Leading Role (leading + role)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Dento-alveolar and maxillofacial injuries: a 5-year multi-center study.

Part 2: Severity, location
These injuries may cause morbidity and demand meticulously planned treatment. Part 1 of this study focused on the incidence of general trauma injuries, as well as facial or dental trauma. The aim of part 2 is to evaluate the severity and location of the dento-alveolar and maxillofacial injuries over 5 years. A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on data from the Israel National Trauma Registry. Patients admitted and hospitalized due to trauma injuries during the years 2000,2004, totaled 111 010 in which 5886 (5.3%) were maxillofacial or dental injuries. Most of these injuries were traffic-related (54.5%), followed by events at home (18.7%). Facial injuries combined with injuries to other organs involved occurred in 3721 (63.2%) of the patients. Most minor injuries were noted when no other organs were involved, while severe injuries were more common when multiple organs were involved. More than 25% of facial injuries required surgery. Meticulous epidemiologic studies are needed to support the leading role, extent, and severity of maxillofacial trauma. [source]

Liquid chromatography on chip

Karine Faure
Abstract LC is one of the most powerful separation techniques as illustrated by its leading role in analytical sciences through both academic and industrial communities. Its implementation in microsystems appears to be crucial in the development of ,-Total Analysis System. If electrophoretic techniques have been widely used in miniaturized devices, LC has faced multiple challenges in the downsizing process. During the past 5 years, significant breakthroughs have been achieved in this research area, in both conception and use of LC on chip. This review emphasizes the development of novel stationary phases and their implementation in microchannels. Recent instrumental advances are also presented, highlighting the various driving forces (pressure, electrical field) that have been selected and their respective ranges of applications. [source]

Regulatory measures against Erwinia amylovora in Switzerland,

EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 2 2005
B. Duffy
Switzerland joined the list of fireblight-affected European countries in 1989. Vigorous and systematic steps were taken to limit the impact of the disease on fruit production and amenity plants. These efforts are codified in a Swiss law detailing prevention, eradication, control measures and issues of compensation. As with many Swiss legal directives, there is a defined coordination of federal and cantonal responsibilities and, in the case of fireblight, there is also an emphasis at all levels on personal responsibility of owners of susceptible objects (e.g. nurseries, orchards, host plants). Extension activities have been a key component in achieving compliance with disease management regulations and in obtained public support for control efforts. Agroscope FAW Wdenswil has taken a leading role in this respect through its website http://www.feuerbrand.ch. [source]

Effective management of adverse effects while on oral chemotherapy: implications for nursing practice

K. HARROLD rn, bsc ( hons ), chemotherapy, iv access clinical nurse specialist
HARROLD K. (2010) European Journal of Cancer Care19, 12,20 Effective management of adverse effects while on oral chemotherapy: implications for nursing practice The publication of guidelines by the United Kingdom National Patient Safety Agency and the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death which looked into deaths within 30 days of systemic anticancer therapy and the more recent position statement from the United Kingdom Oncology Nursing Society have all highlighted the need for an improvement in the care and management of patients receiving oral chemotherapy. While it is essential that patients are aware of the rationale behind dose interruption and modification if they are to effectively deal with toxicities and complications that may arise, they also require access to a clear line of communication in order to facilitate early intervention. The value of pre treatment patient education and ongoing support for these patients has already been extensively documented and while a multidisciplinary team approach in this is vital, nurses are ideally placed to take a leading role in these two aspects of treatment management. This article aims to detail and review current best management practices for the most commonly reported toxicities associated with capecitabine, an oral chemotherapeutic agent used in the management of patients with colorectal cancer. Only if both the patient and the health care professional supporting them are aware of best management practices will the impact of toxicities be minimised and treatment outcomes optimised. [source]

Synaptic and non-synaptic mechanisms of amygdala recruitment into temporolimbic epileptiform activities

