Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Antecedents

  • different antecedent
  • direct antecedent
  • important antecedent
  • possible antecedent
  • potential antecedent
  • proximal antecedent
  • significant antecedent

  • Terms modified by Antecedents

  • antecedent condition
  • antecedent factor
  • antecedent moisture condition
  • antecedent variable

  • Selected Abstracts


    Annmarie Cano
    Many couples seeking therapy report the occurrence of severe, negative marital stressors (e.g., infidelity, threats of marital dissolution). In addition, existing research has demonstrated that these marital stressors precipitate Major Depressive Episodes and psychological symptoms. This longitudinal study examines the antecedents and consequencs of negative marital stressors to help clinicians and researchers develop interventions that might prevent these stressors and their outcomes. Forty-one women completed a semistructured interview and measures of marital discord and depressive symptoms within one month after experiencing a marital stressor (baseline) and at a 16-month follow-up. The results indicate taht baseline marital discord contributes to the occurrence of additional marital stressors during the follow-up period. Although baseline depressive symptoms do not predict additional marital stressors, depressive symtoms along with marital discord predict future depressive symptoms. Finally, baseline marital discord and additional marital stressors contribute to future dissolution. Clinical and research implications are discussed. [source]


    The authors developed and tested a multistage model of distal and proximal predictors of leader performance in an effort to shed greater light on the intermediate linkages between broad leader traits and performance. Predictor and criterion data were obtained from 471 noncommissioned officers in the U.S. Army. A model with cognitive ability and 3 of the Big 5 personality factors as distal antecedents, leadership experiences and motivation to lead as semidistal antecedents, and the knowledge, skills, and ability (KSAs) to lead as proximal antecedents of leader performance provided a good fit to the data. More specifically, the effects of the distal and semidistal antecedents on leader performance were partially mediated by more proximal variables, whereas leader KSAs demonstrated a relatively strong, direct influence on performance. The 1 exception was that Conscientiousness,a hypothesized distal antecedent,had a notable direct effect on leader performance. The implications of these findings for leadership research and practice are discussed. [source]


    In this diary study conducted in Hong Kong, we examined a theoretical model in which negative emotions serve as an explanatory mechanism through which daily stressors impact daily counterproductive work behavior (CWB). We further theorized that personality variables (negative affectivity, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness) would exert cross-level effects on the within-person relationships. Hierarchical linear modeling results based on a sample of 231 individuals and 5,583 observations across 25 days provide partial support for the mediating role of negative emotions in the within-person stressor,CWB relationships. Specifically, we found that negative emotions (a) partially mediated the within-person relation of perceived ambiguity with CWB directed at the organization, (b) fully mediated the relation of supervisor interpersonal injustice with CWB directed at individuals, and (c) fully mediated the relation of customer interpersonal injustice with CWB directed at the organization. High levels of trait negative affectivity were found to strengthen the within-person relation between daily supervisor interpersonal injustice and daily negative emotions. As expected, high levels of trait Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were found to weaken the within-person relations of daily negative emotions with daily CWB directed at the organization and individuals. [source]


    Despite an abundance of research conducted on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) at the individual level of analysis, relatively little is known about unit-level OCB. To investigate the antecedents of unit-level OCB, data were collected from employees of 249 grocery store departments. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to test a model in which procedural justice climate was hypothesized to partially mediate the relationship between leadership behavior (servant-leadership) and unit-level OCB. Models were tested using both employee ratings and manager ratings of unit-level OCB. The results gave general support for the hypotheses, although there were some differences depending on the source of the OCB ratings (supervisor or subordinate), whether the type of department was controlled for, and whether a common method variance factor was included. Overall, the evidence generally supported the association of both servant-leadership and procedural justice climate with unit-level OCB. Building on the current study, a multilevel framework for the study of OCB is presented in conjunction with a discussion of future research directions in four specific areas. [source]


    This study examined antecedents and consequences of procedural justice climate (Mossholder, Bennett, & Martin, 1998; Naumann & Bennett, 2000) in a sample of manufacturing teams. The results showed that climate level (i.e., the average procedural justice perception within the team) was significantly related to both team performance and team absenteeism. Moreover, the effects of climate level were moderated by climate strength, such that the relationships were more beneficial in stronger climates. In addition, team size and team collectivism were significant antecedents of climate level, and team size and team demographic diversity predicted climate strength. [source]

    The expanding realm of heterologous immunity: friend or foe?

