Lipid Content (lipid + content)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Lipid Content

  • body lipid content
  • liver lipid content
  • lower lipid content
  • tissue lipid content
  • total lipid content

  • Selected Abstracts

    1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Quantifying Myocardial Lipid Content in Humans With the Cardiometabolic Syndrome

    Robert D. O'Connor PhD
    First page of article [source]

    Comparison of wild and cultured gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata); composition, appearance and seasonal variations

    Kriton Grigorakis
    Major quality parameters, such as muscle composition, fat deposition, muscle fatty acid composition and external appearance were studied in wild and cultured gilthead sea bream. Muscle fat content and total depot fat (peritoneal and perivisceral fat) indicated a seasonal variation with minimum values observed in late spring and maximum in late summer. Gonadosomatic indices of cultured fish were lower than those found in wild specimens. Lipid content of cultured sea bream was much higher than that of wild fish. Differences were also observed in fatty acid profiles. Cultured fish were characterized by higher levels of monoenes, n-9 and 18:2n-6 fatty acids and wild fish by higher levels of saturates, 20:4n-6, n-3 fatty acids and n-3/n-6 ratios. Differences were also noted in the external appearance of fish. [source]

    Effects of Dietary Protein and Energy Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Sang-Min Lee
    A feeding trial of three protein levels (30, 40 and 50%) and two energy levels (300 and 400 kcal/100-g diet) factorial design with three replications was carried out to investigate the proper dietary protein and energy levels for the growth of juvenile flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Weight gain of fish tended to improve with increasing dietary protein level. Weight gain of fish fed either the 40% or 50% protein diet with 300 kcal/100-g diet was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than with 400 kcal/100-g diet. The best weight gain was obtained from fish fed the 50% protein diet with 300 kcal/100-g diet. Feed efficiency tended to improve with increasing dietary protein level. However, dietary energy level had no significant effect on feed efficiency of fish fed the 30% or 50% protein diet, but that of fish fed the 40% protein diet with 300 kcal/100-g diet was significantly higher than with 400 kcal/100-g diet. Protein retention tended to increase as dietary protein level increased and energy level decreased. Lipid content of fish fed the diet containing 400 kcal/100-g diet was significantly higher than that of fish fed the diet containing 300 kcal/100-g diet at all protein levels. Fatty acid compositions such as linoleic acid, EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3) offish were directly affected by dietary lipid (squid liver oil and/or soybean oil) used for energy source. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that the proper dietary protein and energy levels for the growth of juvenile flounder are 50% and 300 kcal/100-g diet, respectively. [source]

    Influences of dietary fatty acid profile on growth, body composition and blood chemistry in juvenile fat cod (Hexagrammos otakii Jordan et Starks)

    S.-M. LEE
    Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary lipid source and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) level on growth, body composition and blood chemistry of juvenile fat cod. Triplicate groups of fish (13.2 ± 0.54 g) were fed the diets containing different n-3 HUFA levels (0,30 g kg,1) adjusted by either lauric acid or different proportions of corn oil, linseed oil and squid liver oil at 100 g kg,1 of total lipid level. Survival was not affected by dietary fatty acids composition. Weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of fish fed the diets containing squid liver oil were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those fed the diets containing lauric acid, corn oil or linseed oil as the sole lipid source. Weight gain, feed efficiency and PER of fish increased with increasing dietary n-3 HUFA level up to 12,16 g kg,1, but the values decreased in fish fed the diet containing 30 g kg,1 n-3 HUFA. The result of second-order polynomial regression showed that the maximum weight gain and feed efficiency could be attained at 17 g kg,1 n-3 HUFA. Plasma protein, glucose and cholesterol contents were not affected by dietary fatty acids composition. However, plasma triglyceride content in fish fed the diet containing lauric acid as the sole lipid source was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of fish fed the other diets. Lipid content of fish fed the diets containing each of lauric acid or corn oil was lower than that of fish fed the diets containing linseed oil or squid liver oil only. Fatty acid composition of polar and neutral lipid fractions in the whole body of fat cod fed the diets containing various levels of n-3 HUFA were reflected by dietary fatty acids compositions. The contents of n-3 HUFA in polar and neutral lipids of fish increased with an increase in dietary n-3 HUFA level. These results indicate that dietary n-3 HUFA are essential and the diet containing 12,17 g kg,1 n-3 HUFA is optimal for growth and efficient feed utilization of juvenile fat cod, however, excessive n-3 HUFA supplement may impair the growth of fish. [source]

    Comparative fatty acid composition of eggs from wild and captive black sea bass, Centropristis striata L.

