Antisocial Behaviour (antisocial + behaviour)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Selected Abstracts

A Follow-up of Deinstitutionalized Men with Intellectual Disabilities and Histories of Antisocial Behaviour

Vernon L. Quinsey
Background, There is frequently great concern about the dangerousness of deinstitutionalized men with intellectual disabilities who have been institutionalized because they are considered to be at high risk for the commission of serious antisocial acts or sexual offending. Unfortunately, there is little information on whether changes in the behaviour of these men can be used to adjust supervision so as to manage risk. Methods, An appraisal of men with intellectual disabilities and histories of serious antisocial behaviours who were residing in institutions about to be closed led to a 16 month follow-up of 58 of these clients who had been transferred to community settings. Results, A total of 67% exhibited antisocial behaviour of some kind and 47% exhibited ,hands-on' violent or sexual misbehaviours directed toward other clients or staff. The Violent Risk Appraisal Guide was the best predictor of new violent or sexual incidents and a variety of other pre-release predictors were related to the likelihood of antisocial incidents of any kind. Overall predictive accuracy was moderate. A field trial showed that monthly staff ratings of client characteristics were related to antisocial incidents. Conclusions, These preliminary data indicate that measures of dynamic risk involving staff ratings are worth developing and evaluating. [source]

The Politics of Antisocial Behaviour: Amoral Panics by S. Waiton

No abstract is available for this article. [source]

A classification of risk factors in serious juvenile offenders and the relation between patterns of risk factors and recidivism

Eva Mulder
Background,There has been a lot of research on risk factors for recidivism among juvenile offenders, in general, and on individual risk factors, but less focus on subgroups of serious juvenile offenders and prediction of recidivism within these. Objective,To find an optimal classification of risk items and to test the predictive value of the resultant factors with respect to severity of recidivism among serious juvenile offenders. Method,Seventy static and dynamic risk factors in 1154 juvenile offenders were registered with the Juvenile Forensic Profile. Recidivism data were collected on 728 of these offenders with a time at risk of at least 2 years. After factor analysis, independent sample t-tests were used to indicate differences between recidivists and non-recidivists. Logistic multiple linear regression analyses were used to test the potential predictive value of the factors for violent or serious recidivism. Results,A nine-factor solution best accounted for the data. The factors were: antisocial behaviour during treatment, sexual problems, family problems, axis-1 psychopathology, offence characteristics, conscience and empathy, intellectual and social capacities, social network, and substance abuse. Regression analysis showed that the factors antisocial behaviour during treatment, family problems and axis-1 psychopathology were associated with seriousness of recidivism. Conclusions and implications for practice,The significance of family problems and antisocial behaviour during treatments suggest that specific attention to these factors may be important in reducing recidivism. The fact that antisocial behaviour during treatment consists mainly of dynamic risk factors is hopeful as these can be influenced by treatment. Consideration of young offenders by subgroup rather than as a homogenous population is likely to yield the best information about risk of serious re-offending and the management of that risk. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Intergenerational linkages in antisocial behaviour

Terence P. Thornberry
Background,A life-course perspective was used to examine whether a parent's adolescent antisocial behaviour increases the chances of his or her child being involved in antisocial behaviour and, if so, the extent to which different aspects of parenting mediate this relationship. Aim,It was hypothesised that there will be significant levels of intergenerational continuity in antisocial behaviour when parents have ongoing contact with the child, and that stress from parenting and ineffective parenting styles will mediate this relationship. Method,Longitudinal data from the Rochester Intergenerational Study were used to test these issues in structural equation models for fathers and for mothers. Results,Parental antisocial behaviour is significantly related to child antisocial behaviour for mothers and for fathers who have frequent contact with the child, but not for fathers with infrequent contact. For mothers, the impact of adolescent antisocial behaviour on the child's antisocial behaviour is primarily mediated through parenting stress and effective parenting. For high-contact fathers there are multiple mediating pathways that help explain the impact of their adolescent antisocial behaviour on their child's behaviour. Conclusions,The roots of antisocial behaviour extend back at least to the parent's adolescence, and parenting interventions need to consider these long-term processes. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Prevalence and correlates of traumatic brain injury among delinquent youths