Julia Klueva
Abstract Lateral amygdala (LA) activity during synchronized-epileptiform discharges in temporolimbic circuits was investigated in rat horizontal slices containing the amygdala, hippocampus (Hip), perirhinal (Prh) and lateral entorhinal (LEnt) cortex, through multiple-site extra- and intracellular recording techniques and measurement of the extracellular K+ concentration. Application of 4-aminopyridine (50 m) induced epileptiform discharges in all regions under study. Slow interictal-like burst discharges persisted in the Prh/LEnt/LA after disconnection of the Hip, seemed to originate in the Prh as shown from time delay analyses, and often preceded the onset of ictal-like activity. Disconnection of the amygdala resulted in de-synchronization of epileptiform discharges in the LA from those in the Prh/LEnt. Interictal-like activity was intracellularly reflected in LA projection neurons as ,-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A/B receptor-mediated synaptic responses, and depolarizing electrogenic events (spikelets) residing on the initial phase of the GABA response. Spikelets were considered antidromically conducted ectopic action potentials generated at axon terminals, as they were graded in amplitude, were not abolished through hyperpolarizing membrane responses (which effectively blocked evoked orthodromic action potentials), lacked a clear prepotential or synaptic potential, were not affected through blockers of gap junctions, and were blocked through remote application of tetrodotoxin at putative target areas of LA projection neurons. Remote application of a GABAB receptor antagonist facilitated spikelet generation. A transient elevation in the extracellular K+ level averaging 3 mm above baseline occurred in conjunction with interictal-like activity in all areas under study. We conclude that interictal-like discharges in the LA/LEnt/Prh spread in a predictable manner through the synaptic network with the Prh playing a leading role. The rise in extracellular K+ may provide a depolarizing mechanism for recruitment of interneurons and generation of ectopic action potentials at axon terminals of LA projection neurons. Antidromically conducted ectopic action potentials may provide a spreading mechanism of seizure activity mediated by diffuse axonal projections of LA neurons. [source]

The Making of a Market Economy in China: Transformation of Government Regulation of Market Development

Qianlan Wu
It is the administrative bureaucratic system that has played a leading role in the making of a market economy in China. In recent years, the Chinese Government has strived to establish a market economy based on the rule of law and has undertaken legal measures to rationalise government regulation of market economy development. However, the administrative bureaucratic system headed by the central government remains a strong party leading the market economy construction in China. This article argues that the administrative bureaucratic system and market economy development have evolved into a social institution. To transform the regulation of market economy development towards the rule of law is a social institutional change and is a slow and incremental process, as it is imbedded in the various formal and informal constraints in Chinese society. [source]

The General Provisions of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

R. Alonso Garca
The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union provides the Union with a ,more evident' (as the European Council of Cologne asked for) framework of protection of the individuals before the public authorities within the European context, after more than thirty years (since the Stauder Case) of full confidence in the leading role played by the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Communities. This new normative catalogue of fundamental rights (included the so called ,aspirational fundamental rights') implies one more instrument of protection which has to find its own place with regard to the protection afforded by the national Constitutions and the international agreements on human rights, particularly the European Convention on Human Rights, which are already a privileged source of inspiration for Court of Justice of the European Communities. It is the main objective of the General Provisions of the Charter to clarify which is that place and the relationship with those other levels of protection as managed by their supreme interpreters (i.e., the Constitutional,or Supreme,Courts of the Member States of the Union and the European Court of Human Rights). [source]

The effects of macrolocalization of deformation in Al-based composites with Al2O3 inclusions

ABSTRACT Using a television optical TOMSC system, regular features of localization of macroplastic deformation are studied in composite aluminum-based materials with hard inclusions of Al2O3 under tension. Before investigation, the specimens are subjected to cold rolling, tempering for 30 min at 500 C with subsequent cooling in air, and annealing at 550 C during 2 h with subsequent cooling in furnace. It is shown that the tempered and annealed alloys exhibit mobile centers of active macrolocalization long before the formation of a stationary neck preceding material fracture. Physical mesomechanics, relying on the concepts of the leading role of different-scale stress concentrators that relax and develop in a loaded heterogeneous material, is capable of providing a qualitative description of macrolocalization development. [source]

Genetic immunity and influenza pandemics

Sergey N. Rumyantsev
Abstract In addition to the great number of publications focused on the leading role of virus mutations and reassortment in the origin of pandemic influenza, general opinion emphasizes the victim side of the epidemic process. Based on the analysis and integration of relevant ecological, epidemiological, clinical, genetic and experimental data, the present article is focused on the evolution of ,virus , victim' ecological systems resulting in the formation of innate (i.e. genetic, constitutional) immunity in the involved species and populations. This kind of immunity functions today as the greatest natural barrier to the pandemic spread of influenza among humans and ecologically related kinds of animals. Global influenza pandemics can arise when the worldwide population contains at least a minimum number of people susceptible to a known or mutant influenza virus. Special attention is paid in this article to individual tests for the presence of this barrier, including the implications of specific findings for public health policy. Such tests could be based on in vitro observation of the action of relevant virus strains on primary cell cultures or on their cellular or molecular components extracted from individuals. The resources of the Human Genome Project should also be utilized. [source]

Genetic findings in Parkinson's disease and translation into treatment: a leading role for mitochondria?