    Gloria T Seaborn
    Abstract Lipid content, lipid class and fatty acid compositions were determined in eggs from wild and captive black sea bass, Centropristis striata L., from northern (New England) and southern (South Carolina) regions to determine the effects of diet on egg composition and fertilization success. The formulated diets fed to the northern captive (NC) fish were higher in total lipids (22%) compared with the cut fish and squid diet fed to the southern fish (SC; 3.3% lipid) and had a higher relative amount of linoleic acid (LA) and lower relative amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA). These dietary differences were broadly reflected in the egg lipid composition. The LA levels were higher in all lipid classes in eggs of NC fish while AA levels were lower. The DHA was higher in the major polar lipids (PL) (phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) of SC eggs compared with NC. Compared with wild fish, both captive groups produced eggs with PLs richer in LA and lower in DHA and AA. Over all fish groups, fertilization success was directly correlated with levels of DHA and AA in the PLs and was inversely correlated with LA levels. [source]

    The use of hybrid anaerobic solid,liquid (HASL) system for the treatment of lipid-containing food waste

    Olena Stabnikova
    Abstract The hybrid anaerobic solid,liquid (HASL) system was a modified two-phase anaerobic digester developed for bioconversion of food waste. The aim of this study was to estimate the feasibility of the HASL system for the treatment of food waste with a high content of lipids. The presence of lipids in food waste increased the energy value of nutrients but could inhibit growth of methanogens. The positive effect of lipids on the performance of anaerobic digestion dominated when the contents of lipids were in the range from 20 to 30% of total solids of food waste. Lipid contents of 40% diminished the production of volatile fatty acids in the acidogenic reactor as well as biogas production and the concentration of total bacteria and methanogens in the methanogenic reactor. Therefore, the HASL system can be used for the treatment of lipid-containing food wastes if the lipid content is below 40% of total solids. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Effects of feeding levels on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients for juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus

    Yong-Chao Yuan
    Abstract An experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding levels on growth performance, feed utilization, nutrient deposition, body composition and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients for juvenile Chinese sucker (initial weight, 11.77±0.22 g). Chinese sucker were fed a practical diet from 0% (starvation) to 4.0% (at 0.5% increments) body weight (bw) day,1 for 8 weeks. The results showed that growth performance, feed utilization, nutrient deposition, body composition and ADCs of dry matter, protein and energy were significantly (P<0.05) affected by feeding levels. Survival was the lowest for the starvation group. Final mean body weight, growth rate, thermal-unit growth coefficient (TGC) increased with feeding rate from 0% to 3.0% bw day,1 (P<0.05) and showed no significant differences above the level (P>0.05). Feed conversion rate was significantly lower at a feeding level of 2.5% bw day,1 than above and below the level (P<0.05). Protein efficiency ratio was markedly highest at the 2.5% bw day,1 ration level (P<0.05). Fish fed at the feeding level (1.0% bw day,1), which represented a maintenance ration (energy gain was less than 2.27 kJ fish,1 day,1), showed positive protein deposition but negative lipid deposition. This indicates that fish fed a maintenance ration mobilize body lipid reserve to support protein deposition. Lipid contents of whole body, muscle and liver increased with increasing feeding rates from 0.5% to 3.0% bw day,1 and showed no significant differences above the level (P>0.05). Protein contents of whole-body composition increased with feeding rate from 0.5 to 3.0% bw day,1 (P<0.05) and showed no significant differences above the level (P>0.05), whereas muscle and liver remained relatively stable with the different ration amount with the exception of fish fed a ration of 0.5% bw day,1, at which Chinese sucker possessed significantly lower body protein concentration (P<0.05). The ADCs of dry matter, protein and energy decreased with increasing feeding levels from 0.5% to 3.0% bw day,1 and then remained relatively constant over the level. Based on the broken-line regression analysis using WG data, the optimum and maintenance feeding levels for Chinese sucker were 3.10% bw day,1 and 0.45% bw day,1 respectively. [source]

    Reactive species and early manifestation of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes

    L. E. Fridlyand
    The early stages of type 2 diabetes mellitus are characterized by the development of insulin resistance (IRe) in muscle cells and adipocytes with the concomitant loss of ,-cell compensation. We have extensively reviewed the literature related to metabolic and signalling pathways of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regard to the coordinated development of oxidative stress and IRe. We considered the hypothesis that oxidative stress leads to IRe in muscle cells and adipocytes, but found that the data are more consistent with the hypothesis that the cellular mechanisms that protect against oxidative stress per se are capable of creating an ROS-dependent insulin-resistant state. Furthermore, ROS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to disruptions of lipid metabolism, increasing the intracellular lipid content, and, in addition, contribute to lipid-dependent IRe in myocytes. Together, these two ROS-activated pathways to IRe can contribute to a global state of profound resistance to insulin action. Therapeutic strategies should, therefore, be directed towards reducing insulin resistance without an increase in ROS production or concentration. Pharmacological or other approaches to IRe that result in the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis in particular could be highly beneficial in the prevention or treatment of both insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. [source]

    Variation in performance reveals discharge-related energy costs for foraging Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr

    P. S. Kemp
    Abstract,,, The energetic costs associated with foraging and social interaction for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr was estimated by measuring gross differences in performance (growth and lipid content) during two experimental trials conducted in an artificial river channel, under similar food input at two discharges. The discharges provided velocities within the range commonly experienced by salmon in the wild. Fish growth (second trial) and lipid content (first trial) were the highest at the lower discharge. Fish were less active and used a smaller area of the experimental arena under high flow. These behavioural adjustments are consistent with the reduction of energy costs at high discharge. However, there was no effect of discharge on aggressive behaviour or food intake. Therefore, despite evidence of energy economy in response to high discharge and velocity, the energetic costs of foraging were sufficiently high to cause substantial reduction in performance. In common with the findings of previous studies, dominance status was associated with individual variation in performance and habitat use. [source]