Brian E. Perron
Background,Delinquent youth frequently exhibit high-risk behaviours that can result in serious injury. However, little is known about traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and their correlates in this population. Aims,To examine the period prevalence and correlates of TBIs in delinquent youths. Method,Interviews were conducted with 720 (97.3%) residents of 27 Missouri Division of Youth Services rehabilitation facilities between March 1 and May 31, 2003. Participants [mean age (Mage) = 15.5, standard deviation (SD) = 1.2, 87% male] completed measures assessing TBI, substance use, psychiatric symptoms, and antisocial traits/behaviours. TBI was defined as ever having sustained a head injury causing unconsciousness for more than 20 minutes. Results,Nearly one-in-five youths (18.3%) reported a lifetime TBI. Youths with TBIs were significantly more likely than youths without to be male, have received a psychiatric diagnosis, report an earlier onset of criminal behaviour/substance use and more lifetime substance use problems and past-year criminal acts, evidence psychiatric symptoms, report lifetime suicidality, be impulsive, fearless, and external in locus of control and criminally victimized in the year preceding incarceration. Male gender and frequency of own criminal victimization were important predictors of TBI in multivariate analyses. Regression analyses adjusted for demographic factors, indicated that youths with TBIs were at significantly elevated risk for current depressive/anxious symptoms, antisocial behaviour, and substance abuse problems. Conclusions,TBI is common among delinquent youth and associated with wide ranging psychiatric dysfunction; however, the causal role of TBIs in the pathogenesis of co-morbid conditions remains unclear. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Mediator effects in the social development model: an examination of constituent theories

Eric C. Brown
Background The social development model (SDM) provides an explanatory framework for the progression of antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents. Although previous research has assessed the predictive validity of the model, alternative associations based on the SDM's constituent theories have not been examined. Method Using structural equation modelling, a series of direct paths was examined for mediation by SDM constructs. Data for the study consisted of teacher-, parent- and self-report of 1016 fourth- and fifth-grade students from the Raising Healthy Children project, a longitudinal etiological study with an embedded preventive intervention. Results Four of the seven paths examined were partially or totally mediated by SDM constructs. Specifically, the relationship between prosocial bonding and adolescent antisocial behaviour, as hypothesized by social control theory, was fully mediated by prosocial beliefs. As hypothesized by social learning theory, students' socioemotional and cognitive skills significantly predicted antisocial behaviour, independent of partial mediation through rewards, bonding and beliefs. As hypothesized by differential association theory, involvement with both prosocial and antisocial persons was directly associated with respective prosocial and antisocial beliefs, independent of partial mediation through rewards and bonding. Conclusions These findings suggest additional associations that are not currently specified in the SDM and underscore the importance of re-examining hypotheses from constituent theories when integrating developmental models of antisocial behaviour. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Precursors and correlates of criminal behaviour in women

Dr Julie Messer
Background The precursors and correlates of criminal behaviour in women were examined in this longitudinal study of women in their late thirties. Methods The sample consisted of a high-risk group of women (n = 86) and a comparison group ( n = 97): the former had been raised in institutional care. Questionnaire measures of childhood behaviour problems and detailed interview data from two time points in adulthood were obtained, along with official records of offending. Results In terms of childhood precursors, antisocial behaviour, institutional rearing, hyperactivity and adolescent conduct disorder were found to be significantly related to offending. Later adolescent factors were also found to be important: mixing with deviant peers and leaving school without any qualifications or plans for work. Correlates of offending in adulthood included difficulties in mental health, drug use, marriage and parenting. Further analysis was undertaken to clarify the associations by using ex-care status and conduct disorder as covariates. Discussion Well-established predictors of offending in male samples seem quite as important for women and girls. The findings also suggested strong links between offending and problems in parenting. Copyright © 2004 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Understanding sexual offending in schizophrenia

Christopher R. Drake M Clin Psych MAPS
Background Studies have found an elevated incidence of violent sexual offences in males with schizophrenia. The relationship between sexual offending and psychiatric illness is, however, complex and poorly defined. Aims The aim of the present article is to delineate possible mechanisms that underlie offensive sexual behaviour in schizophrenia that can be used as a framework for assessing and treating these behaviours. A review of research pertaining to the aetiology of sexual deviance in schizophrenia was conducted, focusing in particular on the role of early childhood experiences, deviant sexual preferences, antisocial personality traits, psychiatric symptomatology and associated treatment effects, the impact of mental illness on sexual and social functioning, and other potential contributory factors. Towards a typology It is proposed that schizophrenic patients who engage in sexually offensive activities fall into four broad groups: (1) those with a pre-existing paraphilia; (2) those whose deviant sexuality arises in the context of illness and/or its treatment; (3) those whose deviant sexuality is one manifestation of more generalized antisocial behaviour, and (4) factors other than the above. This classification provides a useful framework for evaluating and treating sexually offensive behaviours in schizophrenic patients. Copyright © 2004 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Searching for a developmental typology of personality and its relations to antisocial behaviour: a longitudinal study of an adjudicated men sample