    Kathleen R. Page
    Summary Antecedent or current infections can alter the immunopathologic outcome of a subsequent unrelated infection. Immunomodulation by co-infecting pathogens has been referred to as ,heterologous immunity' and has been postulated to play a role in host susceptibility to disease, tolerance to organ transplant, and autoimmune disease. The effect of various infections on heterologous immune responses has been well studied in the context of shared epitopes and cross-reactive T cells. It has been shown that prior infections can modulate protective immunity and immunopathology by forming a pool of memory T cells that can cross-react with antigens from heterologous organisms or through the generation of a network of regulatory cells and cytokines. While it is not feasible to alter a host's history of prior infection, understanding heterologous immune responses in the context of simultaneous unrelated infections could have important therapeutic implications. Here, we outline key evidence from animal and human studies demonstrating the effect of heterologous immunity on the outcome of disease. We briefly review the role of T cells, but expand our discussion to explore other immune mechanisms that may modulate the response to concurrent active infections. In particular, we underscore the role of the innate immune system, polarized responses and regulatory mechanisms on heterologous immune responses. [source]

    Antecedents of Shareholder Activism in Target Firms: Evidence from a Multi-Country Study

    William Q. Judge
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: This study seeks to better understand the antecedents of shareholder activism targeted at firms located in three common law countries (i.e., USA, UK, and Australia) and three civil law countries (Japan, Germany, and South Korea) during the 2003,07 time period. Research Findings/Insights: Our findings suggest that the antecedents of shareholder activism vary by the motivation of the activist. We demonstrate that activists target firms with two motives (a) to improve the financial performance, and (b) to improve the social performance of the firm. With respect to the target firm level antecedents, we find that firm size is unrelated to financial activism, but positively related to social activism; ownership concentration is negatively related to both financial and social activism; and prior profitability is negatively related to financial activism, but positively related to social activism. Further, these relationships in the case of financial activism are generally stronger in common law legal systems, whereas those in the case of social activism are generally stronger in environments with a greater level of income inequality. Theoretical/Academic Implications: Our findings suggest that future research should differentiate between the motivations of the activism event. Further, we find that while agency logic works well for financial activism, institutional theory provides stronger explanations for social activism. Overall, we demonstrate the complementary nature of these two theories in explaining shareholder activism. Practitioner/Policy Implications: We found that the "exposure" to shareholder activism varies by the motivation of the activist, and the nature of the firm and its national context. An understanding of these issues would help firms develop proper response strategies to activism events. [source]

    Multilevel Social Dynamics Considerations for Project Management Decision Makers: Antecedents and Implications of Group Member Tie Development

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 3 2010
    Elliot Bendoly
    ABSTRACT Successful projects represent the effective culmination of management skills, planning, and individual project member strengths. In operations management, such strengths are often viewed predominantly from the perspective of skill base. However, it has become increasingly evident that behavioral traits associated with individuals play a very significant, if not ultimately dominating, role in the effectiveness of certain group projects. Our aim in this study is to look into how certain individual attributes viewed as relevant to these project contexts may lead to social networking decisions that have impacts spanning multiple levels of analysis. Such insights are likely to prove valuable to decision makers managing project teams as well. We employ a controlled 4-month investigation of multiple projects, for which we are able to consider both objective, and subjective pre-, in situ, and postproject data. Our results demonstrate that the issues of perceived control, confidence, and conscientiousness are relevant not only in driving individual perceptions of the value of within-group interactions, and hence the development of associated ties, but are also ultimately relevant in helping to drive higher levels of group performance. [source]