V. Bogaerts
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder and in most patients its aetiology remains unknown. Molecular genetic studies in familial forms of the disease identified key proteins involved in PD pathogenesis, and support a major role for mitochondrial dysfunction, which is also of significant importance to the common sporadic forms of PD. While current treatments temporarily alleviate symptoms, they do not halt disease progression. Drugs that target the underlying pathways to PD pathogenesis, including mitochondrial dysfunction, therefore hold great promise for neuroprotection in PD. Here we summarize how the proteins identified through genetic research (,-synuclein, parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, LRRK2 and HTRA2) fit into and add to our current understanding of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD. We highlight how these genetic findings provided us with suitable animal models and critically review how the gained insights will contribute to better therapies for PD. [source]

The co effect of prophylaxis and radiosynovectomy on bleeding episodes in haemophilic synovitis

HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 3 2008
Summary., Prophylactic substitution treatment and radiosynoviorthosis have a leading role in preventing irreversible haemophilic arthropathy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of prophylaxis treatment and radiosynovectomy on the length of intervals between subsequent haemorrhages in haemophilic patients. Thirty-three joints were treated with radiosynovectomy in 28 patients with bleeding disorders. 90Y colloid was used in knees and 186Re colloid for elbows, shoulders and ankles. Twenty patients were on prophylaxis. Joint X-rays were evaluated on the Pettersson scale between 0 (normal) and 13 (severe joint destruction). During an observation period (range 6,44 months) bleeding episodes were recorded and data statistically analysed. Before radiosynovectomy, increasing intensity of the prophylaxis 10% lengthens intervals between two haemorrhages by 1% (P < 0.05). In patients with a Pettersson score higher than nine, intervals between bleedings are shorter by 73% (P < 0.05), in comparison with patients with lower Pettersson scores of 0,5. After radiosynovectomy, the length of the first non-bleeding interval increased by 120% (to 60 days) in comparison with the intervals before the procedure (P < 0.001). But, in the following year and half, every subsequent non-bleeding interval was 8% shorter (P < 0.1). In that period, prophylaxis shortened the non-bleeding interval by 1.7% (P < 0.05) per 10% increase of its intensity. Radiosynovectomy is more efficient in patients with less affected joints and is less efficient in younger patients. Prophylaxis reduced time between the bleedings episodes after isotope application. Before radiosynovectomy, prophylaxis reduces the number of haemorrhages. Our findings support data previously published by Rodriguez-Merchan et al. [J Thromb Haemost, 5 (2007) P-W-126]. [source]

Multichannel surface electromyography in ergonomics: Potentialities and limits

Marco Gazzoni
Abstract The prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders is one of the main goals in ergonomics. Among others, surface electromyography (sEMG) is an important tool for the evaluation of risks related to work activity. Three main issues have been approached in ergonomics via sEMG: 1) the analysis of muscle activation, 2) the analysis of exerted forces and torques, and 3) the analysis of muscle fatigue. Many studies have been carried out in static conditions. In ergonomics, however, it is more relevant to study muscle activity and fatigue during real tasks that are, in general, dynamic. From isometric to dynamic contractions, the complexity of the interpretation of sEMG signals increases considerably. Changes in sEMG signals are related to the continuous modifications in force output, muscle fiber length, and relative position of surface electrodes and sources. To increase the reliability of the information extracted from sEMG, multichannel detection systems have been applied, showing the possibility of overcoming some limits of the standard technique. Some illustrative laboratory and field studies are reported in this work to illustrate the potentialities and the open problems in the use of multichannel sEMG in ergonomics. Case 1 is a laboratory study investigating the myoelectric manifestations of fatigue in the biceps brachii (BB) during dynamic elbow flexion/extension. Case 2 is a laboratory study investigating the myoelectric manifestations of fatigue during a repetitive lifting task. Case 3 is a field study, carried out in an automotive plant, investigating muscle activation during the welding of a car door. Many factors play a leading role in the correct interpretation of information provided by sEMG. Even though multichannel sEMG provides information able to improve the estimation of force and/or fatigue during working tasks, many problems related to the signal acquisition and interpretation are still open. Further improvements are necessary to develop multichannel sEMG into an effective tool supporting other methodologies for the evaluation of work-related risks. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Psychogastroenterology: a call for psychological input in Australian gastroenterology clinics