Julien Morizot
The search for an empirically based personality typology has regained the interest of researchers. To date, however, empirical inquiries have mainly been cross-sectional. In this study, an empirically based developmental typology of personality was identified using data from a prospective longitudinal study of a sample of men adjudicated during their adolescence and assessed on four occasions until midlife. Cluster analyses were performed on measures of disinhibition, negative emotionality, and extraversion. Four developmental types of personality were identified. The first was characterized by average scores in the three traits in adolescence that decreased linearly until midlife (39%). The second type displayed very high scores in disinhibition and negative emotionality in adolescence that decreased rapidly during early adulthood (24%). The third type was characterized by very high scores in disinhibition and negative emotionality that remained stable until midlife, while extraversion was average during adolescence and then decreased rapidly until midlife (17%). The fourth type was characterized by high scores in disinhibition and negative emotionality in adolescence that was followed by cycles of decreases and increases until midlife (20%). These four developmental types of personality seemed to be related to known antisocial behaviour trajectories. Copyright © 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Personality disorders in prisoners and their motivation for dangerous and disruptive behaviour

Professor Jeremy W. Coid MD FRCPsych
Objectives To examine the associations between DSM-III, axis II, personality disorder, motivation and disruptive behaviour in prisoners. Method Interviews were carried out with 81 prisoners in prison special units in England using research diagnostic instruments and an item sheet measuring disruptive behaviours and their motivations. Independent associations were established using logistic regression. Results Specific associations were established between psychopathy and axis II disorders with violent and disruptive behaviour and motivations for these behaviours. Conclusions The study supported a cognitive model explaining the functional association between personality disorder and antisocial behaviour. Personality disorders act as predisposing factors influencing the development of motivations and subsequently facilitate the enactment of disordered behaviour, in a linear progression. Assessment of personality disorder should be routine in disruptive and dangerous prisoners. Copyright © 2002 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Does self-control account for the relationship between binge drinking and alcohol-related behaviours?

Alex R. Piquero
Introduction Gottfredson and Hirschi's theory that there is an underlying factor accounting for all sorts of antisocial behaviour has attracted widespread theoretical and empirical attention. One of their most controversial statements is a ,generality' hypothesis, a notion that criminal, deviant and reckless acts are highly correlated because they are caused by individual differences in self-control. In this paper, we examine the extent to which self-control accounts for the relationship between two behaviours: binge drinking and involvement in alcohol-related behaviours, including criminal behaviour. Method Questionnaires were given to students at a southern US university. A final sample of 241 students (35% males, 91% whites, aged 17,40). One question concerned binge-drinking, 11 others related to other alcohol-related behaviour; a 24-item scale measured self-control and sex was recorded. A probit model was used to test the effect of low self-control on binge drinking and on other alcohol-related behaviours. It was found that self-control exhibits a positive effect on both. But binge drinking and other alcohol-related behaviours are correlated, so a further analysis using a bivariate probit model was undertaken using a naÔve model (no covariates), an unconstrained model (allowing self-control to exert a unique effect on both outcomes), and a constrained model forcing self-control to be the same for both outcomes. Results Our results suggest that while low self-control is a significant predictor of both binge drinking and alcohol-related problems, it does not fully account for the relationship between the two outcomes. In addition, separate estimation for each sex reveal a substantively different pattern of results. Discussion Further research is needed to disentangle the differences between the sexes. Situational factors, especially in males, may account for adverse alcohol-related behaviours. Other measures of self-control are also needed. Copyright © 2002 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

A question for DSM-V: which better predicts persistent conduct disorder , delinquent acts or conduct symptoms?