    Examining the Antecedents and Consequences of CIO Strategic Decision-Making Authority: An Empirical Study,

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 4 2008
    David S. Preston
    ABSTRACT Despite the strategic importance of information technology (IT) to contemporary firms, chief information officers (CIO) often still have varying degrees of strategic decision-making authority. In this study, we apply the theory of managerial discretion to define CIO strategic decision-making authority and argue that the CIO's level of strategic decision-making authority directly influences IT's contribution to organization performance. We also draw on the power and politics perspective in the strategic decision-making literature to identify the direct antecedents to the CIO's strategic decision-making authority. A theoretical model is presented and empirically tested using survey data collected from a cross-industry sample of 174 matched pairs of CIOs and top business executives through structural equation modeling. The results suggest that organizational climate, organizational support for IT, the CIO's structural power, the CIO's level of strategic effectiveness, and a strong partnership between the CIO and top management team directly influence the CIO's level of strategic decision-making authority within the organization. The results also suggest that the CIO's strategic decision-making authority in the organization directly influences the contribution of IT to firm performance and that effective CIOs have a greater influence on IT's contribution when provided with strategic decision-making authority. [source]

    Four Bases of Family Business Successor Commitment: Antecedents and Consequences

    Pramodita Sharma
    Although successor commitment toward family business has been identified as a key desirable attribute, commitment has been treated as a unidimensional construct in family business research. Drawing on the organizational commitment literature, we propose four bases of successor commitment to family firm,affective (based on perceived desire), normative (based on perceived sense of obligation), calculative (based on perceived opportunity costs involved), and imperative (based on perceived need). A model of antecedents and expected behavioral outcomes of each of these bases of commitment is developed. Related propositions are presented, as are the contributions to the literature, research and practical implications. [source]

    Antecedents and outcomes of workplace incivility: Implications for human resource development research and practice

    Thomas G. Reio Jr.
    This cross-sectional, correlational study (N = 402) examined the relationships among select demographics, workplace adaptation, employee affect, and incivility and physical health and job satisfaction. The paper-and-pencil survey battery consisted of nine scales. The hypotheses were tested through correlational, factor analytic, and hierarchical regression analytic procedures. Younger males engaged more frequently in uncivil behavior. After statistically controlling for the demographic variables, high negative affect and low degree of establishing relationships with coworkers and supervisors (adaptation) predicted more incivility. For the physical health model, establishing relationships with coworkers and positive affect positively contributed to perceived physical health, while organizational incivility negatively contributed to the dependent variable. As for the job satisfaction model, establishing relationships with coworkers and supervisors and positive affect positively predicted satisfaction, whereas negative affect and incivility made negative contributions to the regression equation. In all cases, the magnitude of effect ranged from medium to large, supporting the theoretical, empirical, and practical relevance of understanding the detrimental effects of uncivil behaviors on organizational outcomes. HRD researchers and professionals are highlighted as possible means for reducing uncivil workplace behaviors and improving organizational performance. [source]

    Antecedents of mirror self-recognition of toddlers: Emotional availability, birth order, and gender

    Judith Harel Ph.D.
    The present study employed a longitudinal design for examining the role of emotional availability of child,mother dyads, birth order of children, and their gender as determinants of mirror self-recognition of toddlers. It was hypothesized that toddlers who maintained more optimal emotional availability with mother at the age of 12 months would tend to identify themselves more readily at the age of 20 months. We assumed further that first-born children and females would identify themselves more readily than males and younger siblings. A sample of 54 nonrisk children and their mothers was investigated. Path analysis model showed that emotional availability partly predicted self-recognition: responsive toddlers identified themselves more often than less responsive peers. No significant effects were found for the other scales of emotional availability. A nonlinear birth order effect was observed, with second-born children being less likely to show mirror self-recognition than first-borns or third-borns. Child gender was not significantly associated with self-recognition at the age of 20 months. The data showed further that birth order was significantly linked with components of emotional availability. No significant correlations were found between emotional availability scores and child gender. Results were discussed in light of the different components of emotional availability, and the psychological correlates of ordinal position in the family. ©2002 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Antecedents of flow in online shopping: a test of alternative models