A. Mikocka-Walus
Abstract Gastroenterologists should be able to refer patients directly to psychologists with full Medicare reimbursement. Psychological comorbidities are frequently seen in patients with gastrointestinal conditions. However, time pressure and lack of expertise in non-medical therapies of psychological problems prevent gastroenterologists from initiating psychological treatment although such treatment may improve patients' outcomes and reduce health-care utilization. Psychologists are needed as part of the multidisciplinary team in gastroenterology clinics in Australia to take the leading role in the psychological management of those patients by contributing to screening, faster diagnosis and treatment of depression and anxiety disorders in particular. [source]

Group phantasy: its place in the psychology of genocide

James M. Glass
Abstract This paper explores the leading role that ideas and beliefs can play in the formation of groups and their political action, with particular reference to the psychology of groups and movements involved in genocide. The paper asserts the notion of the Idea as leader; thus moving away from Freud's more limited notion in "Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego" of the leader as a person, a charismatic figure generating feelings of love and attachment. Alluding to the work of Bion, Neri and Anzieu, the paper examines the political and psychological significance , the willed quality , of group phantasy in group-initiated mass murder, from Nazi genocide to the ideology of radical Islamic terrorism. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Winter snow depth variability over northern Eurasia in relation to recent atmospheric circulation changes

V. Popova
Abstract Mean snow depth time-series for February (1936,2001) over northern Eurasia (incl. Norway, Finland and the former USSR), interpolated into 5 5 grid points, are studied using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. First, five statistically significant rotated PCs are correlated to Northern Hemisphere (NH) teleconnection patterns at the 700 hPa height: North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Polar-Eurasia (Pol), Pacific-North American (PNA), West Pacific (WP), and Scandinavia (Scand). The impact of the NH circulation modes on snow depth variations is evaluated using the multiple stepwise backward regression (MSBR). Analyses of the snow depth PCs indicate that within the northern Eurasia territory, there are several regions with snow accumulation, respondent to certain circulation modes. PC1 describes low-frequency snow depth variation to the north from 55 to 60N between the White Sea and the Lena river basin, and is positively correlated with NAO and negatively,with Scand. MSBR shows that in 1951,1974 the leading role in snow depth variability belongs to Scand. After 1975, Scand has passed over the leading role to NAO. Scand and NAO are also responsible for the surface air temperature changes over the northern Eurasia. Snow depth PC1 and wintertime temperature are closely related to each other. PC2 describes quasi-decadal snow depth variability over eastern Europe and is negatively correlated with NAO. For the Baltic and White Sea coasts, Fennoscandia, and the center of the East European plain, decrease of snow accumulation, related to a positive NAO phase, seems to be caused by mild winters. For the southwestern and central regions of eastern Europe, negative snow depth anomalies could also be caused by decrease of precipitation associated with the eastward shift of cyclone tracks related to the positive NAO phase. Two regions, where snow depth variations are described by PC1 and PC2, respectively, reveal the border between the opposite recent tendencies of snow accumulation. Copyright 2007 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

Opportunities for an improved role for nurses in psychoactive substance use: Review of the literature

Annette M Nkowane RN RM BSc MA
Nurses form a core component of many health care systems so their role in responding to problems related to psychoactive substance use is crucial. They are often under-utilized, mainly because of anxieties concerning role adequacy, legitimacy, lack of support and failure to implement interventions in a variety of settings. Nurses have unique opportunities through interactions they have with young people, families and significant others. Training and career preparation should encompass development of innovative strategies, taking a leading role in management of substance use patients, involvement in the treatment of the homeless mentally ill, HIV-infected individuals and persons with dual disorders of mental health and substance use. Future directions should focus on developing skills for critical thinking, preventive and therapeutic interventions, clinical judgement, effective organizational capacity and team work. Barriers such as scope of practice, authority, ethical and legal issues surrounding health care for substance use need to be addressed. [source]

P,T,fluid evolution in the Mahalapye Complex, Limpopo high-grade terrane, eastern Botswana