Jeffrey D. Burke PhD
Background Conduct disorder (CD), a psychiatric index of antisocial behaviour, shares similarities with delinquency, a criminological index. This study sought to examine which factors in childhood predict a repeated diagnosis of CD in adolescence, and whether self-reported delinquent acts enhance the utility of symptoms of CD in predicting later persistent CD. Method Longitudinal data used in this paper come from a clinic-referred sample of 177 boys, along with their parents and teachers, who were assessed using a structured clinical interview. The boys also reported on their delinquent behaviours, as well as a broad range of other family and life events. Results Before age 13, 77 boys met criteria for CD according to their parent, 69 according to their own report, and 36 reported three or more delinquent acts. Forty-eight boys (29%) met criteria for CD three or more times between 13 and 17. In childhood, delinquency overlapped, but was distinct from CD. Both were present in 28 cases, while 41 cases had CD without delinquency, and eight had delinquency without CD. When tested as predictors of later persistent CD, child-reported CD was the strongest predictor of later persistent CD, but self-reported delinquency was stronger than parent-reported CD. A final model of significant predictors included child-reported CD, delinquency, poor child communication with parents, and maternal prenatal smoking. Conclusions It appears that delinquency does add uniquely to the prediction of persistent CD. It may be useful to expand the diagnostic criteria for CD accordingly. Copyright © 2002 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

What is problem solving?

A review of theory, applications, research
Introduction Structured training or therapy programmes designed to develop cognitive problem-solving skills are now widely used in criminal justice and mental health settings. Method This paper describes the conceptual origins and theoretical models on which such programmes are based, and provides a historical overview of their development. Theoretical formulations of problem-solving deficits have also been used to inform the design of intervention programmes, and a number of studies and evaluations of such interventions are reviewed, with particular reference to criminal and other antisocial behaviour. Discussion In recent years there has been steadily growing supportive evidence for the benefits of this approach. However, there are also several aspects of its application that require further investigation, and some of the remaining questions are identified. Copyright © 2001 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia

Joanne Klevens
Objectives This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. Methods A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. Results Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. Conclusions The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality. Copyright © 2001 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Early predictors of antisocial developmental pathways among boys and girls

M. Pitzer
Objective:, We investigated in a high-risk sample the differential impact of biological and psychosocial risk factors on antisocial behaviour pathways. Method:, One hundred and thirty-eight boys and 155 girls born at differing degrees of obstetric and psychosocial risk were examined from birth until adolescence. Childhood temperament was assessed by a highly-structured parent-interview and standardized behavioural observations, adolescent temperament was measured by self-report. Neurodevelopmental variables were assessed by age-specific developmental tests. Emotional and behaviour problems were measured at the ages of 8 and 15 by the Achenbach scales. Results:, In both genders, psychosocial adversity and early self-control temperament were strongly associated with early-onset persistent (EOP) antisocial behaviour. Psychosocial adversity and more severe externalizing problems differentiated the EOP from childhood-limited (CL) pathway. In girls, adolescent-onset (AO) antisocial behaviour was strongly associated with novelty seeking at 15 years. Conclusion:, Our findings emphasize the need for early support and intervention in psychosocially disadvantaged families. [source]

Heritability of antisocial behaviour at 9: do callous-unemotional traits matter?

Essi Viding
A previous finding from our group indicated that teacher-rated antisocial behaviour (AB) among 7-year-olds is particularly heritable in the presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Using a sample of 1865 same-sex twin pairs, we employed DeFries-Fulker extremes analysis to investigate whether teacher-rated AB with/without CU traits also shows aetiological differences among 9-year-olds. Furthermore, we assessed whether the differences in the magnitude of heritability would be evident even when hyperactive symptoms were controlled for in the statistical analysis. AB among 9-year-olds was more heritable with than without concomitant CU. The heritability difference was even more pronounced in magnitude when hyperactive symptoms were controlled. CU traits thus appear to index one valid way of sub-typing children with early-onset AB. [source]