    Effects of lipid extraction on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of fish tissues: potential consequences for food web studies

    M. A. Sotiropoulos
    Abstract,,, We examined whether solvent-based lipid extractions, commonly used for stable isotope analysis (SIA) of biota, alters ,15N or ,13C values of fish muscle tissue or whole juvenile fish. Lipid extraction from muscle tissue led to only small (<1,) isotope shifts in ,13C and ,15N values. By contrast, ecologically significant shifts (+3.4, for ,13C and +2.8, for ,15N) were observed for whole juvenile fish. Sample variance was not affected by lipid extraction. For tissue-specific SIA, two sample aliquots may be required: a lipid-extracted aliquot for stable carbon isotope analysis when differing lipid content among tissues is a concern, and a nonextracted aliquot for ,15N determination. Whole organism SIA is not recommended because of the mix of tissues having different turnover times; for very small fish, we recommend that fish be eviscerated, decapitated, and skinned to minimise differences with samples of muscle tissue. Resumen 1. Cada vez con mayor frecuencia, los ecólogos de peces utilizan análisis de isótopos estables. Por ello, se hace cada vez más importante comprender las fuentes de variación, - debido a diferencias inherentes entre muestreos biológicos o como resultado de técnicas de procesamiento de muestreo - tanto como identificar estrategias para tratar tales fuentes. Examinamos si la extracción de lípidos basada en disolventes, comúnmente utilizada en análisis de isótopos de carbono estable, altera negativamente los valores de ,15N y ,13C de tejido muscular de tres peces de tamaño pequeño y de peces juveniles completos. 2. La extracción de lípidos de músculo de pez llevó a pequeños cambios isotópicos de + +0.4 a +1.0, y de +0.3 a +0.5, para ,13C y ,15N, respectivamente. Por el contrario, la extracción de lípidos de peces juveniles completos varió marcadamente en +3.4, para ,13C y +2.8, para ,15N - ambos cambios ecológicamente importantes. La varianza de los valores de muestreos de ,13C y de ,15N tanto para tejido muscular como para los peces completos no difirieron entre los muestreos de lípidos extraídos y muestreos sin tratamiento. 3. Nuestros resultados recomiendan el análisis de isótopos estables de tejidos específicos. Cuando ello no es posible o deseable, dos alícuotas de muestreo pueden ser requeridas: una alícuota de lípidos extraídos para el análisis de isótopos de carbono estable cuando la varianza de ,13C, debida a diferencias en el contenido de lípidos de diferentes tejidos, y una alícuota de no-extracción para determinaciones de ,15N. 4. Dada la mezcla de tejidos, el análisis de isótopos de un organismo completo no es recomendable , en el caso de peces muy pequeños, recomendamos que los peces sean eviscerados, decapitados, y despellejados para minimizar las diferencias de muestreos de tejido muscular. [source]

    Does timing of daily feeding affect growth rates of juvenile three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus L?

    M. Ali
    Abstract , To assess the consequences of unpredictability in the availability of food, this study measured the effect of timing of the daily feeding on food consumption and growth rates of juvenile Gasterosteus aculeatus. The experiment lasted 21 days at 14 °C and a photoperiod of 10 hours of light and 14 hours of dark. Fish were housed individually and allocated at random to three treatments. The mean initial weight of fish was 0.402 g. Group 1 were fed live enchytraeid worms for 2 h after lights came on ("morning"), group 2 was offered food for 2 h randomly at any time of the day ("random") during the light period and group 3 received food for 2 h before the lights went off ("evening"). There was no significant effect of timing of feeding on mean daily food consumption, which was 0.052 g day,1. Daily consumption on the random schedule was more irregular than on the two fixed schedules. Timing of feeding had no significant effect on mean specific growth rate (G) (2.42% day,1), gross growth efficiency (23.3%), white muscle RNA:DNA ratio (5.6), carcase lipid content (31.7% dry wt) and carcase dry matter content (27.4% wet wt). Thus, a lack of predictability in the availability of food during the light period of the day did not impose a detectable cost on the growth performance of the stickleback., [source]

    Prior encounters modulate subsequent choices in host acceptance behavior by the bark beetle Ips pini