    Yi Maggie Guo
    Abstract Flow is an optimal state of experience that has been studied in various situations, including online environments. In such environments, it has been found to be positively related to exploratory behaviour, revisit and purchase intention, and positive attitude towards web sites. Based on flow theory, this study tests the complete structure of the flow model as it was originally formulated in an online shopping context. The role of the preconditions of flow is elaborated and the effect of web site complexity, an important interface design variable, on flow is examined. Results show that web site complexity affects flow through the mediating effects of the three preconditions of flow. Theoretical and practical implications of this finding are discussed. [source]

    Antecedents to hospital deaths: all in good time

    G. K. Hart
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Expatriate Social Ties: Personality Antecedents and Consequences for Adjustment

    Erin C. Johnson
    This expaloratory study examines the relationship between personality characteristics (extraversion, core self evaluations), social tie characteristics (number, breadth, depth), and three types of expatriate adjustment (general, interaction, and work). Data was collected at two points in time from 75 expatriate employees from one organization on international assignments around the world. Results indicate that core self-evaluations, but not extraversion, are positively related to the number of ties formed with other expatriates and host country nationals. Social ties with other expatriates were found to provide greater social support, but similar access to information, than those with host country nationals (HCNs). In general, depth and breadth of relationships with other expatriates predicted general and work adjustment; whereas, breadth and total number of relationships with HCNs predicted all three types of adjustment. Overall, these results provide initial support for the importance of social ties in facilitating expatriate adjustment. [source]

    Nation and Nationalism: Historical Antecedents to Contemporary Debates

    Adeed Dawisha

    Maternal distress: a concept analysis

    Elizabeth Emmanuel
    emmanuel e. & st john w. (2010) Maternal distress: concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing,66(9), 2104,2115. Abstract Aim., This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of maternal distress. Background., Although not well-developed, the concept of maternal distress has offered an important viewpoint in nursing and midwifery practice since the mid-1990s. Traditionally, understanding of maternal distress has been based on the medical model and dysfunction. The concept of maternal distress needs development so that it describes responses ranging from normal stress responses to those indicating mental health problem/s. Data sources., The SCOPUS, CINAHL and Medline databases were searched for the period from 1995 to 2009 using the keywords ,psychological distress', ,emotional distress' and ,maternal distress'. Review methods., Steps from Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis guided the conduct of this concept analysis. Results., Four attributes of maternal distress were identified as responses to the transition to motherhood, with the level of each response occurring along a continuum: stress, adapting, functioning and control, and connecting. Antecedents to maternal distress include becoming a mother, role changes, body changes and functioning, increased demands and challenges, losses and gains, birth experiences, and changes to relationships and social context. The consequences of maternal distress are compromised mental health status, maternal role development, quality of life, ability to function, quality of relationships and social engagement. The extent of the impact depends on the level of maternal distress. Conclusion., Clearer interpretation of maternal distress offers a comprehensive approach to understanding maternal emotional health during the transition to motherhood. Acknowledging women's experiences and providing more appropriate support could alleviate some of the struggles and hardships experienced by mothers. [source]

