matter was correlated with juiciness, fresh oily taste and rose flesh colour. The present study indicates that high lipid feeds can be employed without negatively influencing sensory characteristics or yield provided that lean finishing diets are fed prior to slaughter. Fasting of fish for 61 days improved slaughter yields without affecting relative yields among dietary groups. [source]

    Effect of dietary lipid level on the growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and blood chemistry of juvenile starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus)

    Liyun Ding
    Abstract A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary lipid level on the growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and blood chemistry of juvenile starry flounder. Five isonitrogenous diets with increasing dietary lipid levels (6%, 10%, 14%, 18% and 22% dry material) were each fed to triplicate groups of starry flounder (29.9 g) for 8 weeks. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate of fish fed the 6% lipid diet were significantly lower than the other groups, while there was no significant difference in fish fed the 10%, 14%, 18% and 22% lipid diets. Body lipid content increased with increasing dietary lipid levels. The moisture content of the whole body was negatively correlated to the dietary lipid level. The dietary lipid level also affected the lipid content of the dorsal muscle positively. Liver lipid content increased as the dietary lipid level increased from 6% to 14% and then decreased. With increasing dietary lipid level, the nitrogen retention achieved the highest value when the fish were fed the 14% lipid diet, but there were no significant differences with the 10% and 22% groups. The plasma total protein content first showed an increasing and then a decreasing trend with increasing dietary lipid level, and it was significantly higher in the 14% lipid group than other groups. Based on the WG response using the broken-line model, the optimum dietary lipid level for juvenile starry flounder was estimated to be 10.62% in the experiment. [source]

    Metabolic activity variations in the sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) treated with magnesium and subjected to handling stress and aerial exposure

    Soumaya Arafa
    Abstract This study assessed the impact of the use of magnesium chloride as a relaxant for the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus on the metabolic activity of individuals subjected to handling stress and aerial exposure. The variation in the gonad moisture content and biochemical composition was compared in sea urchins (P. lividus) treated with magnesium and untreated controls before transport and during 15 days of laboratory acclimation. Sea urchins treated with magnesium maintained higher levels of protein and carbohydrate throughout the trial in comparison with controls. However, the lipid level and fatty acid percentage remained stable during the experiment and no differences were found between treated or non-treated sea urchins . [source]

    Influence of different sources and levels of dietary protein and lipid on the growth, feed efficiency, muscle composition and fatty acid profile of Snakehead Channa striatus (Bloch, 1793) fingerling

    Mohammed Aliyu-Paiko
    Abstract Nine isoenergetic (18.5 kJ g,1) diets were formulated, in a 3 × 3 factorial design, by varying three levels of dietary protein (350, 400 and 450 g kg,1) at each of three levels of dietary lipid (65, 90 and 115 g kg,1) accordingly. Each diet was hand fed two times daily for 8 weeks to triplicate homogenous groups of eight fish (average weight 3.34 ± 0.02 g) per tank connected to a recirculation system. Results showed that the feed efficiency and growth performance significantly (P<0.05) increased with increasing protein level at the two lower lipid levels (65 and 90 g kg,1), respectively, as indicated by indices such as %weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, feed conversion ratio and feed intake, but did not at the highest lipid level (115 g kg,1). The muscle polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content declined with increasing dietary protein level at the lipid levels producing the highest growth, suggesting that the utilization of PUFA influences growth. Whereas the muscle monounsaturated fatty acids level was generally lower than the dietary levels in all the treatments tested, indicating preferential catabolism for energy, the muscle saturated fatty acids level was comparatively higher than in the diets, indicating selective deposition. Docosa hexaenoic acid (22:6n3, DHA), which was very low in the diet and in the initial fish, was higher in the muscle of some of the treatments, indicating the ability of Channa striatus to desaturate and elongate short-chain PUFA to long-chain HUFA, due to the availability of dietary 18:3n3 and 20:5n3 (the precursors for DHA biosynthesis). It could be concluded, based on the results of this trial, that a diet formulated to contain 65 g kg,1 lipid and 450 g kg,1 protein, with a gross energy of 18.5 kJ g,1 and a dietary n3/n6 PUFA ratio of about 0.1, is sufficient to promote good feed efficiency and growth performance in C. striatus fingerling. [source]

    Effects of dietary protein and lipid level, and water temperature, on the post-feeding oxygen consumption of Atlantic cod and haddock