Abstract Metapelites, migmatites and granites from the c. 2 Ga Mahalapye Complex have been studied for determining the P,T,fluid influence on mineral assemblages and local equilibrium compositions in the rocks from the extreme southwestern part of the Central Zone of the Limpopo high-grade terrane in Botswana. It was found that fluid infiltration played a leading role in the formation of the rocks. This conclusion is based on both well-developed textures inferred to record metasomatic reactions, such as Bt , And + Qtz + (K2O) and Bt Qtz , Sil + Kfs + Ms Pl, and zonation of Ms | Bt + Qtz | And + Qtz and Grt | Crd | Pl | Kfs + Qtz reflecting a perfect mobility (Korzhinskii terminology) of some chemical components. The conclusion is also supported by the results of a fluid inclusion study. CO2 and H2O ( = 0.6) are the major components of the fluid. The fluid has been trapped synchronously along the retrograde P,T path. The P,T path was derived using mineral thermobarometry and a combination of mineral thermometry and fluid inclusion density data. The Mahalapye Complex experienced low-pressure granulite facies metamorphism with a retrograde evolution from 770 C and 5.5 kbar to 560 C and 2 kbar, presumably at c. 2 Ga. [source]

The structural organization in aqueous solutions of ionic liquids

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009
Xiao Zhu
Abstract The 1H NMR combined with the local composition (LC) model has been employed to investigate the structural organization of two aqueous solutions of ionic liquids (ILs), namely 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EmimBF4) and n-butylammonium nitrate (N4NO3). The correlation of chemical shifts using the LC model shows that the self-association of IL plays the leading role, and water prefers to interact with IL rather than self-association in IL-rich region. Instead the network of water molecules is established in water-rich region, because the self-association of water predominates. Furthermore, the difference between the local and the bulk composition presents the turnover at x(IL) (mole fraction of IL) close to 0.6 for EmimBF4/water, which is in accordance with the change of excess function. Accordingly, it could be presumed that the excess properties for N4NO3/water system should behave turnover at x(IL) , 0.55 since the local and the bulk exhibit maximal difference at this composition. 2008 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]

Design and In vitro evaluation of a film-controlled dosage form self-converted from monolithic tablet in gastrointestinal environment

Tingting Zhang
Abstract The purpose of this study is to design an easily manufactured sustained drug delivery system, which can be converted to a film coated system during the dissolution process and then control the drug release according to near zero-order kinetics. Two kinds of pH-sensitive and oppositely charged hydrophilic polymers, chitosan and alginate, were physically mixed as the matrix. Slightly water-soluble drugs such as theophylline, aspirin, and acetaminophen were utilized as model drugs. In vitro drug release and swelling tests were undertaken in simulated gastrointestinal environments. The formation and properties of the film formed during the dissolution process were identified using different techniques. It was demonstrated that formation of the film was based on the interaction of the polymers on tablet surface with the change of system pH. In 0,4,h drug release depended on the intrinsic properties of the polymers, however, characteristics of the film played a leading role in controlling drug release after 4,h. By studying the ratio of relaxation over Fickian diffusion and relationship between tablets swelling and drug release, it was revealed that the film probably modified drug release behavior by limiting polymer erosion. The in vivo behavior of this hydrophilic matrix system will be investigated. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 99:4678,4690, 2010 [source]

Leading the way: The role of presidents and academic deans in fundraising

J. Bradford Hodson
Although professional staff can assist with parts of the fundraising enterprise, presidents and deans play the leading role in cultivating and soliciting major gifts to benefit the academic enterprise. [source]

No "Illusion of Separation": James L. Bevel, the Civil Rights Movement, and the Vietnam War

PEACE & CHANGE, Issue 1 2003
Adam Mack
As a student activist and member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, James L. Bevel played a leading role in the civil rights movement. After the passage of the landmark federal civil rights legislation of 1964,65, Bevel promoted a new set of goals for the freedom struggle including ending United States involvement in the Vietnam War. Bevel's objections to the war grew from the belief, shared by other African,American leaders, that America's Vietnam policy could not be separated from issues of race and racism. Yet Bevel's antiwar stance remained unique. Driven by the depth of his antiwar sentiment as well as by a commitment to push nonviolent social action to its fullest potential, he increasingly worked to make peace the leading goal of the civil rights movement. Bevel's effort generated new levels of cooperation between civil rights and peace activists but also highlighted some of the barriers to a strong alliance between the two movements. [source]

Was Bewirkt die Volkswirtschaftslehre?