    Kimberly F. Wallin
    Abstract Laboratory bioassays indicate that the bark beetle Ips pini employs flexible, rather than absolute, responses to phytochemicals in its host acceptance behavior. Each beetle's decision to enter substrate was influenced by the types and concentrations of monoterpenes present. However, previous rejection of a simulated host containing a moderate concentration of monoterpenes increased the likelihood that the same concentration would be accepted upon a second or third encounter. This flexibility more than offsets any loss of vigor due to starvation and age that accompanies a process of trial and error. Starvation decreased beetles' total lipid content, but beetles can recover some energetic losses by a small amount of feeding during each trial. In addition to its adaptive value, a flexible host acceptance strategy may yield population level consequences. That is, bark beetles preferentially enter trees having low concentrations of monoterpenes, but may modify their acceptance thresholds when cues associated with stressed trees are not available. This could partially explain how some tree-killing bark beetles colonize a broader physiological range of trees during outbreaks. The adaptive value of relating individual decisions to population density may arise from two ecological relationships: first, as populations rise, the pool of stressed trees is rapidly depleted; secondly, healthy trees are attainable through pheromone , mediated mass attacks when adequate numbers of beetles are present. Flexible host acceptance behaviors may also reduce the advantage of relying exclusively on pre-landing cues to distinguish between susceptible and non-susceptible trees. [source]

    Tissue-specific distribution and whole-body burden estimates of persistent organic pollutants in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    Jennifer E. Yordy
    Abstract Most exposure assessments for free-ranging cetaceans focus on contaminant concentrations measured in blubber, and few data are available for other tissues or the factors governing contaminant distribution among tissues. The goal of this study was to provide a detailed description of the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) within the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) body and assess the role of lipid dynamics in mediating contaminant distribution. Thirteen tissues (brain, blubber, heart, liver, lung, kidney, mammary gland, melon, skeletal muscle, spleen, thyroid, thymus, and testis/uterus) were sampled during necropsy from bottlenose dolphins (n,=,4) and analyzed for lipid and 85 POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Significant correlations between tissue POP concentrations and lipid suggest that distribution of POPs is generally related to tissue lipid content. However, blubber:tissue partition coefficients ranged widely from 0.753 to 6.25, suggesting that contaminant distribution is not entirely lipid-dependent. Tissue-specific and whole-body contaminant burdens confirmed that blubber, the primary site of metabolic lipid storage, is also the primary site for POP accumulation, contributing >90% to the whole-body burdens. Observations also suggest that as lipid mobilizes from blubber, contaminants may redistribute, leading to elevated tissue concentrations. These results suggest that individuals with reduced blubber lipid may be at increased risk for exposure-related health effects. However, this study also provides evidence that the melon, a metabolically inert lipid-rich structure, may serve as an alternate depot for POPs, thus preventing the bulk of blubber contaminants from being directly available to other tissues. This unique physiological adaptation should be taken into consideration when assessing contaminant-related health effects in wild cetacean populations. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:1263,1273. © 2010 SETAC [source]

    The sorptive capacity of animal protein

    Adrian M.H. deBruyn
    Abstract Partition coefficients that are used to predict concentrations of hydrophobic organic chemicals in biota (e.g., the bioconcentration factor) often assume that the sorptive capacity of an organism or tissue is adequately represented by its lipid content. In lean organisms and tissues, however, theory suggests that partitioning may be strongly influenced by the sorptive capacity of nonlipid materials, such as protein. Little is known about the sorptive capacity of proteins for hydrophobic organic chemicals, and methods to include proteins in bioaccumulation models do not exist. Here, we present a compilation and meta-analysis of published data to estimate the relative sorptive capacities of animal proteins and lipids for neutral organic chemicals. We found that the estimated sorptive capacity of protein in solid animal tissues ranged from around 1 to 10% that of lipid for compounds with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (KOW) of greater than two. The sorptive capacity of blood protein (albumin) appeared to be substantially higher than this, especially for low- KOW chemicals. For modeling purposes, we recommend estimating the sorptive capacity of animal protein as 5% that of lipid. According to this estimate, the sorptive capacity of an animal or tissue will be dominated by the contribution from protein if the lipid content makes up less than 5% of the dry-weight organic content. In such situations, a consideration of the sorptive capacity of nonlipid constituents, such as protein, will permit more accurate predictions of chemical accumulation and distribution. [source]

    Effects of maternally transferred organochlorine contaminants on early life survival in a freshwater fish

    Thomas A. Johnston
    Abstract Laboratory research has shown that female fish can pass toxic organochlorines (OCs) from their bodies to their eggs, killing their offspring if sufficient quantities are transferred. We conducted a controlled incubation study using gametes from a wild, OC-contaminated walleye (Sander vitreus) population (Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, Canada) in order to assess among-female variation in offspring early life survival in relation to ova concentrations of planar OCs (polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins and furans and planar polychlorinated biphenyls) and a suite of other maternal and ova characteristics. Equal volumes of ova from each female were fertilized, pooled, and incubated together as an experimental cohort. Relative survival of each female's offspring was estimated as the proportion of surviving larvae (at ,5 d posthatch) that she contributed to the cohort as determined by microsatellite DNA parentage assignment. Total planar OC concentration (expressed as toxic equivalency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo- p -dioxin) of ova was positively related to maternal age and size and to ova lipid content. However, early life survival did not decline with increasing ova planar OC concentrations. Similarly, we observed no significant relationships between early life survival and ova thiamine content, ova fatty acid composition, or maternal age or size. Early life survival was more strongly correlated with date of spawn collection, thyroid hormone status of the ova, and ovum size. Maternally transferred planar OCs do not appear to negatively influence female reproductive success in this walleye population. [source]

    Organochlorine contaminants in sea turtles: Correlations between whole blood and fat