A comparison of risk factors for habitual violence in pre-trial subjects

S. Z. Kaliski
Objective: Pre-trial referrals to the Valkenberg Hospital forensic unit over a 6-month period were studied. Habitually violent offenders were compared with those with no history of violence. Methods:, Risk factors known to be associated with violent behaviour were elicited, i.e. demographics, behaviour during index offence (such as impulsivity, identity of victim, use of weapon, accomplices, intoxication, psychotic symptoms), psychiatric and family histories, history of suicide attempts, past child abuse, head injury, criminal record, psychiatric diagnosis and presence of medical disorders. EEG's, Barratt's Impulsivity, Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking and Mini-Mental Scales were administered. Behaviour in the ward during the 30 days was also appraised. Logistic regression models were used to determine relative risks. Results:, There were 155 subjects; 89.7% were male, 71.6% were single and 58.7% were unemployed. For 44.5% the index offence was violent, and 9.7% had committed sexual offences; 61.9% had histories of habitual violence. A psychotic disorder was diagnosed in 32.3% and a personality disorder in 48.4%. Habitually violent subjects were distin- guished by a history of issuing threats (OR=3.68; CI=3.19,4.16; P= 0.000), delusions of persecution (OR=3.43; CI=2.67,4.17; P=0.001), history of conduct disorder (OR=1.95; CI=1.70,2.19; P=0.006), alcohol/substance abuse (OR=2.08; CI=1.53,2.61; P=0.008) and violent index offence (OR=1.66; CI=1.54,2.61; P=0.035). Conclusion: This seems to confirm the relationship between threats, feeling threatened, psychosis, a history of antisocial behaviour and alcohol abuse. [source]

Teenage drinking and the onset of alcohol dependence: a cohort study over seven years

ADDICTION, Issue 12 2004
Yvonne A. Bonomo
ABSTRACT Aim To determine whether adolescent alcohol use and/or other adolescent health risk behaviour predisposes to alcohol dependence in young adulthood. Design Seven-wave cohort study over 6 years. Participant A community sample of almost two thousand individuals followed from ages 14,15 to 20,21 years. Outcome measure Diagnostic and Statistical Manual volume IV (DSM-IV) alcohol dependence in participants aged 20,21 years and drinking three or more times a week. Findings Approximately 90% of participants consumed alcohol by age 20 years, 4.7% fulfilling DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria. Alcohol dependence in young adults was preceded by higher persisting teenage rates of frequent drinking [odds ratio (OR) 8.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2, 16], binge drinking (OR 6.7, 95% CI 3.6, 12), alcohol-related injuries (OR 4.5 95% CI 1.9, 11), intense drinking (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.6, 8.7), high dose tobacco use (OR 5.5, 95% CI 2.3, 13) and antisocial behaviour (OR 5.9, 95% CI 3.3, 11). After adjustment for other teenage predictors frequent drinking (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2, 7.7) and antisocial behaviour (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2, 5.1) held persisting independent associations with later alcohol dependence. There were no prospective associations found with emotional disturbance in adolescence. Conclusion Teenage drinking patterns and other health risk behaviours in adolescence predicted alcohol dependence in adulthood. Prevention and early intervention initiatives to reduce longer-term alcohol-related harm therefore need to address the factors, including alcohol supply, that influence teenage consumption and in particular high-risk drinking patterns. [source]

The usefulness of self-reported psychopathy-like traits in the study of antisocial behaviour among non-referred adolescents

Henrik Andershed
The present study addresses the question of whether it is possible to use a self-report measure of psychopathic traits on non-referred youth samples to identify a subgroup of problematic youths who are particularly problematic and different from other problem youths. A large sample of eighth-grade, non-referred adolescents, and their parents were assessed. Results showed that the adolescents exhibiting a low-socialized psychopathy-like personality constellation had a more frequent, violent, and versatile conduct-problem profile than other low-socialized and well socialized adolescents. The psychopathy-like adolescents also differed from other poorly socialized adolescents in ways that suggested that their etiological background was different from adolescents with non-psychopathy-like conduct problems. We conclude that self-report measures can indeed be useful for research purposes in subtyping youths with conduct problems. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Neuropsychiatric disorders presenting with antisocial behaviour

Basant K. Puri
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Multilevel generalized linear models for modelling age-related gender difference in violent behaviour and associated factors in the general household population

Min Yang Senior Statistician
Abstract It is preferable to use longitudinal data when studying patterns of violence and antisocial behaviour over the lifespan together with the associated risk factors in the general population. From the statistical modelling perspective, random samples of cross-sectional data, representative of the population, can be a reliable alternative. Sampling, weighting, and possible geographical clustering of the behaviour must be considered in the analysis together with correct choice of model as a function of age, although cohort effects and age effects are not separated from the analysis. This paper demonstrates the use of multilevel generalized linear models in the British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity in 2000. A multilevel logistic model as a special case of a generalized linear model with individual weightings was adapted for a dichotomous measure of violence and extended to Poisson and negative binomial outcomes. Three types of age function, discrete age effects, continuous age effects, and piecewise polynomial function of age intervals were evaluated for goodness of fit, and for their practical advantages and disadvantages. Models were developed for possible risk factors in relation to specific age groups of interest. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A Follow-up of Deinstitutionalized Men with Intellectual Disabilities and Histories of Antisocial Behaviour