    Medication communication: a concept analysis

    Elizabeth Manias
    manias e. (2010) Medication communication: a concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(4), 933,943. Abstract Title.,Medication communication: a concept analysis. Aim., This paper is a report of a concept analysis of medication communication with a particular focus on how it applies to nursing. Background., Medication communication is a vital component of patient safety, quality of care, and patient and family engagement. Nevertheless, this concept has been consistently taken-for-granted without adequate analysis, definition or clarification in the quality and patient safety literature. Data sources., A literature search was undertaken using bibliographic databases, internet search engines, and hand searches. Literature published in English between January 1988 and June 2009 was reviewed. Walker and Avant's approach was used to guide the concept analysis. Discussion., Medication communication is a dynamic and complex process. Defining attributes consider who speaks, who is silent, what is said, what aspects of medication care are prioritized, the use of body language in conversations, and actual words used. Open communication occurs if there is cooperation among individuals in implementing plans of care. Antecedents involve environmental influences such as ward culture and geographical space, and sociocultural influences such as beliefs about the nature of interactions. Consequences involve patient and family engagement in communication, evidence of appropriate medication use, the frequency and type of medication-related adverse events, and the presence of medication adherence. Empirical referents typically do not reflect specific aspects of medication communication. Conclusion., This concept analysis can be used by nurses to guide them in understanding the complexities surrounding medication communication, with the ultimate goal of improving patient safety, quality of care, and facilitating patient and family engagement. [source]

    An Analysis of the Distribution and Social Antecedents of Restrictive Behavioural Practices in a Community Day Service for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Lori L. Finn
    Background, Community service providers strive to reduce the use of restrictive behavioural procedures, but little is known about their use in community services. Therefore, this study analysed the distribution among service users and antecedents to the use of restrictive procedures. Materials, The authors analysed records of the use of restrictive behavioural procedures for 81 adults with intellectual disabilities, behavioural and mental health challenges who attended a community day programme. The authors obtained data from one quarter in each of three consecutive years. The authors analysed the frequency of restrictive procedures by individual and the frequency of antecedents to the use of restrictive procedures. Results, A small proportion of service users accounted for all use of restrictive procedures. This was true for all three data sets. We coded antecedents to the use of restrictive procedures reliably. The most common antecedents were transitions and seatwork. Conclusion, Restrictive behavioural procedures are concentrated among a small proportion of service users and occasions. Efforts to reduce the use of restrictive procedures should first identify these service users and occasions and then focus efforts to reduce restrictive procedures there. Information concerning the antecedents of restrictive behavioural procedures may be useful as part of a descriptive assessment to design individual interventions to reduce restrictive procedures. [source]

    Antecedents and Consequences of Perceived Barriers to Obtaining Mentoring: A Longitudinal Investigation

    Gerhard Blickle
    Mentoring is prototypically intended to advance the personal and professional growth of new employees at work. Although meta-analyses have found that receiving mentoring can result in beneficial outcomes for employees' career success, employees may perceive barriers to obtaining a mentor. The present research examined antecedents and consequences to perceived barriers to mentoring in business and administrative jobs in a field study over 2 years. Socioeconomic origin, positive affectivity, organizational development culture, and previous mentoring experience predicted perceived barriers to mentoring after 2 years. New employees' perceived barriers to mentoring at Time 1 predicted changes in mentoring received and income after 2 years. Implications of this study, including a proposed mentoring training program, and directions for future research are discussed. [source]

    An Examination of Established Antecedents of Power in Purchase Decision Making: Married and Nontraditional Couples

    Michelle C. Reiss
    This research examined the extent that resource theory, sex-role orientation, least interested partner hypothesis, and involvement apply to cohabiting heterosexual, gay, and lesbian couples. Findings revealed that (a) resources significantly affected only married partners' relative influence and strategy usage; (b) sex-role orientation significantly affected relative influence for married partners and strategy selection for partners in both types of heterosexual couples; (c) least interest significantly affected relative influence for partners in both types of heterosexual couples and influence strategy selection for cohabi-tors; and (d) involvement significantly affected relative influence and strategy usage for all couple types. Overall, the effect of the antecedents on relative influence and strategy usage depends on the extent that partners within any couple type are similar on various antecedents. [source]

    Structural Antecedents to Knowledge and Participation: Extending the Knowledge Gap Concept to Participation