    Jennifer M. Keller
    Abstract Monitoring toxic organochlorine(OC)compounds is an important aspect in wildlife studies, especially in protected species such as sea turtles. The goal of this study was to determine whether blood OC concentrations can predict those in adipose tissue of sea turtles. Blood offers many benefits for monitoring OCs. It can be collected nondestructively from live turtles and can be sampled repeatedly for continuous monitoring. Organochlorine concentrations in blood may better represent the exposure levels of target tissues, but blood concentrations may fluctuate more than those in fatty tissues following recent dietary exposure or lipid mobilization. Paired fat and blood samples were collected from 44 live, juvenile loggerhead sea turtles and 10 juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtle carcasses. Organochlorines were analyzed using gas chromatography with electron capture detection and mass spectrometry. Lipid-normalized OC concentrations measured in the blood significantly correlated to levels found in the fat samples of both species. This result suggests that sea turtle blood is a suitable alternative to fatty tissues for measuring OCs because blood concentrations reasonably represent those observed in the paired fat samples. However, blood OC concentrations calculated on a wet-mass basis were significantly and inversely correlated to lipid content in the fat samples. Therefore, caution should be used when monitoring spatial or temporal trends, as OC levels may increase in the blood following mobilization of fat stores, such as during long migrations, breeding, or disease events. [source]

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in amphipods (Gammarus lacustris) along an elevation gradient in mountain lakes of western Canada

    Jules M. Blais
    Abstract Populations of the amphipod Gammarus lacustris were examined for their concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from seven lakes spanning a 1,300-m elevation gradient in Alberta, Canada. The concentrations of several of the semivolatile organochlorine compounds ([SVOCs], vapor pressure > 0.03 Pa at 20°C) increased at higher altitudes. This pattern was generally not observed among the less volatile organochlorines ([LVOCs], vapor pressure < 0.03 Pa at 20°C). These same SVOC compounds have been previously shown to increase at high latitudes as a result of their long-range transport and preferential deposition in cold climates. We also show that populations of G. lacustris at high elevations have slower growth rates and store more lipids than populations at lower elevations. To resolve the colinearity of independent variables, we used multiple regression to identify patterns of contaminant concentrations in this data set. Multiple regressions showed that the effect of elevation, lipid content, and temperature on contaminant concentrations was no longer significant once the growth rate of Gammarus was included as an independent variable. This study shows that enrichment of SVOCs occurs in Gammarus at high altitudes in Alberta, Canada, and that growth rate (biodilution) appears to be the primary influence. Because Gammarus is an important trophic link in aquatic foodwebs in these environments, enhanced concentrations of toxicants in prey may increase their biomagnification in top predators of high-altitude lakes. [source]

    A multivariate biomarker-based model predicting population-level responses of Daphnia magna

    Wim M. De Coen
    Abstract A multivariate model is proposed relating short-term biomarker measurements in Daphnia magna to chronic effects (21-d exposure) occurring at the population level (time to death, mean brood size, mean total young per female, intrinsic rate of natural increase, net reproductive rate, and growth). The results of the short-term exposure (48h-96 h) to eight model toxicants (cadmium, chromium, mercury, tributyl tin, linear alkylsulfonic acid, sodium pentachlorophenolate, lindane, and 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid) on the following biomarkers were used for the multivariate model: digestive enzymes (amylase, cellulase, ,-galactosidase, trypsin, and esterase), enzymes of the intermediary metabolism (glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphate de-hydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase), cellular energy allocation (CEA) (protein, carbohydrate, and lipid content and electron transport activity), and DNA damage and antioxidative stress activity. Using partial least squares to latent structures (PLS), a two-component model was obtained with R2 of 0.68 and a Q2 value of 0.60 based on the combined analysis of a limited number of the 48- and 96-h biomarker responses. For the individual population-level responses, the R2 values varied from 0.66 to 0.77 and the Q2 values from 0.52 to 0.69. Energy-related biomarkers (cellular energy allocation, lipid contents, anaerobic metabolic activity,pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase), combined with parameters related to oxidative stress (catalase) and DNA damage measured after 48 and 96 h of exposure, were able to predict long-term effects at higher levels of biological organization. [source]

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in the aquatic ecosystem of the Okavango Delta, Botswana, South Africa

    Bontle Mbongwe
    Abstract Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites were measured in water, plants, invertebrates, and fish from lagoons in the Okavango Delta, Botswana (Africa), where DDT has been used for approximately 50 years. The sampling area was sectioned to distinguish spraying for malaria and for African sleeping sickness. Average concentrations of total DDT (sum of DDT and its metabolites) in the Okavango ranged from 0.009 ng/L in water to 18.76 ng/g wet weight in fish. These levels are approximately 1% of those found in piscivorous fish from temperate North America. The dichlorodiphenyl ethylene (DDE) metabolite was the most abundant fraction of total DDT. Although total DDT concentrations were higher in areas treated for malaria than areas treated for sleeping sickness, these concentrations were likely driven by factors other than the historic application of the pesticide. Equilibration with air concentrations is the most likely explanation for these levels. Since the mean annual temperature exceeds the temperature of vaporization of DDT, this research points to the need for reliable transport models. Our results showed that total DDT concentration in fish was best explained by lipid content of the fish and trophic position inferred by ,15N, regardless of DDT application history in those areas. The reservoir above Gaborone Dam, an area downstream of the Okavango but where DDT had not been used, was sampled to compare total DDT levels to the treated areas. The two species (a herbivorous threespot talapia and the omnivorous sharptooth catfish) from Gaborone had levels higher than those found in the Okavango Delta, but these differences can again be explained using trophic position inferred by ,15N rather than by fish size or location. [source]