Bruno S. Frey
Due to its formality and highly analytic thinking, economics is often attributed a leading role among the social sciences and a prominent position as contributor to economic or social issues in the real world. Fact is, however, that the empirical proof for such a claim is either missing or anecdotal. This paper aims to outline the ,economics of economics'. It surveys and compares approaches of impact measurement such as a production function of economics or the demand and supply of trained economists. It furthermore discriminates between the impact of economic ideas versus that of economists as scientists or politicians. [source]

Catalytic effect of dissolved humic acids on the chemical degradation of phenylurea herbicides

Stefano Salvestrini
Abstract BACKGROUND: Although biodegradation seems to be the main cause of herbicide degradation, abiotic degradation can also be important for chemicals such as phenylureas, which are subject to catalysed soil reactions. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of dissolved humic acids (HAs), normally present in natural waters, on the hydrolysis of phenylurea herbicides, and it presents a kinetic model that takes into account the role of adsorption. RESULTS: The linearity of the adsorption isotherms indicates that phenylurea,humic acid interaction can be considered in terms of a repartition-like equilibrium of phenylurea between water and HAs. Kinetic experiments show that the degradation rates of phenylureas increase with HA concentration. CONCLUSION: The kinetic equation adopted adequately describes the experimental data trend, allowing the evaluation of the catalytic effect of HAs on the chemical degradation of phenylureas. Carboxyl groups of HAs seem to play a leading role in the catalysis. The kinetic equation derived in this work could be helpful in predicting the persistence of phenylureas and of related compounds in natural water. Copyright 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Photoperiodic and temperature control of diapause induction and colour change in the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula

Dmitry L. Musolin
Abstract. The effect of photoperiod and temperature on the duration of the nymphal period, diapause induction and colour change in adults of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) from Japan was studied in the laboratory. At 20 C, the developmental period for nymphs was significantly shorter under LD 10 : 14 h (short day) and LD 16 : 8 h (long day) than under intermediate photoperiods, whereas at 25 C it was slightly shorter under intermediate than short- and long-day conditions. It is assumed that photoperiod-mediated acceleration of nymphal growth takes place in autumn when day-length is short and it is unlikely that nymphal development is affected by day-length under summer long-day and hot conditions. Nezara viridula has an adult diapause controlled by a long-day photoperiodic response. At 20 C and 25 C in both sexes, photoperiodic responses were similar and had thresholds close to 12.5 h, thus suggesting that the response is thermostable within this range of temperatures and day-length plays a leading role in diapause induction. Precopulation and preoviposition periods were significantly longer under near-critical regimes than under long-day ones. Short-day and near-critical photoperiods induced a gradual change of adult colour from green to brown/russet. The rate of colour change was significantly higher under LD 10 : 14 h than under LD 13 : 11 h, suggesting that the colour change is strongly associated with diapause induction. The incidences of diapause or dark colour did not vary among genetically determined colour morphs, indicating that these morphs have a similar tendency to enter diapause and change colour in response to short-day conditions. [source]

Novel biomarkers of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk in autoimmune diseases: Genomics and proteomics approaches

Chary Lpez-Pedrera Professor
Abstract Atherosclerosis (AT) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are enhanced in autoimmune diseases such as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The reason for this accelerated process is still debatable and, although traditional risk factors are more prevalent in those patients than in general population, they do not fully explain that enhanced risk. Inflammatory components of the immune response, mainly interleukins, TNF-,, and IFN-,, as well as some autoantibodies, including anti-oxidized low density lipoproteins (anti-oxLDL), anti-beta-2-Glycoprotein 1 (anti- ,2GPI), anti-Heat shock proteins 60/65 (anti-HSP60/65), and anti-oxLDL/,2GPI have been shown to play a leading role in the pathogenesis of both, AT and CVD. However, the role of the autoantibodies in accelerated AT in autoimmune disease patients is still controversial. Recently, DNA microarray and proteomic-based approaches have made substantial breakthrough into the study of various rheumatic diseases, thus allowing for the discovery of previously unknown proteins involved in CVD including some that may be suitable to be used as biomarkers. Herein, we review recent genomics and proteomic approaches that have been applied to the study of autoimmune diseases with atherosclerotic and CV risk. The pharmacogenomics and pharmacoproteomics studies given over to the analysis of ancient and new drugs used to relieve the physiopathology associated to these complex diseases are also discussed. [source]