    Jaeho Cho
    This paper investigates relationships between community characteristics and levels of knowledge and participation examined at both the individual and the community levels. This research extends the knowledge gap concept to a parallel phenomenon, the participation gap. Results from the Social Capital Benchmark Survey 2000 showed that community density, education, and cohesion were significant positive predictors of knowledge but less consistent predictors of participation at the individual level. At the community level, relationships were even stronger, though cohesion was associated with higher mean levels of participation and reduced participation gaps, whereas population density was associated with lower levels of participation and increased gaps. [source]

    Antecedents of consumer relative preference for interpersonal information sources in pre-purchase search

    Mehdi Mourali
    Abstract Past research has demonstrated clearly the importance of pre-purchase information search within the buying process. Scholars have identified several sources used by consumers in order to obtain information relevant to their purchase situation. Among the various information sources, interpersonal non-commercial sources seem to play an important role in consumers' choice decisions. The present study examines potential antecedents of consumer relative preference for interpersonal information search. The proposed antecedents include personality traits such as individuals' susceptibility to interpersonal influence, their need for cognition and their self-confidence, as well as individual differences in product knowledge and perceived risk associated with the purchase of a specific product. Using structural equation modelling on survey data (419 respondents), seven hypotheses , describing relationships between the diverse variables of the model , were tested. The results indicate that consumer relative preference for interpersonal information search was significantly influenced by consumers' susceptibility to interpersonal influence, their need for cognition, their self-confidence and their product knowledge. Consumers' product knowledge also influenced their perceived risk, which did not affect their preference for interpersonal search significantly. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Reluctant but resourceful middle managers: the case of nurses in the NHS

    This study counters the widely held view that middle managers have little to contribute to strategic change in health care organizations. In particular, it argues that middle managers with a nursing background that manage clinical activity should be involved in strategic change beyond mere implementation of decisions made by executive management. Constraints upon this are noted , the power of doctors and central government intervention , that means middle managers enact a semiautonomous strategic role. Antecedents for the semiautonomous role are investment in organization and management development, developing lateral organizational structures that allow middle managers to make a contribution to the development, as well as the implementation of strategy and allowing middle managers to interact with other stakeholders outside the confines of the organization. [source]

    Antecedents and consequences of basic versus career enrichment benefit satisfaction

    Gary Blau
    Using a sample of 250 medical technologists (MTs) over a four-year time period, this study presents initial evidence for differentiating two different facets of benefit satisfaction,basic and career enrichment. Basic benefit satisfaction exhibited stronger relationships to subsequent general benefit satisfaction, organizational withdrawal intent, and turnover behavior, while career enrichment benefit satisfaction exhibited a stronger relationship to subsequent affective organizational commitment. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Adolescent Transitions to Young Adulthood: Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences of Adolescent Employment

    Tama Leventhal
    The antecedents, correlates, and consequences of adolescent employment were investigated in a sample of 251 low-income, African American youth that were followed since birth. The youth (age: M at preschool = 4.89, SD= .70; M at adolescence = 16.44, SD= .66; M at transition to adulthood = 19.36, SD= .76; and M at early adulthood = 27.67, SD= .75) were the firstborn children of African American teenage mothers who gave birth in Baltimore in the 1960s. Analyses examined the antecedents and correlates of age of entry into employment and stability of employment during adolescence. The associations of adolescent work experiences with subsequent adult education and employment outcomes also were considered. Findings indicate that among this sample of low-income, African American youth, those who repeated a grade in school during middle childhood were more likely to enter the workforce at later ages than their peers who did not repeat a grade. The small subset of adolescents who never worked (n= 12) appear to be markedly more disadvantaged than their peers who worked. At the transition to adulthood, adolescents who entered the workforce earlier were more likely to complete high school than their peers. In addition, stable employment during the adolescent years had more beneficial effects on young men's chances of attending college than young women's postsecondary education. This pattern of findings is consistent with ethnographic accounts of adolescent employment among poor, minority, urban youth. [source]