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioaccumulation by meiobenthic copepods inhabiting a superfund site: Techniques for micromass body burden and total lipid analysis

    Susan L. Klosterhaus
    Abstract Microtechniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) body burden and total lipid analysis were developed and applied to determine the first lipid-normalized bioaccumulation factors for a hydrophobic organic toxicant in a meiobenthic organism (0.063-0.500 mm) living in field-contaminated sediments. The total lipid microtechnique combines the standard Bligh-Dyer extraction method with a colorimetric quantification method for analysis of samples containing 1 to 50 ,g lipid. The microtechnique for body burden analysis quantifies PAHs from tissue samples containing as little as 10 pg PAH. Fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were determined for the meiobenthic copepod Microarthridion littorale living in an estuarine U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site. Gravid female, nongravid female, and male BSAFs were 0.82, 0.54, and 0.36, respectively, for fluoranthene; 0.50, 0.44, and 0.40, respectively, for benz[a]anthracene; and 0.09, 0.12, and 0.15, respectively, for benzo[a]pyrene. Comparison of nonlipid-normalized bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) to BSAFs indicates that M. littorale bioaccumulated PAHs on a gram lipid basis. The BSAFs declined consistently with increasing PAH log Kow for all copepod sex and reproductive stages. Sex- and stage-specific comparisons of BSAFs suggest that differences in lipid content and quality may lead to differences in BSAF values depending on PAH molecular weight and/or hydrophobicity. [source]

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons in flatfishes from the Southern California, USA, Bight

    Kenneth Schiff
    Abstract Alhough inputs of chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds to the Southern California Bight (SCB) are presently low, historical deposits represent a source of bioaccumulation potential to sediment-associated fauna. To assess this bioaccumulation potential, 14 chlorinated hydrocarbon classes were measured in livers of three species of flatfish collected from 63 randomly selected sites on the coastal shelf between Point Conception and the United States,Mexico international border. Tissue contamination was widespread throughout the SCB, but was limited to just two chlorinated hydrocarbon classes. Virtually 100% of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) and longfin sanddab (Citharichthys xanthostigma) populations were estimated to be contaminated with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (total DDT = sum of o,p, and p,p, isomers of DDT + dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [DDE] + dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [DDD]) and/or polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs). Total DDT also contaminated the majority (64%) of the Dover sole (Microstomus pacificus) population in the SCB. Total PCB measurements in tissues of SCB flatfish were dominated by 12 congeners (52, 66, 87, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 170, 180, and 187), which averaged 95% of the combined mass of the 27 congeners analyzed. Sediment concentrations (normalized by total organic carbon content) accounted for most of the variability observed in tissue concentrations (normalized by lipid content) for 8 of these 12 congeners and total PCBs. Normalized sediment concentrations were also significantly correlated to normalized tissue concentrations for total DDT and p,p,-DDE. Tissue concentrations measured in this study from reference areas of the SCB were compared to tissue concentrations measured from reference areas in studies conducted in 1977 and 1985. Total DDT and total PCB liver concentrations were found to have decreased one to two orders of magnitude in Pacific and longfin sanddabs between 1985 and 1994. Total DDT and total PCB liver concentrations decreased 5- to 35-fold in Dover sole between 1977 and 1994. [source]

    Low cross-reactivity of T-cell responses against lipids from Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium paratuberculosis during natural infection

    Ildiko Van Rhijn
    Abstract Although CD1 proteins are known to present mycobacterial lipid antigens to T cells, there is little understanding of the in vivo behavior of T cells restricted by CD1a, CD1b and CD1c, and the relative immunogenicity and immunodominance of individual lipids within the total array of lipids that comprise a bacterium. Because bovines express multiple CD1 proteins and are natural hosts of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), we used them as a new animal model of CD1 function. Here, we report the surprisingly divergent responses against lipids produced by these two pathogens during infection. Despite considerable overlap in lipid content, only three out of 69 animals cross-react with M. bovis and MAP total lipid preparations. The unidentified immunodominant compound of M. bovis is a hydrophilic compound, whereas the immunodominant lipid of MAP is presented by CD1b and was identified as glucose monomycolate (GMM). The preferential recognition of GMM antigen by MAP-infected cattle may be explained by the higher expression of GMM by MAP than by M. bovis. The bacterial species-specific nature of the CD1-restricted, adaptive T-cell response affects the approach to development of lipid based immunodiagnostic tests. [source]

    Identification and characterization of the n -6 fatty acid-producing Mucor rouxii native isolate CFR-G15