Robert McNamara and the limits of ,bean counting' (Respond to this article at http://www.therai.org.uk/at/debate)

Keir Martin
The recent death of Robert McNamara provides an opportunity to reflect on the shortcomings of the strategy of numerical rationality in management that defined his career. In both of the major projects in which he took a leading role, as President of the Ford Motor Company and US Defense Secretary during the Vietnam War, his strategy has retrospectively been held up as a model of development to avoid. In particular, management studies now champions the importance of ,culture' in running complex organizations. Ironically, the UK government increasingly seeks to run public services, including higher education, according to a McNamarite model in a bid to be more business-friendly, despite the evidence that many involved in private sector management have been moving away from this model for a quarter of a century. [source]

An Experimental Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior

Falko Sniehotta
The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is one of the leading theories of health behavior, yet supporting evidence is exclusively based on correlational research. This study aims to test the TPB experimentally. N = 579 participants were randomised to receive persuasive messages addressing salient beliefs elicited in a pilot study, following a 2*2*2 factorial design. Participants were randomised to a behavioral-belief-intervention (BBI) or not, a normative-belief-intervention (NBI) or not, and a control-belief-intervention (CBI) or not. The primary outcome was objectively recorded attendance at university sports facilities over 2 months; and the secondary outcomes were post-intervention TPB measures. Main effects of the BBI on attitudes and of the NBI on subjective norm, PBC, attitudes, and intentions were found. The CBI did not alter post-intervention cognitions, but was the only intervention to change behavior not mediated by cognitions. While the findings support the TPB's assumptions on intention formation, behavior change results are not in line with the theory and therefore further question the TPB's leading role in behavioral science. [source]

From an environmental policy towards a sustainable tourism industry.

The Albanian case
Abstract Albania possesses enormous potential in terms of environment resources, which could play a leading role in the economic reconstruction of the country. A great heritage of environmental resources, as well as of historical and archaeological sites, occurs along the coasts, which could allow a substantial development in the sector of tourism. Among the many priorities facing this emerging country, a valorization of the coastline may reveal that it represents one of the country's greatest resources, even if, at the moment, it shows signs of degradation and pollution. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Government Enterprises & Industrial Relations in Late Qing China

David Pong
This study examines the development of labour organisation and industrial action among workers in government enterprises in the late Qing (1860-1912). Because these were the largest industrial enterprises using the most advanced machinery, one expects that the workers in them would play the leading role in labour organisation. Further, during the centuries-long gestation period, the period of embryonic capitalism, workers in traditional enterprises had already developed a tradition of industrial action. Yet this tradition of protest did not appear to have contributed much to labour activism in the modern government works. Quite the contrary, it was in private industries, whether Chinese- or foreign-owned, that we find a higher level of labour organisation and activism. This is an unexpected discovery, for which an explanation is attempted. [source]

Zur Pluralisierung im Luthertum des 17.

Jahrhunderts und ihrer Bedeutung fr die Deutungen von, Natur'
Abstract Building on methodological considerations in cultural history and historical anthropology, the following contribution proceeds from the concept of ,nature' rather than from ,natural science', with the former understood here as the object of culturally determined projections, values and practices. This ,constructive', practice-oriented concept of nature exposes perceptions of and attitudes towards nature that, owing to the usual reduction of nature to natural science, would otherwise have remained hidden, but which may well be essential to its constitution. To a certain extent, the term ,nature' continues the terminological extension from ,natural science' to ,natural philosophy', but as a heuristic device it more strongly implies the significance of culturally mediated practices and dynamics. The essay raises the following questions: Which religious conceptions entered into which attitudes towards nature and which religious expectations and interpretive matrices were the motivating forces behind which studies of nature? The figures within seventeenth-century Lutheranism who shaped and promoted nature-oriented attitudes and practices were not the ,orthodox' scholars more strongly tied to academic and controversialist theology, but rather reform-oriented theologians critical of the church. In the context of the inner differentiation and pluralization of seventeenth-century Lutheranism, these reform-oriented groups not only inspired innovate theological projects but also assumed a leading role, along with liked-minded Christian laypersons, in interpreting and studying ,nature'. [source]