Vernon L. Quinsey
Background, There is frequently great concern about the dangerousness of deinstitutionalized men with intellectual disabilities who have been institutionalized because they are considered to be at high risk for the commission of serious antisocial acts or sexual offending. Unfortunately, there is little information on whether changes in the behaviour of these men can be used to adjust supervision so as to manage risk. Methods, An appraisal of men with intellectual disabilities and histories of serious antisocial behaviours who were residing in institutions about to be closed led to a 16 month follow-up of 58 of these clients who had been transferred to community settings. Results, A total of 67% exhibited antisocial behaviour of some kind and 47% exhibited ,hands-on' violent or sexual misbehaviours directed toward other clients or staff. The Violent Risk Appraisal Guide was the best predictor of new violent or sexual incidents and a variety of other pre-release predictors were related to the likelihood of antisocial incidents of any kind. Overall predictive accuracy was moderate. A field trial showed that monthly staff ratings of client characteristics were related to antisocial incidents. Conclusions, These preliminary data indicate that measures of dynamic risk involving staff ratings are worth developing and evaluating. [source]

Direct and indirect bully-victims: differential psychosocial risk factors associated with adolescents involved in bullying and victimization

Zopito A. Marini
Abstract The present study examined psychosocial risk factors that differentiated direct and indirect bully-victims from bullies, victims and uninvolved adolescents. A total of 7,290 (3,756 girls) students (ages 13,18,yr) from a region of Southern Ontario, Canada, completed a number of self-report measures to determine the relation between direct and indirect bullying and victimization and several psychosocial risk factors, including normative beliefs about antisocial acts, angry-externalizing coping, social anxiety, depression, self-esteem, temperament, attachment, parental monitoring and peer relational problems. ANCOVA and logistic regression analyses indicated that indirect bully-victims and victims were similar in demonstrating greater internalizing problems and peer relational problems than indirect bullies and uninvolved participants. Furthermore, adolescents involved in indirect bullying (bullies, bully-victims) reported a higher level of normative beliefs legitimizing antisocial behaviour and less parental monitoring (males only) than indirect victims and uninvolved participants. Only normative beliefs legitimizing antisocial behaviour distinguished direct bully-victims and bullies from victims and uninvolved adolescents. Results illuminate the distinct characteristics of direct and indirect bully-victims; theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 32:551,569. 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The limitations of randomized controlled trials in predicting effectiveness

Nancy Cartwright PhD FBA
Abstract What kinds of evidence reliably support predictions of effectiveness for health and social care interventions? There is increasing reliance, not only for health care policy and practice but also for more general social and economic policy deliberation, on evidence that comes from studies whose basic logic is that of JS Mill's method of difference. These include randomized controlled trials, case,control studies, cohort studies, and some uses of causal Bayes nets and counterfactual-licensing models like ones commonly developed in econometrics. The topic of this paper is the ,external validity' of causal conclusions from these kinds of studies. We shall argue two claims. Claim, negative: external validity is the wrong idea; claim, positive: ,capacities' are almost always the right idea, if there is a right idea to be had. If we are right about these claims, it makes big problems for policy decisions. Many advice guides for grading policy predictions give top grades to a proposed policy if it has two good Mill's-method-of difference studies that support it. But if capacities are to serve as the conduit for support from a method-of-difference study to an effectiveness prediction, much more evidence, and much different in kind, is required. We will illustrate the complexities involved with the case of multisystemic therapy, an internationally adopted intervention to try to diminish antisocial behaviour in young people. [source]

Towards inclusion: Local government, public space and homelessness in New Zealand

Penelope Laurenson
Abstract:, This paper considers the political and normative dimensions of local government responses to homelessness in New Zealand. It outlines the context for local government action, the approaches adopted by three case study cities, and arguments for rejecting anti-homeless regulations in favour of supportive policies conducive to forging inclusive public space. It contributes to debates over homelessness policy by articulating an approach that integrates regulatory, funding and leadership roles. It argues that in addressing antisocial behaviour in public spaces, policy-makers must eschew approaches which effectively criminalize the sight, and status, of poverty. [source]