    Shivaramu S. Mamatha
    Abstract In zygomycetes fungi, many Mucor spp. have been known to produce ,-linolenic acid (GLA) in their biomass. Among 250 soil samples screened, 20 Mucor isolates showed GLA in their mycelial mass under normal cultivation conditions. Sudan Black,B was used for screening their qualitative oleaginesity. Among the representative isolates, Mucor sp. CFR-G15, when grown in a fat-producing medium, showed a maximum lipid content of 30,±,1.32% in its mycelia and 14.42,±,0.74% GLA. By using gene-specific primers, the 18S rRNA gene and the ,6,DES gene were amplified by PCR technique. The nucleotide sequences of the 18S rRNA and ,6,DES genes exhibited >98% homology with M.,rouxii ATCC 24905 (accession nos. AF117923 and AF296076, respectively), suggesting taxonomic identity. The native isolate M.,rouxii CFR-G15 reported in this study was found to be promising for the development of an economical process in the industrial production of GLA. [source]

    Consumer body composition and community structure in a stream is altered by pH

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Summary 1.,Low pH inhibits microbial conditioning of leaf-litter, which forms the principal energy input to many headwater streams. This reduces food quality and availability for the shredder assemblage, thereby creating a potential bottleneck in the flux of energy and biomass through acidified food webs. 2.,We explored the consequences of acidity on the well-characterised community of Broadstone Stream in southeast England, by quantifying the physiological condition (protein and lipid content) of three dominant shredder species (Leuctra nigra, L. hippopus and Nemurella pictetii) and relating this to changes in the numerical abundance and biomass of invertebrates across a longitudinal pH gradient (5.3,6.5). 3.,Total taxon richness increased with pH, as did shredder diversity. The acid-tolerant stonefly, L. nigra, exhibited a positive correlation between pH and protein content, but its abundance was suppressed in the less acid reaches. These results suggest that the impacts of environmental stressors might be manifested differently at the population (i.e. numerical and biomass abundance) versus the physiological (i.e. protein content of individuals) levels of organisation. Body composition of L. hippopus and N. pictetii did not exhibit any significant relationship with stream pH in the field. 4.,The survey data were corroborated with a laboratory rearing experiment using N. pictetii, in which survival rate, growth rate, and protein and lipid content of individuals were measured in stream water of differing pH and acid versus circumneutral microbial conditioning regimes. Acid-conditioned leaves were associated with increased mortality and reduced protein content in consumers' tissues, with acid water also having the latter effect. 5.,Our results suggest that biochemical constraints within key taxa might create energy flux bottlenecks in detrital-based food webs, and that this could ultimately determine the productivity of the entire system. Hence assays of the body composition of macroinvertebrates could be an effective new tool that complements population level studies of the impacts of stressors in fresh waters. [source]

    Airspeed adjustment and lipid reserves in migratory Neotropical butterflies

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    R. Dudley
    Summary 1Aerodynamic theory predicts that migrant fliers should reduce their speed of flight as endogenous energy reserves are gradually consumed. This prediction was tested for butterfly species (Pieridae and Nymphalidae) that engage in annual rainy season migrations through central Panama. 2Direct airspeed measurements were made on butterflies in natural free flight, followed by chloroform : methanol extractions of abdominal lipids from the same insects. 3Among individuals within particular species/gender subsets, airspeeds during flight were higher with greater lipid content following adjustment for body mass. Although it was not possible to measure lipid content repeatedly on a single insect, these comparisons among individuals for five migratory species suggest that butterflies reduce their flight speed as lipid reserves are progressively depleted. 4Because choice of airspeed can strongly influence the rate of energetic expenditure, these results together with previously described strategies of wind drift compensation in the same taxa demonstrate sophisticated long-distance orientation and optimization strategies by migratory Neotropical butterflies flying within the boundary layer. [source]

    Molecular characterization of the role of orphan receptor small heterodimer partner in development of fatty liver,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Jiansheng Huang
    The orphan receptor Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP, NROB2) regulates metabolic pathways, including hepatic bile acid, lipid, and glucose homeostasis. We reported that SHP- deletion in leptin-deficient OB,/, mice increases insulin sensitivity, and prevents the development of fatty liver. The prevention of steatosis in OB,/,/SHP,/, double mutants is not due to decreased body weight but is associated with increased hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion and elevated microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA and protein levels. SHP represses the transactivation of the MTP promoter and the induction of MTP mRNA by LRH-1 in hepatocytes. Adenoviral overexpression of SHP inhibits MTP activity as well as VLDL-apoB protein secretion, and RNAi knockdown of SHP exhibits opposite effects. The expression of SHP in induced in fatty livers of OB,/, mice and other genetic or dietary models of steatosis, and acute overexpression of SHP by adenovirus, result in rapid accumulation of neutral lipids in hepatocytes. In addition, the pathways for hepatic lipid uptake and lipogenic program are also downregulated in OB,/,/SHP,/, mice, which may contribute to the decreased hepatic lipid content. Conclusion: These studies demonstrate that SHP regulates the development of fatty liver by modulating hepatic lipid export, uptake, and synthesis, and that the improved peripheral insulin sensitivity in OB,/,/SHP,/, mice is associated with decreased hepatic steatosis. (HEPATOLOGY 2007.) [source]