    Antecedents of two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy

    Barry R. Masters
    Abstract In 1931, Maria Göppert-Mayer published her doctoral dissertation on the theory of two-photon quantum transitions (two-photon absorption and emission) in atoms. This report describes and analyzes the theoretical and experimental work on nonlinear optics, in particular two-photon excitation processes, that occurred between 1931 and the experimental implementation of two-photon excitation microscopy by the group of Webb in 1990. In addition to Maria Göppert-Mayer's theoretical work, the invention of the laser has a key role in the development of two-photon microscopy. Nonlinear effects were previously observed in different frequency domains (low-frequency electric and magnetic fields and magnetization), but the high electric field strength afforded by lasers was necessary to demonstrate many nonlinear effects in the optical frequency range. In 1978, the first high-resolution nonlinear microscope with depth resolution was described by the Oxford group. Sheppard and Kompfner published a study in Applied Optics describing microscopic imaging based on second-harmonic generation. In their report, they further proposed that other nonlinear optical effects, such as two-photon fluorescence, could also be applied. However, the developments in the field of nonlinear optical stalled due to a lack of a suitable laser source. This obstacle was removed with the advent of femtosecond lasers in the 1980s. In 1990, the seminal study of Denk, Strickler, and Webb on two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy was published in Science. Their paper clearly demonstrated the capability of two-photon excitation microscopy for biology, and it served to convince a wide audience of scientists of the potential capability of the technique. Microsc. Res. Tech. 63:3,11, 2004. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Feeling Misunderstood: A Concept Analysis

    NURSING FORUM, Issue 4 2008
    Barbara Backer Condon MS
    TOPIC.,Feeling misunderstood. PURPOSE.,The purpose of this study was to analyze the concept of feeling misunderstood to explicate the antecedents, attributes, and consequences of this phenomenon. SOURCE.,A comprehensive review of literature, from 1957 to 2005, was completed with the keywords feeling misunderstood to guide the search. CONCLUSIONS.,Three defining attributes of feeling misunderstood were identified: (a) disquietude; (b) discordant perceptions; and (c) heightened cognizance of emotions. Antecedents, including presence of an issue, communication barrier, and unexpected response from receiver, are explicated, along with the consequences, or transformations in behavior. [source]

    An Analysis of the Concept of Patient Participation

    NURSING FORUM, Issue 1 2008
    BSc Health Service Adm., MSc Nursing, Monika J. M. Sahlsten PhD
    The concept of patient participation has an array of interpretations and lacks clarity. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept of patient participation within the context of nursing practice. The method described by Walker and Avant (1995) is used. The critical attributes of the concept are identified. Formation of model, borderline, and contrary cases exemplifies key characteristics. Antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents presented allow for further refinement of the key attributes defining the concept. Patient participation in nursing practice can be defined as an established relationship between nurse and patient, a surrendering of some power or control by the nurse, shared information and knowledge, and active engagement together in intellectual and/or physical activities. [source]

    Antecedents for aggression and the function analytic approach to the assessment of aggression and violence in personality disordered patients within secure settings

    Michael Daffern
    The aim of this paper is to explore the validity and clinical utility of a function analytic approach to the assessment of aggression and violence in patients with personality disorder. This paper begins with a review of the factors that are associated with aggression in personality disordered patients, and focuses in particular upon those patients whose aggressive and violent behaviour has been the reason for their admission to a secure facility, and who may continue to engage in aggression. Two approaches that may explain such aggression are discussed and evaluated: (1) the identification of personality traits that may influence aggression and (2) the differentiation of hostile and instrumental aggression. Some limitations with these two approaches are identified, and an argument is made for function analytic assessment methods. An overview of one form of functional assessment, the Assessment and Classification of Function method, which assists in the classification of differential forms of aggression, is provided. Finally, the clinical and treatment implications of the function analytic approach are discussed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]