    Juan C Pérez-Casanova
    Abstract Tank respirometry was used to study the interactive effects of protein:lipid level (55%:11% vs. 42%:16%; both diets isoenergetic) and temperature (11, 6 and 2 °C) on the magnitude and duration of specific dynamic action (SDA) in juvenile Atlantic cod and haddock. The protein:lipid level did not affect any measured variable. However, numerous temperature and species effects were observed. For example, although the maximum post-feeding oxygen consumption (30,50% above routine metabolic rate; RMR) and SDA duration (,55,85 h; SDADUR) were not affected by temperature, SDADUR g,1 of food increased from 11 to 2 °C (from ,3 to 12 h g food,1). While absolute SDA (mg O2) decreased by ,60,65% in cod and ,75% in haddock from 11 to 2 °C, due to a concomitant decrease in food consumption from ,2.0% to 0.6% body mass, SDA comprised between 3.3% and 5.2% of the dietary energy content at all temperatures. Finally, RMR at 11 and 2 °C and SDADUR at 2 °C were 25,35% and 25% greater in cod, respectively, as compared with haddock. These results suggest that feeding reduced protein diets at low water temperatures is unlikely to improve the growth of these species. [source]

    Effects of dietary lipid levels on the growth, digestive enzyme, feed utilization and fatty acid composition of Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus L.) reared in freshwater

    Gang Luo
    Abstract Triplicate groups of 40 Japanese sea bass Lateolabrax japonicus reared in freshwater (average weight, 9.52±0.47 g) were fed with six isonitrogenous (,46% crude protein) diets containing 6%, 8%, 10%, 12%, 14% or 16% lipid for 10 weeks respectively. The results showed that the maximum weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake (FI) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) all occurred at the 10% lipid level (P<0.05) and growth depression occurred when the dietary lipid level was over 12%. Whole body and liver lipid concentrations were enhanced with the increase in the dietary lipid levels, but the muscle lipid content did not significantly change with the increase in the dietary lipid levels. Both liver pepsin and trypsin activities increased with dietary lipid levels ranging from 6% to 10%, and then decreased with a further increase in the dietary lipid content. Liver lipase activities showed a positive correlation with dietary lipid levels, but amylase activities were not markedly influenced by dietary lipid levels. High proportions of 18:1n-9, 20:1n-9, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA), 22:1n-11 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA), and low concentrations of n-6 fatty acids, particularly 18:2n-6 occurring in the liver and muscle, to some extent, reflected the fatty acid composition in experimental diets. [source]

    Growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of Dentex dentex fed on different macronutrient combinations

    Amalia Pérez-Jiménez
    Abstract Determining an adequate macronutrient balance is essential to guarantee the production success. As protein is the limiting component for fish food, the utilization of lipids or carbohydrates as partial substitutes of this nutrient is a challenge to improve its use. In order to get an approximation of the maximum levels of utilization for carbohydrates and/or lipids and determine the most adequate macronutrient to partly replace protein as the main energy source of diets for dentex (91.7 ± 1.4 g mean weight), four experimental diets with different protein:lipid:carbohydrate percentages (43/16/28, 43/24/4, 38/19/28 and 38/24/13) were tested for 13 weeks. The results indicated the possibility of using 38% of dietary protein without affecting growth performance, under the experimental conditions. There were no differences among the four diets either in most of the nutritive utilization indicators or in the body composition and haematological parameters. The influence of dietary composition was only observed in the feed intake, being higher with more dietary carbohydrates, and the hepatosomatic index and protein efficiency ratio, showing more elevated values in diets with a higher lipid level. The dentex capacity of using both carbohydrates and lipids efficiently to obtain the necessary energy for its correct growth, as well as to compensate the energetic ,vacuum' caused by the dietary protein reduction, under the assayed conditions, was confirmed. [source]

    Influence of dietary l -carnitine on growth, biological traits and meat quality in Tilapia

    Shuenn-Der Yang
    Abstract This study was designed to determine whether l -carnitine supplementation is necessary in a tilapia diet containing low-fish meal and a high lipid level, which is beneficial economically and for the environment. The effects of dietary l -carnitine on the growth, body composition, blood traits and post-thaw drip from muscle in hybrid tilapia were investigated. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were fed to the fish with a mean body weight of 141.7 g for 168 days. The control diet contained fish meal as the major protein source with 7% lipid. Other diets contained 7% or 12% lipid, in which fish meal was largely replaced by plant proteins, and supplemented with l -carnitine or not. Results showed that supplemental dietary l -carnitine did not affect the growth performance, feed efficiency or protein efficiency ratio, while the supplementation significantly reduced the mesenteric fat ratio. Whole body and muscle proximate compositions were unaltered by any dietary treatment. The total plasma lipid, triacylglycerol and cholesterol values of tilapia fed diets with alternative plant proteins were significantly lower than those of the control fish, whereas increasing the dietary lipid content increased the aforementioned blood traits. A decrease in plasma ammonia and an increase in urea were observed in dietary l -carnitine-supplemented fish. Post-thaw drip from muscle was reduced in fish fed supplemental dietary l -carnitine. The observations of this study revealed that neither the growth performance nor the feed utilization of hybrid tilapia was improved by a dietary l -carnitine treatment, but that it did lead to a reduced mesenteric fat ratio, altered nitrogen metabolism and improved meat quality. [source]