    Sex difference in the liver of hepatocyte-specific Pten-deficient mice: A model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Yumiko Anezaki
    Aim:, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be a public health problem worldwide. NAFLD is more prevalent in men than in women. Tamoxifen, a potent estrogen receptor antagonist, causes nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD. Thus, there may be a sex difference that is dependent on estrogens in NAFLD and NASH. Hepatocyte-specific Pten-deficient mice exhibit hepatic lesions analogous to NASH and are considered to be a clinical model of NASH. We aimed to shed light on any sex differences in the hepatic lesions of Pten-deficient mice and the underlying mechanisms. Methods:, At 40 weeks, livers from male and female Pten-deficient mice were processed for measuring lipid content, genes expression analysis, and histological examination. Level of serum reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also determined. Seventy-six-week-old mice were used in tumor burden experiments. Results:, Hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and even carcinogenesis in Pten-deficient mice were attenuated in females compared to males. Attenuated fatty liver in females was ascribed to inactivation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c. Hepatic inflammation in females was suppressed via decreased ROS with increased antioxidant gene expression and decreased proinflammatory cytokine production. Anti-cancer effect in female mice was, at least in part, due to the significantly lower ratio of oleic to stearic acid in the liver. Conclusions:, Hepatic lesions in Pten-deficient mice were attenuated in females compared to males, as were human NAFLD and NASH. Some of the underlying mechanisms in sex difference appeared to be due to the change of gene expression, dependent on estrogens. [source]

    Innate self recognition by an invariant, rearranged T-cell receptor and its immune consequences

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    Aleksandar K. Stanic
    Summary This review attempts to illuminate the glycolipid antigen presentation properties of CD1d, how CD1d controls the function of natural T (iNKT) cells and how CD1d and iNKT cells interact to jump-start the immune system. It is postulated that the CD1d-iNKT cell system functions as a sensor, sensing alterations in cellular lipid content by virtue of its affinity for such ligands. The presentation of a neo-self glycolipid, presumably by infectious assault of antigen-presenting cells, activates iNKT cells, which promptly release pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and jump-start the immune system. [source]

    The effect of different cooking methods on proximate composition and lipid quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Bahar Tokur
    Summary In this study, the effects of frying, oven-baking, barbecuing, and smoking on the proximate composition and lipid quality of trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) were studied. The proximate compositions were affected significantly by all cooking methods. An increase in the lipid content and a decrease in the moisture content were observed in all the cooking methods. A decrease in the protein content was found in barbecued and smoked samples, but not in fried or oven-baked, on dry-weight basis. Regarding the lipid quality, the free fatty acids (FFA, grams of oleic acid per 100-g lipid), peroxide values (POV, meq active oxygen per kg lipid), and thiobarbituric acid values (TBA, mg malonaldehydeper kg fish muscle) were analysed. The FFA contents in fresh, fried, oven-baked, barbecued and smoked trout on wet-weight basis were found to be 8.76, 0.76, 5.05, 0.81, and 9.44-g oleic acid per 100-g lipid, respectively. POV in fried, oven-baked, and barbecued samples increased significantly, while POV in smoked samples decreased significantly. An increase was observed in the TBA value in trout cooked with all methods. The results of this experiment showed that heating accelerates lipid oxidation. [source]

    Influence of maternal mass and condition on energy transfer in Weddell seals

    Summary 1Environmental variation influences food abundance and availability, which is reflected in the reproductive success of top predators. We examined maternal expenditure, offspring mass and condition for Weddell seals in 2 years when individuals exhibited marked differences in these traits. 2For females weighing 355 kg there was a positive relationship between maternal post-partum mass (MPPM) and lactation length, but below this there was no relationship, suggesting that heavier females were able to increase lactation length but lighter females were restricted to a minimum lactation period of 33 days. 3Overall, females were heavier in 2002, but in 2003 shorter females were lighter than similar-sized females in 2002 suggesting that the effects of environmental variability on foraging success and condition are more pronounced in smaller individuals. 4There was no relationship between MPPM and pup birth mass, indicating pre-partum investment did not differ between years. However, there was a positive relationship between MPPM and pup mass gain. Mass and energy transfer efficiency were 10·2 and 5·4% higher in 2002 than 2003, which suggests costs associated with a putatively poor-resource year were delayed until lactation. 5Heavier females lost a higher proportion of mass during lactation in both years, so smaller females may not have been able to provide more to their offspring to wean a pup of similar size to larger females. 6MPPM had only a small influence on total body lipid; therefore, regardless of mass, females had the same relative body composition. Females with male pups lost a higher percentage of lipid than those with female pups, but by the end of lactation female pups had 4·5% higher lipid content than males. 7It appears that for Weddell seals the consequences of environmentally induced variation in food availability are manifested in differences in maternal mass and expenditure during lactation. These differences translate to changes in pup mass and condition at weaning with potential consequences for future survival and recruitment. [source]