Pathological personality traits and externalizing behaviour

Lauren R. Pryor
Previous research has identified general personality traits and personality disorders that are associated with externalizing behaviour (EB). There is a dearth of research, however, investigating the relations between pathological personality traits and EB. The current study examined pathological personality traits, as measured by the Schedule for Non-adaptive and Adaptive Functioning (SNAP) and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ), in relation to EB. Undergraduates (n = 228) completed the SNAP, DAPP-BQ, and a measure of antisocial behaviour, substance use, gambling, intimate partner violence and risky sexual behaviour. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we identified the best fitting model as one that specified eight factors: five personality factors composed of constructs assessed by the DAPP and SNAP, one externalizing factor and two method factors corresponding to each of the measures. Consistent with the empirical literature using general personality traits, the current results suggest that pathological personality traits related to impulse control (i.e. low conscientiousness), as well as more interpersonally focused traits (i.e. low agreeableness), were most strongly associated with EB. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Making People More Responsible: The Blair Governments' Programme for Changing Citizens' Behaviour

A distinctive feature of the three Blair New Labour governments' domestic policy was the effort to change citizens' behaviour. Variously explained using such slogans as ,something for something', ,responsibility' and, in combating antisocial behaviour, ,respect', behaviour change was presented by the PM's Strategy Unit as an overarching strategic framework for policy. This included conditionality in welfare to work, health promotion campaigns, a ban on smoking in public places, measures to combat antisocial behaviour and enforce school discipline, home,school contracts, community cohesion and neighbourhood renewal programmes, measures to encourage car sharing and use of public transport, and others to promote domestic waste recycling. This article examines how far the two principal explanatory theories available predict that programme's characteristics. It uses a structured data set on the policy instruments, target groups and content of initiatives undertaken by eight central government spending departments. We find that indeed the strong (more coercive) tools are markedly concentrated on initiatives targeting the poor and low-income working strata. The expectations derived from the two theoretical traditions are not strongly supported. [source]

Deficits in facial expression recognition in male adolescents with early-onset or adolescence-onset conduct disorder

Graeme Fairchild
Background:, We examined whether conduct disorder (CD) is associated with deficits in facial expression recognition and, if so, whether these deficits are specific to the early-onset form of CD, which emerges in childhood. The findings could potentially inform the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour, which suggests that early-onset and adolescence-limited forms of CD are subject to different aetiological processes. Method:, Male adolescents with either early-onset CD (n = 42) or adolescence-onset CD (n = 39), and controls with no history of serious antisocial behaviour and no current psychiatric disorder (n = 40) completed tests of facial expression and facial identity recognition. Dependent measures were: (a) correct recognition of facial expressions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, and (b) the number of correct matches of unfamiliar faces. Results:, Relative to controls, recognition of anger, disgust, and happiness in facial expressions was disproportionately impaired in participants with early-onset CD, whereas recognition of fear was impaired in participants with adolescence-onset CD. Participants with CD who were high in psychopathic traits showed impaired fear, sadness, and surprise recognition relative to those low in psychopathic traits. There were no group differences in facial identity recognition. Conclusions:, Both CD subtypes were associated with impairments in facial recognition, although these were more marked in the early-onset subgroup. Variation in psychopathic traits appeared to exert an additional influence on the recognition of fear, sadness and surprise. Implications of these data for the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour are discussed. [source]

Parent management training, treatment for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents

Stephen Scott
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Breakdown of teenage placements in Swedish foster and residential care

Marie Sallnšs
ABSTRACT This article deals with the problem of breakdown in different types of out-of-home care (foster care/residential care) for Swedish teenagers. How often are such placements prematurely terminated against the wishes and intentions of child welfare authorities? Which factors appear to increase or decrease the risk of placement breakdown? The sample consists of a national cohort of 776 youths who started 922 placements during 1991. Every placement was followed in municipal case files for a maximum period of five years. Between 30 and 37% of all placements were prematurely terminated, the exact figure depending on whether a narrow or wide definition of breakdown was applied. The lowest rates of breakdown were found in kinship care and secure units, the highest in non-kinship foster homes. Teenagers who display antisocial behaviour and/or have mental health problems constitute a high-risk category for most types of out-of-home care, but especially in non-kinship foster homes. Risk factors in relation to breakdown were analysed in the four main forms of Swedish out-of-home care separately (foster homes, privately/publicly run residential care and secure units). The analysis pointed out that risk factors are not the same in all types of care, but antisocial behaviour at time of placement increased the risk in most forms of care. Prior research indicates that placement breakdown is a major problem of child welfare in other countries, and this study found that Sweden is no exception. [source]